High cannabigerol hemp extract moderates colitis and modulates the microbiome in an inflammatory bowel disease model

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“Cannabis sativa L. has a long history of medicinal use, particularly for gastrointestinal diseases. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) report using cannabis to manage their symptoms, despite little data to support the use of cannabis or cannabis products to treat the disease.

In this study, we utilize the well-described dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of colitis in mice to assess the impact of commercially available, non-euphorigenic, high cannabigerol (CBG) hemp extract (20 mg/mL cannabigerol, 20.7 mg/mL cannabidiol, 1 mg/mL cannabichromene) on IBD activity and the colonic microbiome. Mice were given 2% DSS in drinking water for 5 days, followed by 2 days of regular drinking water. Over the 7 days, mice were dosed daily with either high CBG hemp extract or matched vehicle control.

Daily treatment with high CBG hemp extract dramatically reduces the severity of disease at the histological and organismal levels as measured by decreased disease activity index, increased colon length, and decreases in percent colon tissue damage. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the fecal microbiota reveals high CBG hemp extract treatment results in alterations in the microbiota, that may be beneficial for colitis. Finally, using metabolomic analysis of fecal pellets, we find that mice treated with high CBG hemp extract have a normalization of several metabolic pathways, including those involved in inflammation.

Taken together these data suggest that high CBG hemp extracts may offer a novel treatment option for patients. 

Significance Statement Using the DSS model of colitis, we show that treatment with high CBG hemp extract reduces the severity of symptoms associated with colitis. Additionally, we show that treatment modulates both the fecal microbiota and metabolome with potential functional significance.”



Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of CBD aromatic ester derivatives

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“This study involved the synthesis of a series of novel cannabidiol (CBD) aromatic ester derivatives, including CBD-8,12-diaromaticester derivatives (compounds 2a-2t) and CBD-8,12-diacetyl-21-aromaticester derivatives (compound 5a-5c).

The antiproliferative activities of these compounds against human liver cancer cell lines HePG2 and HeP3B as well as human pancreatic cancer cell lines ASPC-1 and BXPC-3 were evaluated in vitro using the CCK-8 assay.

The results indicated that compound 2f exhibited an IC50 value of 2.75 µM against HePG2, which is 5.32-fold higher than that of CBD. Additionally, compounds 2b and 5b demonstrated varying degrees of improved anticancer activity (IC50 5.95-9.21 µM) against HePG2.”



Cutaneous Wound Healing and the Effects of Cannabidiol

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“Cutaneous wounds, both acute and chronic, begin with loss of the integrity, and thus barrier function, of the skin. Surgery and trauma produce acute wounds. There are 22 million surgical procedures per year in the United States alone, based on data from the American College of Surgeons, resulting in a prevalence of 6.67%. Acute traumatic wounds requiring repair total 8 million per year, 2.42% or 24.2 per 1000. The cost of wound care is increasing; it approached USD 100 billion for just Medicare in 2018. This burden for wound care will continue to rise with population aging, the increase in metabolic syndrome, and more elective surgeries.

To heal a wound, an orchestrated, evolutionarily conserved, and complex series of events involving cellular and molecular agents at the local and systemic levels are necessary. The principal factors of this important function include elements from the neurological, cardiovascular, immune, nutritional, and endocrine systems.

The objectives of this review are to provide clinicians engaged in wound care and basic science researchers interested in wound healing with an updated synopsis from recent publications. We also present data from our primary investigations, testing the hypothesis that cannabidiol can alter cutaneous wound healing and documenting their effects in wild type (C57/BL6) and db/db mice (Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, T2DM).

The focus is on the potential roles of the endocannabinoid system, cannabidiol, and the important immune-regulatory wound cytokine IL-33, a member of the IL-1 family, and connective tissue growth factor, CTGF, due to their roles in both normal and abnormal wound healing. We found an initial delay in the rate of wound closure in B6 mice with CBD, but this difference disappeared with time. CBD decreased IL-33 + cells in B6 by 70% while nearly increasing CTGF + cells in db/db mice by two folds from 18.6% to 38.8% (p < 0.05) using a dorsal wound model. We review the current literature on normal and abnormal wound healing, and document effects of CBD in B6 and db/db dorsal cutaneous wounds.

CBD may have some beneficial effects in diabetic wounds. We applied 6-mm circular punch to create standard size full-thickness dorsal wounds in B6 and db/db mice. The experimental group received CBD while the control group got only vehicle. The outcome measures were rate of wound closure, wound cells expressing IL-33 and CTGF, and ILC profiles. In B6, the initial rate of wound closure was slower but there was no delay in the time to final closure, and cells expressing IL-33 was significantly reduced. CTGF + cells were higher in db/bd wounds treated with CBD.

