THC/CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis overactive bladder: a pilot prospective study.

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“Lower urinary tract dysfunctions (LUTDs) are commonly reported in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and are mainly related to neurogenic overactive bladder (OAB).

The aim of this observational study was to assess the effect of a tetrahydrocannabinol-cannabidiol (THC/CBD) oromucosal spray on resistant OAB by means of clinical and instrumental tools.

The THC/CBD treatment successfully reduced the OAB symptoms.

THC/CBD oromucosal spray has shown to be effective in improving overactive bladder symptoms in MS patients demonstrating a favorable impact on detrusor overactivity.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29052091

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Novel Peripherally Restricted Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Selective Antagonist TXX-522 with Prominent Weight-Loss Efficacy in Diet Induced Obese Mice.

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“The clinical development of the first generation of globally active cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) antagonists was suspended because of their adverse neuropsychiatric effects. Selective blockade of peripheral CB1Rs has the potential to provide a viable strategy for the treatment of severe obesity while avoiding these central nervous system side effects.

In the current study, a novel compound (TXX-522) was rationally designed based on the parent nucleus of a classical CB1R-selective antagonist/inverse agonist, rimonabant (SR141716A). Docking assays indicate that TXX-522 was bound with the CB1R in a mode similar to that of SR141716A. TXX-522 showed good binding, CB1R-selectivity (over the CB2R), and functional antagonist activities in a range of in vitro molecular and cellular assays.

In vivo analysis of the steady state distribution of TXX-522 in the rat brain and blood tissues and the assay of its functional effects on CB1R activity collectively showed that TXX-522 showed minimal brain penetration. Moreover, the in vivopharmacodynamic study further revealed that TXX-522 had good oral bioavailability and a potent anti-obesity effect, and ameliorated insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. No impact on food intake was observed in this model, confirming the limited brain penetration of this compound.

Thus, the current study indicates that TXX-522 is a novel and potent peripherally acting selective CB1R antagonist with the potential to control obesity and related metabolic disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29051736

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2017.00707/full

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Inverse association of marijuana use with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among adults in the United States.

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“The impact of marijuana on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is largely unknown. We studied the association between marijuana and NAFLD utilizing cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005-2014 and NHANES III (1988-1994).

RESULTS:

Of the 14,080 (NHANES 2005-2014) and 8,286 (NHANES III) participants, prevalence of suspected NAFLD and ultrasonographically-diagnosed NAFLD were inversely associated with marijuana use (p < 0.001). Compared to marijuana-naïve participants, marijuana users were less likely to have suspected NAFLD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.82-0.99 for past user; OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58-0.80 for current user) and ultrasonographically-diagnosed NAFLD (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57-0.98 for current user) in the age, gender, ethnicity-adjusted model. On multivariate analysis, the ORs for suspected NAFLD comparing current light or heavy users to non-users were 0.76 (95% CI 0.58-0.98) and 0.70 (95% CI 0.56-0.89), respectively (P for trend = 0.001) with similar trends in ultrasonographically-diagnosed NAFLD (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.59-1.00 for current user; OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51-0.97 for current light user). In insulin resistance-adjusted model, marijuana use remained an independent predictor of lower risk of suspected NAFLD.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this nationally representative sample, active marijuana use provided a protective effect against NAFLD independent of known metabolic risk factors. The pathophysiology is unclear and warrants further investigation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29049354

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0186702

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Reprint of: survey of medicinal cannabis use among childbearing women: patterns of its use in pregnancy and retroactive self-assessment of its efficacy against ‘morning sickness’.

Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice

“A majority of women experience some nausea and/or vomiting during pregnancy. This condition can range from mild nausea to extreme nausea and vomiting, with 1-2% of women suffering from the life-threatening condition hyperemesis gravidarum.

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) may be used therapeutically to mitigate pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting.

This paper presents the results of a survey of 84 female users of medicinal cannabis, recruited through two compassion societies in British Columbia, Canada. Of the seventy-nine respondents who had experienced pregnancy, 51 (65%) reported using cannabis during their pregnancies. While 59 (77%) of the respondents who had been pregnant had experienced nausea and/or vomiting of pregnancy, 40 (68%) had used cannabis to treat the condition, and of these respondents, 37 (over 92%) rated cannabis as ‘extremely effective’ or ‘effective.’

