Role of Terpenophenolics in Modulating Inflammation and Apoptosis in Cardiovascular Diseases: A Review


“One in every three deaths worldwide is caused by cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), estimating a total of 17.9 million deaths annually. By 2030, it is expected that more than 24 million people will die from CVDs related complications. The most common CVDs are coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and hypertension.

A plethora of studies has shown inflammation causing both short-term and long-term damage to the tissues in many organ systems, including the cardiovascular system. In parallel to inflammation processes, it has been discovered that apoptosis, a mode of programmed cell death, may also contribute to CVD development due to the loss of cardiomyocytes.

Terpenophenolic compounds are comprised of terpenes and natural phenols as secondary metabolites by plants and are commonly found in the genus Humulus and Cannabis. A growing body of evidence has shown that terpenophenolic compounds exhibit protective properties against inflammation and apoptosis within the cardiovascular system.

This review highlights the current evidence elucidating the molecular actions of terpenophenolic compounds in protecting the cardiovascular system, i.e., bakuchiol, ferruginol, carnosic acid, carnosol, carvacrol, thymol and hinokitiol. The potential of these compounds is discussed as the new nutraceutical drugs that may help to decrease the burden of cardiovascular disorders.”

“In this review, we have summarised the evidence on the potential pharmacological activities of terpenophenolic compounds in regulating inflammation and apoptosis associated with CVDs. Treatment of various classes of terpenophenolic compounds has been shown effective in preventing and limiting the progression of heart failure. In addition, all terpenophenolics seem to be potent antioxidants, which are proven to upregulate the Nrf2 pathway and increase the endogenous antioxidant level.”

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