These data support the potential use of CBD to improve diabetic cutaneous wound healing.”


“The endocannabinoid system is an elaborate, complex, and adaptive monitoring and modulating apparatus. Phytocannabinoids mimic the actions of the endogenous bioactive lipids derived from arachidonic acid and have unequivocal and very wide-ranging effects, including decreasing inflammatory responses following cutaneous injuries. While we will continue to explore, at the macroscopic level, the therapeutic clinical applications, the efforts to understand mechanistically, at the micro- and nano-levels, why and how CBD causes these observed beneficial effects are increasingly more important. Such a multi- or trans-scalar (fractal) approach allows for the targeted expansion and refinement of CBD use.”


Comparison of various doses of oral cannabidiol for treating refractory epilepsy indications: a network meta-analysis

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“Aim: To evaluate the comparative efficacy and safety of various doses of oral cannabidiol (CBD) in treating refractory epilepsy indications, thus providing more informative evidence for clinical decision-making.

Methods: A literature search of PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane library, and Web of Science (WoS) was performed to retrieve relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared different doses of oral CBD with placebo or each other in refractory epilepsy indications. The search was limited from the inception of each database to January 3, 2023. Relative risk [RR] with a 95% confidence interval [CI] was used to express results. STATA/SE 14 was employed for network meta-analysis.

Results: Six RCTs involving 972 patients were included in the final data analysis. Network meta-analysis showed that, CBD10 (10 mg/kg/day) (RR: 1.77, 95%CI: 1.28 to 2.44), CBD20 (20 mg/kg/day) (RR: 1.91, 95%CI: 1.49 to 2.46), CBD25 (25 mg/kg/day) (RR: 1.61, 95%CI: 0.96 to 2.70), and CBD50 (50 mg/kg/day) (RR: 1.78, 95%CI: 1.07 to 2.94) were associated with higher antiseizure efficacy although the pooled result for CBD25 was only close to significant. In addition, in terms of the risk of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), the difference between different doses is not significant. However, CBD20 ranked first in terms of antiseizure efficacy, followed by CBD50, CBD10, and CBD25. For TEAEs, CBD25 ranked first, followed by CBD10, CBD50, CBD5, and CBD20.

Conclusion: For refractory indications, CBD20 may be optimal option for antiseizure efficacy; however, CBD25 may be best for TEAEs. Therefore, an appropriate dose of oral CBD should be selected based on the actual situation. Due to the limitations of eligible studies and the limited sample size, more studies are needed in the future to validate our findings.”



Impact of Medical Cannabis on Recovery from Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Musicians: An Observational Cohort Study

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“Introduction: Playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) are musculoskeletal symptoms that interfere with the ability to play at the level a musician is accustomed to. Musicians have an 84% lifetime prevalence of PRMD. Many types of analgesia are inappropriate for this population due to their risks, but cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and can reduce the perception of pain. Medical cannabis has also been shown to be safer than other analgesia in terms of serious adverse events. This study explores the impact of medical cannabis for PRMD on perceptions of pain and mental health outcomes.

Methods: Participants (n = 204) completed questionnaires at baseline and six months: the Musculoskeletal Pain Intensity and Interference Questionnaire for Musicians (MPIIQM) and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Participants self-selected their group: non-cannabis users (n = 42), new medical cannabis users (n = 61), and long-term medical cannabis users (n = 101). Data were analyzed using paired t-tests for within-group and ANOVA for between-group differences.

Results: At six months, there was no difference (p = 0.579) in cannabidiol dose between new (24.87 ± 12.86 mg) and long-term users (21.48 ± 12.50 mg). There was a difference in tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dose (p = 0.003) between new (3.74 ± 4.22 mg) and long-term users (4.41 ± 5.18 mg). At six months, new cannabis users had a significant reduction in pain intensity as measured by The Musculoskeletal Pain Intensity and Interference Questionnaire for Musicians (MPIIQM40) (p = 0.002). Non-users (p = 0.035), new users (p = 0.002), and long-term cannabis users (p = 0.009) all had significant reductions in pain interference (MPIIQM50) at six months. At six months, non-cannabis (p = 0.022) and long-term cannabis users (p = 0.001) had an improvement in DASS-21. The change in pain intensity was the only difference between groups, F(2, 201) = 3.845, p = 0.023. This difference was between long-term (0.83 ± 0.79) and new users (-2.61 ± 7.15). No serious adverse events occurred, and a minority experienced tiredness, cough, and dry mouth.

