Abnormal cannabidiol modulates vitamin A metabolism by acting as a competitive inhibitor of CRBP1.

ACS Chemical Biology

“Cellular retinol-binding proteins (CRBPs) facilitate the uptake and intracellular transport of vitamin A. They integrate retinoid metabolism, playing an important role in regulating the synthesis of bioactive vitamin A metabolites. Thus, CRBPs constitute potential pharmacological targets to modulate cellular retinoid status that in turn may have applications in the treatment of certain immunological, metabolic, and ocular disorders.

Here we identify abnormal cannabidiol (abn-CBD) as a non-retinoid inhibitor of cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (CRBP1). X-ray crystal structures of CRBP1 in complex with abn-CBD and its derivatives revealed a distinctive mode of protein-ligand interaction and provided a molecular basis for the high affinity and selectivity of this compound. We demonstrated that abn-CBD modulates the flux of retinoids via the retinoid cycle in vivo. Furthermore, the biological activity of abn-CBD was evidenced by its ability to protect against light-induced retinal damage in Balb/cJ mice.

Altogether, our findings indicate that targeting selected CRBPs with a small-molecule inhibitor can potentially lead to the development of new therapeutic agents to counteract diseases with etiologies involving imbalance in retinoid metabolism or signaling.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30721022

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acschembio.8b01070

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Marijuana smoking and markers of testicular function among men from a fertility centre

Image result for oxford human reproduction

“Men who had ever smoked marijuana had significantly higher sperm concentration than men who had never smoked marijuana after adjusting for potential confounders.

These findings are not consistent with a deleterious effect of marijuana on testicular function.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30726923

https://academic.oup.com/humrep/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/humrep/dez002/5307080?redirectedFrom=fulltext

“SMOKING MARIJUANA APPEARS TO UP MEN’S SPERM COUNT—TO THE SURPRISE OF SCIENTISTS” https://www.newsweek.com/smoking-marijuana-appears-men-sperm-count-surprise-scientists-1318138

“Cannabis Smoking Associated With Higher Sperm Count, Study Finds”  https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-02-06/cannabis-smoking-associated-with-higher-sperm-count-study-finds

“Smoking cannabis has unexpectedly been linked to greater fertility in men.” https://www.independent.ie/world-news/north-america/smoking-cannabis-can-make-men-more-fertile-say-scientists-37787137.html

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Qualifying Conditions Of Medical Cannabis License Holders In The United States.

Health Affairs

“The evidence for cannabis‘s treatment efficacy across different conditions varies widely, and comprehensive data on the conditions for which people use cannabis are lacking. We analyzed state registry data to provide nationwide estimates characterizing the qualifying conditions for which patients are licensed to use cannabis medically. We also compared the prevalence of medical cannabis qualifying conditions to recent evidence from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine report on cannabis‘s efficacy in treating each condition. Twenty states and the District of Columbia had available registry data on patient numbers, and fifteen states had data on patient-reported qualifying conditions. Chronic pain is currently and historically the most common qualifying condition reported by medical cannabis patients (64.9 percent in 2016). Of all patient-reported qualifying conditions, 85.5 percent had either substantial or conclusive evidence of therapeutic efficacy. As medical cannabis use continues to increase, creating a nationwide patient registry would facilitate better understanding of trends in use and of its potential effectiveness.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30715980

https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/10.1377/hlthaff.2018.05266

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

The Prevalence of Nonprescription Cannabinoid-Based Medicines in British Children’s Hospices: Results of a National Survey.

View details for Journal of Palliative Medicine cover image

“Almost 50,000 children and young people are affected by life-limiting conditions in the United Kingdom, around a third of which use children’s hospices. Anecdotal evidence suggests that cannabinoid-based medicines (CBMs), specifically cannabis oil (CO), are being used by families with increasing frequency to manage distressing symptoms. The use of most nonprescription CBMs in the United Kingdom remains illegal.

Forty children’s hospices from across the four countries of the United Kingdom responded to the survey, representing 74% of British children’s hospices. About 87.5% of hospices knew of children who use CO therapeutically. Sixty-nine percent of those hospices have received requests to administer CO during an episode of care. Approaches by organizations around CO management varied across the sectors, including arrangements for storage, administration, and recording of its use. Hospices highlighted how the lack of available guidance made decision making more challenging. Only a third of responding organizations routinely questioned families about the use of cannabis when prescribing medicines.

CONCLUSION:

CO is used extensively by children who use children’s hospices. Despite recognizing the use of CO, many hospices are unable to support it. There is a need for clear guidelines on how hospices should approach the care needs of children, allowing hospices to meet the needs of children who use CO, and families in a safe, consistent, and relevant way, safeguarding all children, families, and professionals within the organization.”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabinoids and Bone Regeneration.

 Publication Cover“Bone is a complex tissue of the with unique properties such as high strength and regeneration capabilities while carrying out multiple functions. Bone regeneration occurs both in physiological situations (bone turnover) and pathological situations (e.g. fractures), being performed by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. If this process is inadequate, fracture nonunion or aseptic loosening of implants occurs and requires a complex treatment.

Exogenous factors are currently used to increase bone regeneration process when needed, such as bisphosphonates and vitamin D, but limitations do exist. Cannabinoid system has been shown to have positive effects on bone metabolism. Cannabinoids at bone level mainly act on two receptors called CB-1 and CB-2, but GPR55, GPR119, TPRV1, TPRV4 receptors may also be involved. The CB-2 receptors are found in bone cells at higher levels compared to other receptors.

