Medical marijuana laws and workplace fatalities in the United States

International Journal of Drug Policy

“The aim of this research was to determine the association between legalizing medical marijuana and workplace fatalities.

To date, 29 states and the District of Columbia have legalized the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes. Although there is increasing concern that legalizing medical marijuana will make workplaces more dangerous, little is known about the relationship between medical marijuana laws (MMLs) and workplace fatalities.

 

Findings

Legalizing medical marijuana was associated with a 19.5% reduction in the expected number of workplace fatalities among workers aged 25–44 (incident rate ratio [IRR], 0.805; 95% CI, .662–.979). The association between legalizing medical marijuana and workplace fatalities among workers aged 16–24, although negative, was not statistically significant at conventional levels. The association between legalizing medical marijuana and workplace fatalities among workers aged 25–44 grew stronger over time. Five years after coming into effect, MMLs were associated with a 33.7% reduction in the expected number of workplace fatalities (IRR, 0.663; 95% CI, .482–.912). MMLs that listed pain as a qualifying condition or allowed collective cultivation were associated with larger reductions in fatalities among workers aged 25–44 than those that did not.

Conclusions

The results provide evidence that legalizing medical marijuana improved workplace safety for workers aged 25–44. Further investigation is required to determine whether this result is attributable to reductions in the consumption of alcohol and other substances that impair cognitive function, memory, and motor skills.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0955395918301968

“Workplace Deaths Drop After States Legalize Medical Marijuana”  https://www.marijuanamoment.net/workplace-deaths-drop-after-states-legalize-medical-marijuana/

“Medical Marijuana States Have Lower Rates Of Workplace Death, According To New Study” https://www.civilized.life/articles/medical-marijuana-states-have-lower-rates-of-workplace-death-according-to-new-study/

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Cannabidiol for treating drug-resistant epilepsy in children: the New South Wales experience.

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“To evaluate the tolerability and safety of cannabidiol for treating drug-resistant epilepsy in children, and to describe adverse events associated with such treatment.

The caregivers of 12 children felt the overall health of their children had much or very much improved; clinicians assessed seven children as being much or very much improved.

Cannabidiol as an adjunct treatment had some subjective benefit for overall health, with a manageable adverse event profile.”

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Glial Endocannabinoid System in Pain Modulation.

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“Pain is affecting the human for centuries and there still is no satisfactory strategy for patients suffering pain particularly chronic pain although intensive studies about its mechanism have been performed in order to improve the treatment of pain.

Cannabinoid is a group of chemicals extracted from plants and has a long history in treating pain through the endogenous cannabinoid receptor in the body, however, its application in pain treatment is limited due to its inverse effects.

Recent studies have indicated that glial cells play critical role in mediating pain processing through multiple pathway, including excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in different levels of the nervous system.

Furthermore, the glial cells are found to express cannabinoid receptors.

This review summarized the recent studies about the cannabinoid system in glial cells, which may provide some insight for the studying of pain.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30084280

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207454.2018.1503178

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Neuronal preservation and reactive gliosis attenuation following neonatal sciatic nerve axotomy by a fluorinated cannabidiol derivative.

Neuropharmacology

“Immature peripheral nervous system damage, such as the transection of a peripheral nerve, results in the extensive degeneration of motoneurons and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons, mostly due to apoptotic events.

We have previously shown that cannabidiol (CBD), the most abundant non-psychotropic molecule present in the Cannabis sativa plant, exhibits neuroprotective action when administered daily at a dose of 15 mg/kg.

This study shows that use of the fluorinated synthetic version of CBD (4′-fluoro-cannabidiol, HUF-101) significantly improves neuronal survival by 2-fold compared to that achieved with traditional CBD at one-third the dose. Furthermore, we show that HUF-101 administration significantly upregulates anti-apoptotic genes and blocks the expression of pro-apoptotic nuclear factors.

Two-day-old Wistar rats were subjected to unilateral sectioning of the sciatic nerve and treated daily with HUF-101 (1, 2.5, 5 mg/kg/day, i.p.) or a vehicle solution for five days.

The results were evaluated by Nissl staining, immunohistochemistry, and qRT-PCR. Neuronal counting revealed a 47% rescue of spinal motoneurons and a 79% rescue of DRG neurons (HUF-101, 5 mg/kg). Survival was associated with complete depletion of p53 and a 60-fold elevation in BCL2-like 1 gene expression.

Additionally, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) gene expression was downregulated by 80%. Neuronal preservation was coupled with a high preservation of synaptic coverage and a reduction in astroglial and microglial reactions that were evaluated in nearby spinal motoneurons present in the ventral horn of the lumbar intumescence.

Overall, these data strongly indicate that HUF-101 exerts potent neuroprotective effects that are related to anti-apoptotic protection and the reduction of glial reactivity.”

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Targeted inhibition of the type 2 cannabinoid receptor is a novel approach to reduce renal fibrosis.

Kidney International Home

“The cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) is a G protein-coupled seven transmembrane receptor that transmits endogenous cannabinoid signaling. The role of CB2 in the pathogenesis of kidney injury and fibrosis remains poorly understood.

Here we demonstrate that CB2 was induced, predominantly in kidney tubular epithelium, in various models of kidney disease induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction, adriamycin or ischemia/reperfusion injury.

By using in silico screening and medicinal chemistry modifications, we discovered a novel compound, XL-001, that bound to CB2 with high affinity and selectivity and acted as an inverse agonist. Delayed administration of XL-001 was also effective in ameliorating kidney fibrosis and inflammation.