Discussion/conclusions: This practice-based evidence demonstrated that the multidimensional approach to care provided by the Musicians’ Clinics of Canada benefited all groups at six months. Medical cannabis significantly reduced pain intensity in new users of medical cannabis with PRMD, and all groups saw improvements in pain interference. In keeping with prior studies, medical cannabis seems to be effective at reducing perceptions of pain, including for PRMD. CBD/THC dosing was within guideline recommendations, and no patients experienced any serious adverse events. Limitations include multiple factors impacting patients’ decisions to opt in or out of medical cannabis. These include cost, comorbidities, and disease chronicity. In conclusion, medical cannabis reduces pain intensity in new users, and when combined with a multidimensional approach to care, patients with PRMD can see improvements in pain as well as mental wellbeing.”


“In conclusion, within our study population over a six-month period, medical cannabis proved to be a safe and potentially beneficial treatment option for musicians with PRMD, with those using medical cannabis for the first time seeing a statistically significant reduction in pain intensity. All patient groups experienced an improvement in some domains of pain experience or mental wellbeing, likely due to the multidimensional model of care. Many patient concerns about medical cannabis include adverse drug effects, addiction, tolerance, losing control, or unusual behavior [21], but hopefully this paper will add further evidence to the literature to help patients make informed decisions in keeping with their preferences and values. A key conclusion from this study is the importance of shared decision making to ensure that patient values, as well as individual symptoms and situations, are considered. N-of-1 trials may be used to further explore optimal individualized treatment plans [49], as well as randomized-controlled trials to build the evidence base for musicians with PRMD in general.”


Acute effects of cannabigerol on anxiety, stress, and mood: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, field trial

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“Cannabigerol (CBG) is a phytocannabinoid increasing in popularity, with preclinical research indicating it has anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. However, there are no published clinical trials to corroborate these findings in humans.

The primary objective of this study was to examine acute effects of CBG on anxiety, stress, and mood. Secondary objectives were to examine whether CBG produces subjective drug effects or motor and cognitive impairments. A double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over field trial was conducted with 34 healthy adult participants. Participants completed two sessions (with a one-week washout period) via Zoom. In each, they provided ratings of anxiety, stress, mood, and subjective drug effects prior to double-blind administration of 20 mg hemp-derived CBG or placebo tincture (T0). These ratings were collected again after participants ingested the product and completed an online survey (T1), the Trier Social Stress Test (T2), a verbal memory test and the DRUID impairment app (T3).

Relative to placebo, there was a significant main effect of CBG on overall reductions in anxiety as well as reductions in stress at T1. CBG also enhanced verbal memory relative to placebo. There was no evidence of subjective drug effects or impairment. CBG may represent a novel option to reduce stress and anxiety in healthy adults.”


“In conclusion, results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over field trial indicate that 20 mg of hemp-derived CBG reduces subjective ratings of anxiety and stress in healthy cannabis-using adults in the absence of motor or cognitive impairment, intoxication, or other subjective drug effects (e.g., heart palpitations, dry mouth).”


Canniprene B, a new prenylated dihydrostilbene with cytotoxic activities from the leaves of Cannabis sativa

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“A new, canniprene B (4), along with five known (13 and 56) dihydrostilbenes were isolated from the leaves of Cannabis sativa collected at CSIR – IIIM, Jammu, India. Structures of all isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS. Canniprene B is a new prenylated dihydrostilbenes, a positional isomer of the known compound canniprene (5). The cytotoxic activities of these compounds (16) were evaluated using the SRB assay against a panel of five human cancer cell lines. Notably, canniprene B (4) exhibited varying levels of cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 2.5 to 33.52 μM, demonstrating the most potent activity against pancreatic cancer cells.”



NHS-Reimbursed Cannabis Flowers for Cancer Palliative Care and the Management of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: An Autobiographical Case Report

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“Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a debilitating side effect of cancer treatment, affecting many patients. Cannabinoid agonists, such as nabilone and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa L., have shown efficacy as antiemetics.

Here, we report the case of Michael Roberts (MR), who we believe is the first British patient reimbursed by the National Health Service (NHS) England for the cost of medicinal cannabis flowers to manage CINV. Medical data were obtained from NHS records and individual funding request (IFR) forms. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were collected using validated questionnaires as part of the standard of care at the specialized private clinics where the prescription of medicinal cannabis was initiated. The patient presented with rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma with lung metastases. He received FOLFIRI (folinic acid, fluorouracil, and irinotecan) chemotherapy and underwent an emergency Hartmann’s procedure with subsequent second-line FOLFOX (folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin) chemotherapy and lung ablation. MR reported severe nausea and vomiting associated with the initial FOLFIRI treatment. Antiemetics metoclopramide and aprepitant demonstrated moderated efficacy. Antiemetics ondansetron, levomepromazine, and nabilone were associated with intolerable side effects.

