“Cannabis use has been associated with favorable outcomes on metabolic risk factors.
In this study we investigated whether this effect is mediated by the AKT1 gene, as activation of the related enzyme by cannabis may cause metabolic changes.
In conclusion, cannabis use is likely to be associated with a lower BMI in patients with a psychotic disorder.
Moreover, AKT1 risk alleles may increase the incidence of cannabis use in patients with a psychotic disorder, but AKT1 does not appear to mediate the effect of cannabis on BMI.”
“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in many physiological regulation pathways in the human body, which makes this system the target of many drugs and therapies. In this review, we highlight the latest studies regarding the role of the ECS and the drugs that target it, with a particular focus on the basis for the discovery of new cannabinoid-based drugs. In addition, we propose some key steps, such as the creation of a cannabinoid-receptor interaction matrix (CRIM) and the use of metabolomics, towards the development of improved and more specific drugs for each relevant disease.”
“Essential tremor (ET) is a neurological disorder with unknown etiology. Its symptoms include cerebellar motor disturbances, cognitive and personality changes, hearing and olfactory deficits. Excitotoxic cerebellar climbing fibre hyperactivity may underlie essential tremor and has been emulated in rodents by systemic harmaline administration.
Cannabinoid receptor agonists can cause motor disturbances although there are also anecdotal reports of therapeutic benefits of cannabis in motor disorders. We set out to establish the effects of cannabinoid type 1 receptor agonism and antagonism in an established rodent model of ET using a battery of accepted behaviour assays in order to determine risk and therapeutic potential of endocannabinoid system modulation in ET.
Overall, harmaline induced robust tremor that was typically worsened across the measured behavioural domains by CB type 1 (CB1 ) receptor agonism but ameliorated by cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonism.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:
These results provide the first evidence of effects of endocannabinoid system modulation on motor function in the harmaline model of essential tremor and suggest that CB1 receptor manipulation warrants clinical investigation as a therapeutic approach to protection against behavioural disturbances associated with essential tremor.”
“The pathophysiology associated with increased prevalence of depression in diabetics is not completely understood, although studies have pointed the endocannabinoid system as a possible target. Then, we aimed to investigate the role of this system in the pathophysiology of depression associated with diabetes.
Together, our data suggest that in depression associated with diabetes, the endocannabinoid anandamide has a potential to induce neuroadaptative changes able to improve the depressive-like response by its action as a CB1 receptor agonist.”
“Cannabis has been used to treat gastrointestinal (GI) conditions that range from enteric infections and inflammatory conditions to disorders of motility, emesis and abdominal pain. The mechanistic basis of these treatments emerged after the discovery of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol as the major constituent of Cannabis. Further progress was made when the receptors for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol were identified as part of an endocannabinoid system, that consists of specific cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands and their biosynthetic and degradative enzymes. Anatomical, physiological and pharmacological studies have shown that the endocannabinoid system is widely distributed throughout the gut, with regional variation and organ-specific actions. It is involved in the regulation of food intake, nausea and emesis, gastric secretion and gastroprotection, GI motility, ion transport, visceral sensation, intestinal inflammation and cell proliferation in the gut. Cellular targets have been defined that include the enteric nervous system, epithelial and immune cells. Molecular targets of the endocannabinoid system include, in addition to the cannabinoid receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha receptors and the orphan G-protein coupled receptors, GPR55 and GPR119. Pharmacological agents that act on these targets have been shown in preclinical models to have therapeutic potential. Here, we discuss cannabinoid receptors and their localization in the gut, the proteins involved in endocannabinoid synthesis and degradation and the presence of endocannabinoids in the gut in health and disease. We focus on the pharmacological actions of cannabinoids in relation to GI disorders, highlighting recent data on genetic mutations in the endocannabinoid system in GI disease.”
“The endocannabinoid system mainly consists of endogenously produced cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) and two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2). This system also includes enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids and molecules required for the uptake and transport of endocannabinoids. In addition, endocannabinoid-related lipid mediators and other putative endocannabinoid receptors, such as transient receptor potential channels and other GPCRs have been identified. Accumulating evidence indicates that the endocannabinoid system is a key modulator of gastrointestinal physiology, influencing satiety, emesis, immune function, mucosal integrity, motility, secretion, and visceral sensation. In light of therapeutic benefits of herbal and synthetic cannabinoids, the vast potential of the endocannabinoid system for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases has been demonstrated. This review focuses on the role of the endocannabinoid system in gut homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of intestinal disorders associated with intestinal motility, inflammation and cancer. Finally, links between gut microorganisms and the endocannabinoid system are briefly discussed.”
“The cannabinoid (CB2) receptor type 2 has been proposed to prevent the degeneration of dopamine neurons in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice.
Our results suggest that targeting the cannabinoid system may be beneficial for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD, that are associated with glial activation, BBB disruption and peripheral immune cell infiltration.”
“The cannabinoid type two receptors (CB2), an important component of the endocannabinoid system, have recently emerged as neuromodulators and therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease (PD).” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27531971