Thus, CB2 is a pathogenic mediator in kidney fibrosis and targeted inhibition with the novel inverse agonist XL-001 may provide a strategy in the fight against fibrotic kidney diseases.”

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Genetic deletion of CB1 cannabinoid receptors exacerbates the Alzheimer-like symptoms in a transgenic animal model.

Biochemical Pharmacology

“Activating CB1 cannabinoid receptor has been demonstrated to produce certain therapeutic effects in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

In this study, we evaluated the specific contribution of CB1 receptor to the progression of AD-like pathology in double transgenic APP/PS1 mice.

In summary, our results suggest a crucial role for CB1 receptor in the progression of AD-related pathological events.”

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Medicinal properties of terpenes found in Cannabis sativa and Humulus lupulus.

European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

“Cannabaceae plants Cannabis sativa L. and Humulus lupulus L. are rich in terpenes – both are typically comprised of terpenes as up to 3-5% of the dry-mass of the female inflorescence.

Terpenes of cannabis and hops are typically simple mono- and sesquiterpenes derived from two and three isoprene units, respectively. Some terpenes are relatively well known for their potential in biomedicine and have been used in traditional medicine for centuries, while others are yet to be studied in detail.

The current, comprehensive review presents terpenes found in cannabis and hops. Terpenes’ medicinal properties are supported by numerous in vitro, animal and clinical trials and show anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, anticonvulsive, antidepressant, anxiolytic, anticancer, antitumor, neuroprotective, anti-mutagenic, anti-allergic, antibiotic and anti-diabetic attributes, among others.

Because of the very low toxicity, these terpenes are already widely used as food additives and in cosmetic products. Thus, they have been proven safe and well-tolerated.”

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Cannabidiol as a Therapeutic Alternative for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: From Bench Research to Confirmation in Human Trials.

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“Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by poor adaptation to a traumatic experience. This disorder affects approximately 10% of people at some point in life. Current pharmacological therapies for PTSD have been shown to be inefficient and produce considerable side effects.

Since the discovery of the involvement of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in emotional memory processing, pharmacological manipulation of eCB signaling has become a therapeutic possibility for the treatment of PTSD.

Cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid constituent of Cannabis sativa without the psychoactive effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, has gained particular attention. Preclinical studies in different rodent behavioral models have shown that CBD can both facilitate the extinction of aversive memories and block their reconsolidation, possibly through potentialization of the eCB system.

These results, combined with the currently available pharmacological treatments for PTSD being limited, necessitated testing CBD use with the same therapeutic purpose in humans as well.

Indeed, as observed in rodents, recent studies have confirmed the ability of CBD to alter important aspects of aversive memories in humans and promote significant improvements in the symptomatology of PTSD.

The goal of this review was to highlight the potential of CBD as a treatment for disorders related to inappropriate retention of aversive memories, by assessing evidence from preclinical to human experimental studies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30087591

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2018.00502/full

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Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs.

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“The objectives of this study were to determine basic oral pharmacokinetics, and assess safety and analgesic efficacy of a cannabidiol (CBD) based oil in dogs with osteoarthritis (OA).

Results: Pharmacokinetics revealed an elimination half-life of 4.2 h at both doses and no observable side effects. Clinically, canine brief pain inventory and Hudson activity scores showed a significant decrease in pain and increase in activity (p < 0.01) with CBD oil. Veterinary assessment showed decreased pain during CBD treatment (p < 0.02). No side effects were reported by owners, however, serum chemistry showed an increase in alkaline phosphatase during CBD treatment (p < 0.01).

Clinical significance: This pharmacokinetic and clinical study suggests that 2 mg/kg of CBD twice daily can help increase comfort and activity in dogs with OA.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30083539

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2018.00165/full

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Neuroprotective effects of the cannabigerol quinone derivative VCE-003.2 in SOD1G93A transgenic mice, an experimental model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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“Antioxidant phytocannabinoids, synthetic compounds targeting the CB2 receptor, and inhibitors of the endocannabinoid inactivation afforded neuroprotection in SOD1G93A mutant mice, a model of ALS. These effects may involve the activation of PPAR-γ too.

Here, we have investigated the neuroprotective effects in SOD1G93A mutant mice of the cannabigerol derivative VCE-003.2, which works as by activating PPAR-γ.

As expected, SOD1G93Atransgenic mice experienced a progressive weight loss and neurological deterioration, which was associated with a marked loss of spinal cholinergic motor neurons, glial reactivity, and elevations in several biochemical markers (cytokines, glutamate transporters) that indirectly reflect the glial proliferation and activation in the spinal cord. The treatment with VCE-003.2 improved most of these neuropathological signs.

It attenuated the weight loss and the anomalies in neurological parameters, preserved spinal cholinergic motor neurons, and reduced astroglial reactivity. VCE-003.2 also reduced the elevations in IL-1β and glial glutamate transporters. Lastly, VCE-003.2 attenuated the LPS-induced generation of TNF-α and IL-1β in cultured astrocytes obtained from SOD1G93Atransgenic newborns, an effect also produced by rosiglitazone, then indicating a probable PPAR-γ activation as responsible of its neuroprotective effects.

In summary, our results showed benefits with VCE-003.2 in SOD1G93A transgenic mice supporting PPAR-γ as an additional neuroprotective target available for cannabinoids in ALS. Such benefits would need to be validated in other ALS models prior to be translated to the clinical level.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30076846

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006295218303198

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