Inhalation of THC-predominant cannabis flowers in association with standard medication improved CINV, anxiety, sleep quality, appetite, overall mood, and quality of life.

Our results add to the available evidence suggesting that medicinal cannabis flowers may offer valuable support in cancer palliative care integrated with standard-of-care oncology treatment. The successful individual funding request in this case demonstrates a pathway for other patients to gain access to these treatments, advocating for broader awareness and integration of cannabis-based medicinal products in national healthcare services.”


“This case report highlights the potential of THC-predominant cannabis flowers in the management of CINV in a cancer patient, marking a significant step in palliative cancer care. Michael Roberts, who we believe is the first NHS patient reimbursed for medicinal cannabis flowers, experienced substantial relief from CINV, alongside improvements in pain, anxiety, sleep, appetite, and overall quality of life. His case underscores the therapeutic benefits of controlled inhalation of cannabis flowers, particularly in patients unresponsive to conventional antiemetics. This report brings further attention to the challenges faced by patients in accessing CBMPs within the NHS, despite their legalization and acknowledged potential in symptom management. The successful individual funding request in this case demonstrates a pathway for other patients to gain access to these treatments, advocating for broader awareness and integration of CBMPs in national healthcare systems.”


Efficacy of cannabis-based medicine in the treatment of Tourette syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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“Background: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics. It is a condition that affects between 0.3% and 0.7% of children, and its pathophysiology remains largely elusive. TS is associated with structural and functional alterations in corticostriatal circuits and neurochemical imbalances. Even though TS is currently incurable, there are established treatment options available, including behavioral therapy and neuroleptics. The use of cannabis-based medicine for tic management is an emerging therapeutic strategy, although its efficacy is still under investigation. It is hypothesized to interact with the endogenous cannabinoid system, but further research is required to ascertain its safety and effectiveness in TS.

Aim: In our systematic review and meta-analysis, we aim to assess the effectiveness of cannabis-based medicine in the treatment of TS.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, and Web of Sciences until February 2024. We included clinical trials and cohort studies investigating the efficacy of cannabis-based medicine in the treatment of TS. Data extraction focused on baseline characteristics of the included studies and efficacy outcomes, including scores on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale (PUTS), and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). We conducted the meta-analysis using Review Manager version 5.4. software. We compared the measurements before and after drug intake using mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results: In total, 357 articles were identified for screening, with nine studies included in the systematic review and 3 in the meta-analysis. These studies involved 401 adult patients with TS treated with cannabis. YGTSS revealed a significant reduction in total scores (MD = -23.71, 95% CI [-43.86 to -3.55], P = 0.02), PUTS revealed a significant decrease in scores (MD = -5.36, 95% CI [-8.46 to -2.27], P = 0.0007), and Y-BOCS revealed no significant difference in score reduction (MD = -6.22, 95% CI [-12.68 to 0.23], P = 0.06).

Conclusion: The current study indicates promising and potentially effective outcomes with the use of cannabis-based medicine in mitigating the severity of tics and premonitory urges. However, there is a need for larger, placebo-controlled studies with more representative samples to validate these findings.”



Cannabidiol effectively prevents oxidative stress and stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) in an animal model of global hypoxia

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“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid derived from Cannabis sativa. It has therapeutic effects in different paradigms of brain injury, acting as a neuroprotectant.

As oxidative stress is a primary risk factor for brain damage after neonatal hypoxia, we tested the effect of CBD on oxidative status and non-protein-bound iron accumulation in the immature brain after hypoxia. Moreover, we tested whether cannabidiol affects the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) which plays a key role in the regulation of cellular adaptation to hypoxia and oxidative stress. We used 7-day-old mice randomly assigned to hypoxic or control groups. Immediately after hypoxia or control exposure, pups were randomly assigned to a vehicle or CBD treatment. 24 h later, they were decapitated and the brains were immediately removed and stored for further biochemical analyses.

We found that CBD reduced lipid peroxidation and prevented antioxidant depletion. For the first time, we also demonstrated that CBD upregulated HIF-1α protein level. This study indicates that CBD may effective agent in attenuating the detrimental consequences of perinatal asphyxia.”


“Our results show that CBD applied in a short time after hypoxia attenuates hypoxia-induced oxidative stress, likely due to its antioxidant activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is also the first report showing that the post-hypoxia treatment with CBD increases the concentration of HIF-1α, which is directly involved in the maintenance of oxygen and iron homeostasis. This indicates that CBD is promising agent for new therapies developed for the treatment of hypoxic injury “