Our findings support the need for further investigations into cannabis therapy for severe nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19880090

“Marijuana use is common in pregnancy but may not be an independent risk factor for poor neonatal outcomes in term pregnancies.”  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000293781500527X

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Marijuana use and HIV treatment outcomes among PWH receiving care at an urban HIV clinic.

Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment

“While marijuana use is prevalent among persons with HIV (PWH), few studies have examined the relationship between marijuana use and HIV treatment outcomes independent of alcohol and other drug use.

METHODS:

We conducted a prospective cohort study to examine the relationships between frequency of marijuana use and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and viral suppression in patients enrolled in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinical Cohort between September 2013 through November 2015 (N=1377). We categorized marijuana use as no use, none in the last 3months, monthly use or less, weekly/daily. Our outcomes of interest were use of ART, ≥90 ART adherence, and viral suppression (HIV1-RNA<200 copies). We conducted multivariable analyses to examine associations between the frequency of marijuana use and our treatment outcomes, using generalized estimating equations to account for repeated measures. Other independent variables of interest included alcohol use, other drug use, and depressive symptoms. Analyses were adjusted for age, race, sex and HIV acquisition risk factor.

RESULTS:

In multivariable analyses we found no statistically significant association between frequency of marijuana use and our treatment outcomes. Alcohol use, other drug use and depressive symptoms were associated with lower odds of ART adherence and viral suppression.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this sample of PWH in care, frequency of marijuana use independent of other substance use does not appear to be associated with negative HIV treatment outcomes. Our results indicate that unlike alcohol, other substances and depression, marijuana use may not be a barrier to the effective treatment of HIV.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29021107

http://www.journalofsubstanceabusetreatment.com/article/S0740-5472(17)30225-8/fulltext

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Efficacy, tolerability and safety of cannabis-based medicines for chronic pain management – An overview of systematic reviews.

European Journal of Pain

“Medicinal cannabis has already entered mainstream medicine in some countries.

Cannabis-based medicines undoubtedly enrich the possibilities of drug treatment of chronic pain conditions.

It remains the responsibility of the health care community to continue to pursue rigorous study of cannabis-based medicines to provide evidence that meets the standard of 21st century clinical care.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29034533

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejp.1118/abstract

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Cannabis in fat: high hopes to treat obesity.

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“Cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1s) is known to have a substantial impact on the regulation of energy metabolism via central and peripheral mechanisms. In this issue of the JCI, Ruiz de Azua and colleagues provide important insights into the regulation of adipocyte physiology by CB1. Mice with adipocyte-specific deletion of the CB1-encoding gene had an overall improved metabolic profile in addition to reduced body weight and total adiposity. These changes were associated with an increase in sympathetic tone of the adipose tissue and expansion of activated macrophages, both of which occurred prior to changes in body weight, lending support to a causal relationship between loss of CB1 in adipocytes and systemic metabolic changes. This work identifies adipocyte CB1s as a potential novel peripheral target for affecting systemic metabolism with diminished CNS effects.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29035279

https://www.jci.org/articles/view/97042

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Adipocyte cannabinoid receptor CB1 regulates energy homeostasis and alternatively activated macrophages.

J Clin Invest

“Dysregulated adipocyte physiology leads to imbalanced energy storage, obesity, and associated diseases, imposing a costly burden on current health care.

Cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) plays a crucial role in controlling energy metabolism through central and peripheral mechanisms.

In this work, adipocyte-specific inducible deletion of the CB1 gene (Ati-CB1-KO) was sufficient to protect adult mice from diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic alterations and to reverse the phenotype in already obese mice. Compared with controls, Ati-CB1-KO mice showed decreased body weight, reduced total adiposity, improved insulin sensitivity, enhanced energy expenditure, and fat depot-specific cellular remodeling toward lowered energy storage capacity and browning of white adipocytes. These changes were associated with an increase in alternatively activated macrophages concomitant with enhanced sympathetic tone in adipose tissue.