Endocannabinods represented by anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, can stimulate osteoblast formation, bone formation and osteoclast activity. CB-2 agonists including HU-308, HU-433, JWH133 and JWH015 can stimulate osteoblast proliferation and activity, while CB-2 antagonists such as AM630 and SR144528 can inhibit osteoclast differentiation and function. CB-1 antagonist AM251 has been shown to inhibit osteoclast differentiation and activity, while GPR55 antagonist cannabidiol increases osteoblast activity and decreases osteoclast function.

An optimal correlation of dose, duration, moment of action and affinity can lead to an increased bone regeneration capacity, with important benefits in many pathological situations which involve bone tissue. As adverse reactions of cannabinoids haven’t been described in patients under controlled medication, cannabinoids can represent future treatment for bone regeneration.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30702341

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03602532.2019.1574303?journalCode=idmr20

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

The annual cannabis holiday and fatal traffic crashes.

Image result for bmj journals
“Prior evidence suggests the potential for population-wide effects of the annual cannabis celebration on April 20th (‘4/20’), but evidence to date is limited. Across all years we found little evidence to distinguish excess drivers involved in fatal crashes on 4/20 from routine daily variations. There is little evidence to suggest population-wide effects of the annual cannabis holiday on the number of drivers involved in fatal traffic crashes.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30696698
Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Decarbonylation: a metabolic pathway of cannabidiol in humans.

Drug Testing and Analysis banner
“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, which is of growing medical interest. We investigated the phase I metabolism of CBD and cannabidivarin (CBDV) using in vitro experiments with human liver microsomes in order to discover so far not considered metabolites. Within these experiments, we came across decarbonylation of CBD and CBDV. Further investigations were focused on observed decarbonylated CBD (DCBD). DCBD appears to be an important supplementary human metabolite that might be helpful for the analytical confirmation of a CBD uptake and might improve the interpretation of the consumption of CBD containing products. Results of this study indicate a prolonged detectability of DCBD in comparison to CBD after oral CBD ingestion.”
Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabinoid Ligands Targeting TRP Channels.

Image result for frontiers in molecular neuroscience

“Many diseases involve Transient receptor potential (TRP) channel dysfunction, including neuropathic pain, inflammation, and respiratory disorders. In the pursuit of new treatments for these disorders, it was discovered that cannabinoids can modulate a certain subset of TRP channels. The TRP vanilloid (TRPV), TRP ankyrin (TRPA), and TRP melastatin (TRPM) subfamilies were all found to contain channels that can be modulated by several endogenous, phytogenic, and synthetic cannabinoids. To date, six TRP channels from the three subfamilies mentioned above have been reported to mediate cannabinoid activity: TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPA1, and TRPM8. The increasing data regarding cannabinoid interactions with these receptors has prompted some researchers to consider these TRP channels to be “ionotropic cannabinoid receptors.””

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30697147

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnmol.2018.00487/full

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabisin F from Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in BV2 Microglia as SIRT1 Modulator.

ijms-logo

“Hemp seed (Fructus cannabis) is rich in lignanamides, and initial biological screening tests showed their potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative capacity.

This study investigated the possible effects and underlying mechanism of cannabisin F, a hempseed lignanamide, against inflammatory response and oxidative stress in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia cells.

Cannabisin F suppressed the production and the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in a concentration-dependent manner in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia cell. Furthermore, cannabisin F enhanced SIRT1 expression and blocked LPS-induced NF-κB (Nuclear factor kappa B) signaling pathway activation by inhibiting phosphorylation of IκBα (Inhibit proteins of nuclear factor kappaB) and NF-κB p65. And the SIRT1 inhibitor EX527 significantly inhibited the effect of cannabisin F on pro-inflammatory cytokines production, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabisin F are SIRT1-dependent. In addition, cannabisin F reduced the production of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and promoted the expression of Nrf2 (Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2) and HO-1 (Heme Oxygenase-1), suggesting that the anti-oxidative effects of cannabisin F are related to Nrf2 signaling pathway.

Collectively, these results suggest that the neuro-protection effect of cannabisin F against LPS-induced inflammatory response and oxidative stress in BV2 microglia cells involves the SIRT1/NF-κB and Nrf2 pathway.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30691004

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/3/507

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Dark Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol.

 ACS Chemical Neuroscience

“Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, with an estimated 192 million users globally.

The main psychoactive component of cannabis is (-)-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), a molecule with a diverse range of pharmacological actions. The unique and distinctive intoxication caused by Δ9-THC primarily reflects partial agonist action at central cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors.

Δ9-THC is an approved therapeutic treatment for a range of conditions, including chronic pain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and is being investigated in indications such as anorexia nervosa, agitation in dementia, and Tourette’s syndrome.

It is available as a regulated pharmaceutical in products such as Marinol®, Sativex®, and Namisol®, as well as in an ever-increasing range of unregistered medicinal and recreational cannabis products.

While cannabis is an ancient medicament, contemporary use is embroiled in legal, scientific, and social controversy, much of which relates to the potential hazards and benefits of Δ9-THC itself.

Robust contemporary debate surrounds the therapeutic value of Δ9-THC in different diseases, its capacity to produce psychosis and cognitive impairment, and the addictive and “gateway” potential of the drug.

This review will provide a profile of the chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and recreational and therapeutic uses of Δ9-THC, as well as the historical and societal importance of this unique, distinctive, and ubiquitous psychoactive substance.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30689342

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00651

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous