A novel near-infrared fluorescence imaging probe that preferentially binds to cannabinoid receptors CB2R over CB1R.

“The type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2R) have gained much attention recently due to their important regulatory role in a host of pathophysiological processes.

However, the exact biological function of CB2R and how this function might change depending on disease progression remains unclear and could be better studied with highly sensitive and selective imaging tools for identifying the receptors.

Here we report the first near infrared fluorescence imaging probe (NIR760-XLP6) that binds preferentially to CB2R over the type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R).

These findings indicate that NIR760-XLP6 is a promising imaging tool for the study of CB2R regulation.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25916505

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Alkylindole-sensitive receptors modulate microglial cell migration and proliferation.

“Ligands targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) expressed by microglia have been shown to regulate distinct components of their activation process, including cell proliferation, migration and differentiation into M1 or M2 phenotypes.

Cannabinoids, including the active component of the Cannabis plant, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and the synthetic alkylindole (AI) compound, WIN55212-2 (WIN-2), activate two molecularly identified GPCRs: CB1 and CB2 .

Our results suggest that microglia express functional AI-sensitive receptors that control select components of their activation process.

Agonists of these novel targets might represent a novel class of therapeutics to influence the microglial cell activation process. ”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25914169

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The monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 decreases inflammatory response in skeletal muscle contusion in rats.

“Muscle wound healing process is a typical inflammation-evoked event. The monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor (4-nitrophenyl)4-[bis(1,3-benzodioxol -5-yl)-hydroxymethyl]piperidine-1-carboxylate (JZL184) has been previously reported to reduce inflammation in colitis and acute lung injury in mice, which provide a new strategy for primary care of skeletal muscle injury.

Our findings demonstrate that JZL184 is able to inhibit the inflammatory response and interfere with contused muscle healing, in which the anti-inflammatory action may be mediated through cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25912803

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Distinct roles of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in social behavior and emotionality at different developmental ages in rats.

“To date, our understanding of the relative contribution and potential overlapping roles of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the regulation of brain function and behavior is still limited. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of systemic administration of JZL195, that simultaneously increases AEA and 2-AG signaling by inhibiting their hydrolysis, in the regulation of socio-emotional behavior in adolescent and adult rats.

These findings provide the first evidence for a role of 2-AG in social behavior, highlight the different contributions of AEA and 2-AG in the modulation of emotionality at different developmental ages and suggest that pharmacological inhibition of AEA and 2-AG hydrolysis is a useful approach to investigate the role of these endocannabinoids in neurobehavioral processes.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25914159

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Cannabis has been shown to kill cancer cells

 

“The use of Cannabis for medicinal purposes dates back to ancient times.” http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/cannabis/patient/page1

“Cannabis has been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years.” http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/cannabis/healthprofessional/page1

“The use of Cannabis for medicinal purposes dates back at least 3,000 years. It came into use in Western medicine in the 19th century and was said to relieve pain, inflammation, spasms, and convulsions.” http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/cannabis/patient/page2

“Cannabis has been shown to kill cancer cells in the laboratory”  http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/cannabis/patient/page1

“…cannabinoids may be able to kill cancer cells while protecting normal cells…

A laboratory study of delta-9-THC… showed that it damaged or killed the cancer cells…

A laboratory study of cannabidiol… showed that it caused cancer cell death…” http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/cannabis/patient/page2

“Cannabinoids appear to kill tumor cells but do not effect their nontransformed counterparts and may even protect them from cell death.” http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/cannabis/healthprofessional/page4

“Because cannabinoid receptors, unlike opioid receptors, are not located in the brainstem areas controlling respiration, lethal overdoses from Cannabis and cannabinoids do not occur.” http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/cannabis/healthprofessional/page6

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/cancer/

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[The role of endocannabinoid system in physiological and pathological processes in the eye].

“Plant of Cannabis sativa/ marihuana except for its psychotropic effects possesses a range of pharmacological properties, that has been utilized for medical purposes over a period of millenia.

Investigations concerning biochemical mechanism of action of the main and most active pharmacological compound of Cannabis sativa, cannabinoid 9-THC, contributed to the discovery of cannabinoid receptors both in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues, that mediated actions of this substance.

The discovery made possible identification of a new, endogenous signaling system referred to as the endocannabinoid system.

Besides cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the system includes it’s endogenic ligands (endocannabinoids) and compounds that participate in their biosynthesis and inactivation. Structure and functioning of the endocannabinoid system is conservative in all vertebrates.

It’s activation with plant, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids has an influence on multiple physiological and pathological processes within the eye.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19195174

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Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) interferes with conditioned retching in Suncus murinus: an animal model of anticipatory nausea and vomiting (ANV).

“Little is understood about effective countermeasures to the expression of anticipatory nausea and vomiting (ANV) in chemotherapy patients.

We present a model of ANV based on the emetic reactions of the Suncus murinus (musk shrew). Following two pairings of a novel distinctive contextual cue with the emetic effects of an injection of lithium chloride, the context acquired the potential to elicit retching in the absence of the toxin.

The expression of this conditioned retching reaction was completely suppressed by pretreatment with THC at a dose that did not suppress general activity.

This provides the first experimental evidence in support of anecdotal reports that THC suppresses ANV.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11277577

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/nauseavomiting/

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Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, but not ondansetron, interfere with conditioned retching reactions elicited by a lithium-paired context in Suncus murinus: An animal model of anticipatory nausea and vomiting.

“Chemotherapy patients report not only acute nausea and vomiting during the treatment itself, but also report anticipatory nausea and vomiting upon re-exposure to the cues associated with the treatment.

We present a model of anticipatory nausea based on the emetic reactions of the Suncus murinus (musk shrew). Following three pairings of a novel distinctive contextual cue with the emetic effects of an injection of lithium chloride, the context acquired the potential to elicit conditioned retching in the absence of the toxin.

The expression of this conditioned retching reaction was completely suppressed by pretreatment with each of the principal cannabinoids found in marijuana, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol, at a dose that did not suppress general activity.

These results support anecdotal claims that marijuana, but not ondansetron, may suppress the expression of anticipatory nausea.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16197970

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/nauseavomiting/

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Cannabinoid agonists and antagonists modulate lithium-induced conditioned gaping in rats.

“A series of experiments evaluated the potential of psychoactive cannabinoid agonists, delta-9-THC and HU-210, and non-psychoactive cannabinoids, Cannabidiol (CBD) and its dimethylheptyl homolog (CBD-dmh), to interfere with the establishment and the expression of conditioned gaping in rats.

All agents attenuated both the establishment and the expression of conditioned gaping.

Furthermore, the CB1 antagonist, SR-141716, reversed the suppressive effect of HU-210 on conditioned gaping.

Finally, SR-141716 potentiated lithium-induced conditioned gaping, suggesting that the endogenous cannabinoid system plays a role in the control of nausea.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14527182

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/nauseavomiting/

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Effects of cannabinoids on lithium-induced conditioned rejection reactions in a rat model of nausea.

“Marijuana has been reported to suppress nausea produced by chemotherapy treatment in human cancer patients.

… there is abundant evidence that cannabinoid agonists attenuate vomiting in emetic species…

The present experiments evaluated the potential of low doses of the cannabinoid agonists, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), and HU-210 (0.001 mg/kg and 0.01 mg/kg, i.p.), and the CB(1) antagonist SR-141716A in modulating the establishment and the expression of lithium-induced conditioned rejection reactions in rats.

These results indicate that the establishment and the expression of lithium-induced conditioned rejection reactions are suppressed by pretreatment with cannabinoid agents.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12528012

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/nauseavomiting/

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