Remarkably, these alterations preceded the appearance of differences in body weight, highlighting the causal relation between the loss of CB1 and the triggering of metabolic reprogramming in adipose tissues. Finally, the lean phenotype of Ati-CB1-KO mice and the increase in alternatively activated macrophages in adipose tissue were also present at thermoneutral conditions.

Our data provide compelling evidence for a crosstalk among adipocytes, immune cells, and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), wherein CB1 plays a key regulatory role.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29035280

https://www.jci.org/articles/view/83626

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Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Participates in Liver Inflammation by Promoting M1 Macrophage Polarization via RhoA/NF-κB p65 and ERK1/2 Pathways, Respectively, in Mouse Liver Fibrogenesis.

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“Macrophage M1/M2 polarization mediates tissue damage and inflammatory responses. Cannabinoid receptor (CB) 1 participated in liver fibrogenesis by affecting bone marrow (BM)-derived monocytes/macrophages (BMMs) activation. However, the knowledge of whether CB1 is involved in the polarization of BMMs remains limited.

Here, we found M1 gene signatures (including CD86, MIP-1β, tumor necrosis factor, IL-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and the amount of M1 macrophages (CD86+ cells, gated by F4/80) were significantly elevated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced mouse injured livers, while that of M2 type macrophages had little change by RT-qPCR and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS).

Our preceding study confirmed CB1 was involved in CCl4-induced liver fibrogenesis. Our results noted CB1 expression showed positive correlation with CD86. Blockade of CB1 by its antagonist or siRNA in vivo downregulated the mRNA and protein levels of M1 markers using RT-qPCR, western blot, and Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) assays, and reduced the proportion of M1 macrophages. Moreover, chimera mouse models, which received BM transplants from EGFP-transgenic mice or clodronate liposome injection mouse models, in which Kupffer cells were depleted, were performed to clarify the role of CB1 on the polarization of Kupffer cells and BMMs.

We found that CB1 was especially involved in BMM polarization toward M1 phenotype but have no effect on that of Kupffer cells. The reason might due to the lower CB1 expression in Kupffer cells than that of BMMs. In vitro, we discovered CB1 was involved in the polarization of BMMs toward M1. Furthermore, CB1-induced M1 polarization was apparently impaired by PTX [G(α)i/o protein inhibitor], Y27632 (ROCK inhibitor), and PD98059 [extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor], while SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) and compound C (AMPK inhibitor) had no such effect. ACEA (CB1 agonist) activated G(α)i/o coupled CB1, then enlarged GTP-bound Rho and phosphor-ERK1/2, independently. NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation is also a marker of M1 phenotype macrophages. We found that CB1 switched on NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation only depending on G(α)i/o/RhoA signaling pathway.

CONCLUSION:

CB1 plays a crucial role in regulating M1 polarization of BMMs in liver injury, depending on two independent signaling pathways: G(α)i/o/RhoA/NF-κB p65 and G(α)i/o/ERK1/2 pathways.”

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Control of myogenic tone and agonist induced contraction of intramural coronary resistance arterioles by cannabinoid type 1 receptors and endocannabinoids.

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“It was tested whether intrinsic CB1R activation modifies myogenic and agonist induced contraction of intramural coronary resistance arteries of the rat. CB1R protein was detected by immuno-histochemistry and by Western blot, its mRNA by qRT-PCR in their wall. Microsurgically prepared cylindrical coronary segments (∼100-150μm) developed myogenic contraction (∼20% of relaxed luminal diameter), from which a substantial relaxation (∼15%) in response to WIN55212 (a specific agonist of the CB1Rs) has been found. CB1R-mediated relaxation was blocked by O2050 and AM251 (neutral antagonist and inverse agonist of the CB1R, respectively) and was partially blocked by the NO synthase blocker LNA. CB1R blockade enhanced myogenic tone and augmented AngII-induced vasoconstriction (from 17,8±1,2 to 29,1±2,9%, p <0,05). Inhibition of diacylglycerol lipase by tetrahydrolipstatin, (inhibitor of endogenous 2-AG production) also augmented coronary vasoconstriction. These observations prove that vascular endocannabinoids are significant negative modulators of the myogenic and agonist-induced tone of intramural coronary arterioles acting through CB1Rs.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29031792

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1098882317300047

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