Cannabis effectiveness on immunologic potency of pulmonary contagion

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“Respiratory illnesses and its repercussions are becoming more prevalent worldwide. It is necessary to research both innovative treatment and preventative techniques. Millions of confirmed cases and fatalities from the COVID-19 epidemic occurred over the previous two years.

According to the review research, cannabinoids are a class of medicines that should be considered for the treatment of respiratory conditions. Cannabinoids and inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation have illustrated advantageous anti-inflammatory, asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, and pulmonary artery hypotension in numerous studies (in vitro and in vivo). It has been also noted that CB2 receptors on macrophages and T-helper cells may be particularly triggered to lower inflammation in COVID-19 patients.

Since the majority of lung tissue contains cannabinoid receptors, cannabis can be an effective medical tool for treating COVID-19 as well as pulmonary infections. Notably, CB2 and CB1 receptors play a major role in immune system modulation and anti-inflammatory activities.

In this review, we put forth the idea that cannabis might be helpful in treating pulmonary contagion brought on by viral integration, such as that caused by SARS-CoV-2, haemophilus influenza type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, influenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus.

Also, a detailed overview of CB receptors, intricate mechanisms, is highlighted connecting link with COVID-19 viral structural modifications along with molecular basis of CB receptors in diminishing viral load in pulmonary disorders supported through evident literature studies. Further, futuristic evaluations on cannabis potency through novel formulation development focusing on in vivo/in vitro systems can produce promising results.”

Possible Role of Cannabis in the Management of Neuroinflammation in Patients with Post-COVID Condition

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“The post-COVID condition (PCC) is a pathology stemming from COVID-19, and studying its pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment is crucial.

Neuroinflammation causes the most common manifestations of this disease including headaches, fatigue, insomnia, depression, anxiety, among others. Currently, there are no specific management proposals; however, given that the inflammatory component involves cytokines and free radicals, these conditions must be treated to reduce the current symptoms and provide neuroprotection to reduce the risk of a long-term neurodegenerative disease.

It has been shown that cannabis has compounds with immunomodulatory and antioxidant functions in other pathologies. Therefore, exploring this approach could provide a viable therapeutic option for PCC, which is the purpose of this review. This review involved an exhaustive search in specialized databases including PubMed, PubChem, ProQuest, EBSCO, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science, and Clinical Trials.

Phytocannabinoids, including cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), and Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), exhibit significant antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to be an effective treatment for neuroinflammatory conditions.

These compounds could be promising adjuvants for PCC alone or in combination with other antioxidants or therapies. PCC presents significant challenges to neurological health, and neuroinflammation and oxidative stress play central roles in its pathogenesis. Antioxidant therapy and cannabinoid-based approaches represent promising areas of research and treatment for mitigating adverse effects, but further studies are needed.”

Potential Therapeutic Targets to Modulate the Endocannabinoid System in Alzheimer’s Disease

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“Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disease (NDD), is characterized by chronic neuronal cell death through progressive loss of cognitive function. Amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and hyperphosphorylated tau proteins are considered the hallmarks of AD pathology. Different therapeutic approaches approved by the Food and Drug Administration can only target a single altered pathway instead of various mechanisms that are involved in AD pathology, resulting in limited symptomatic relief and almost no effect in slowing down the disease progression.

Growing evidence on modulating the components of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) proclaimed their neuroprotective effects by reducing neurochemical alterations and preventing cellular dysfunction. Recent studies on AD mouse models have reported that the inhibitors of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol (MAGL), hydrolytic enzymes for N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), respectively, might be promising candidates as therapeutical intervention.

The FAAH and MAGL inhibitors alone or in combination seem to produce neuroprotection by reversing cognitive deficits along with Aβ-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative responses, and neuronal death, delaying AD progression. Their exact signaling mechanisms need to be elucidated for understanding the brain intrinsic repair mechanism. The aim of this review was to shed light on physiology and pathophysiology of AD and to summarize the experimental data on neuroprotective roles of FAAH and MAGL inhibitors. In this review, we have also included CB1R and CB2R modulators with their diverse roles to modulate ECS mediated responses such as anti-nociceptive, anxiolytic, and anti-inflammatory actions in AD. Future research would provide the directions in understanding the molecular mechanisms and development of new therapeutic interventions for the treatment of AD.”

Water Extracts from Industrial Hemp Waste Inhibit the Adhesion and Development of Candida Biofilm and Showed Antioxidant Activity on HT-29 Colon Cancer Cells

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“The evolution of regulatory perspectives regarding the health and nutritional properties of industrial hemp-based products (Cannabis sativa L.) has pushed research to focus on the development of new methods for both the extraction and formulation of the bioactive compounds present in hemp extracts. While the psychoactive and medicinal properties of hemp-derived cannabinoid extracts are well known, much less has been investigated on the functional and antimicrobial properties of hemp extracts.

Within the hemp value chain, various agricultural wastes and by-products are generated. These materials can be valorised through eco-innovations, ultimately promoting sustainable economic development. In this study, we explored the use of waste from industrial light cannabis production for the extraction of bioactive compounds without the addition of chemicals. The five extracts obtained were tested for their antimicrobial activity on both planktonic and sessile cells of pathogenic strains of the Candida albicansCandida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis species and for their antioxidant activity on HT-29 colon cancer cells under oxidative stress.

Our results demonstrated that these extracts display interesting properties both as antioxidants and in hindering the development of fungal biofilm, paving the way for further investigations into the sustainable valorisation of hemp waste for different biomedical applications.”

Cannabidiol improves maternal obesity-induced behavioral, neuroinflammatory and neurochemical dysfunctions in the juvenile offspring

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“Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder in the offspring. While numerous studies focus on preventive measures targeting the mothers, only a limited number provide practical approaches for addressing the damages once they are already established.

We have recently demonstrated the interplay between maternal obesity and treatment with cannabidiol (CBD) on hypothalamic inflammation and metabolic disturbances, however, little is known about this relationship on behavioral manifestations and neurochemical imbalances in other brain regions. Therefore, here we tested whether CBD treatment could mitigate anxiety-like and social behavioral alterations, as well as neurochemical disruptions in both male and female offspring of obese dams.

Female Wistar rats were fed a cafeteria diet for 12 weeks prior to mating, and during gestation and lactation. Offspring received CBD (50 mg/kg) from weaning for 3 weeks. Behavioral tests assessed anxiety-like manifestations and social behavior, while neuroinflammatory and neurochemical markers were evaluated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus.

CBD treatment attenuated maternal obesity-induced anxiety-like and social behavioral alterations, followed by rescuing effects on imbalanced neurotransmitter and endocannabinoid concentrations and altered expression of glial markers, CB1, oxytocin and dopamine receptors, with important differences between sexes.

Overall, the findings of this study provide insight into the signaling pathways for the therapeutic benefits of CBD on neuroinflammation and neurochemical imbalances caused by perinatal maternal obesity in the PFC and the hippocampus, which translates into the behavioral manifestations, highlighting the sexual dimorphism encompassing both the transgenerational effect of obesity and the endocannabinoid system.”

Cannabis use disorder and perioperative outcomes following complex cancer surgery

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“Introduction: Cannabis usage is increasing in the United States, especially among patients with cancer. We sought to evaluate whether cannabis use disorder (CUD) was associated with higher morbidity and mortality among patients undergoing complex cancer surgery.

Methods: Patients who underwent complex cancer surgery between January 2016 and December 2019 were identified in the National Inpatient Sample database. CUD was defined according to ICD-10 codes. Propensity score matching was performed to create a 1:1 matched cohort that was well balanced with respect to covariates, which included patient comorbidities, sociodemographic factors, and procedure type. The primary composite outcome was in-hospital mortality and seven major perioperative complications (myocardial ischemia, acute kidney injury, stroke, respiratory failure, venous thromboembolism, hospital-acquired infection, and surgical procedure-related complications).

Results: Among 15 014 patients who underwent a high-risk surgical procedure, a cohort of 7507 patients with CUD (median age; 43 years [IQR: 30-56 years]; n = 3078 [41.0%] female) were matched with 7507 patients who were not cannabis users (median age; 44 years [IQR: 30-58 years); n = 2997 [39.9%] female). CUD was associated with slight increased risk relative to postoperative kidney injury (CUD, 7.8% vs. no CUD, 6.1%); however, in-hospital mortality was slightly lower (CUD, 0.9% vs. no CUD, 1.6%) (both p < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, after controlling for other risk factors, CUD was not associated with higher morbidity and mortality (adjusted odds ratio: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.98-1.15; p = 0.158).

Conclusion: CUD was not associated with a higher risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality following complex cancer surgery.”

[Phytotherapeutic recommendations in medical guidelines for the treatment of gastroenterological diseases – a systematic review]

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“Phytotherapeutics are gaining influence in the treatment of gastroenterological diseases. Their popularity and growing evidence of efficacy contribute to their integration into medical guidelines. A systematic screening identified recommended phytotherapeutic approaches. Based on current scientific data, some recommendations for the use of phytotherapeutic agents are given. For irritable bowel syndrome the use of peppermint oil is “strongly recommended”, especially for pain and flatulence. Other phytotherapeutics such as STW-5, Tibetan Padma Lax or warm caraway oil pads have proven effective in alleviating symptoms. It is “recommended” to integrate them into the treatment concept. For chronic constipation, 30g of fiber per day is recommended. Best data exists for plantago psyllium with moderate evidence and chicory inulin. In case of ulcerative colitis, plantago psyllium as well as the combination of myrrhchamomile flower extract, and coffee charcoal can be used as a complementary treatment in maintaining remission. There is also an “open recommendation” for curcumin for both, remission induction and maintenance. Some phytotherapeutic treatments (e.g., Artemisia absintiumBoswellia serata) show evidence of effectiveness for the treatment of Crohn’s disease, but data are not yet sufficient for recommendations. Cannabis-based medicines can be considered for abdominal pain and clinically relevant appetite loss if standard therapy is ineffective or contraindicated, but they should not be used for acute inflammation in active Crohn’s disease. Further recommendations for other gastroenterological diseases are discussed. The safety and tolerability of the phytotherapeutics were rated as predominantly “very good” to “acceptable”. Some clear recommendations for the use of phytotherapeutics to treat gastroenterological diseases show their great potential. Due to their wide range of effects, phytotherapeutics can be used very well as a complement to conventional medicines in case of complex regulatory disorders. However, further methodologically well-conducted impact studies would be helpful in order to be able to make further recommendations.”

Cannabidiol Inhibits Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Role of Gut Microbiome

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“Epithelial ovarian cancer is among the deadliest gynecological tumors worldwide. Clinical treatment usually consists of surgery and adjuvant chemo- and radiotherapies. Due to the high rate of recurrence and rapid development of drug resistance, the current focus of research is on finding effective natural products with minimal toxic side effects for treating epithelial ovarian tumors.

Cannabidiol is among the most abundant cannabinoids and has a non-psychoactive effect compared to tetrahydrocannabinol, which is a key advantage for clinical application. Studies have shown that cannabidiol has antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic, cytotoxic, antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. However, its therapeutic value for epithelial ovarian tumors remains unclear.

This study aims to investigate the effects of cannabidiol on epithelial ovarian tumors and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

The results showed that cannabidiol has a significant inhibitory effect on epithelial ovarian tumors. In vivo experiments demonstrated that cannabidiol could inhibit tumor growth by modulating the intestinal microbiome and increasing the abundance of beneficial bacteria. Western blot assays showed that cannabidiol bound to EGFR/AKT/MMPs proteins and suppressed EGFR/AKT/MMPs expression in a dose-dependent manner. Network pharmacology and molecular docking results suggested that cannabidiol could affect the EGFR/AKT/MMPs signaling pathway.”

Cannabidiol exerts multitarget immunomodulatory effects on PBMCs from individuals with psoriasis vulgaris

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“Introduction: The involvement of endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the inflammatory cascade, and the ability of phytocannabinoids, endocannabinoids and their synthetic analogues to modulate it has become an interesting research area for new therapeutic approaches in inflammatory skin diseases. Cannabidiol (CBD) appears to be the most promising among phytocannabinoids, due to the lack of psychotropic effects and low toxicity profile. Its anti-inflammatory action has been highlighted in different preclinical models, ranging from experimental colitis to arthritis and neuroinflammation. Our aim was to evaluate CBD immune-modulatory effects in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of psoriasis individuals with particular attention to both innate and adaptative immune arms.

Methods: We performed in vitro immune functional experiments to analyze CBD action on various immune cells active in psoriatic lesions.

Results: The results showed that CBD produced a shift from Th1 to Th2 response, while boosting cytotoxic activity of Natural Killer (NK) cells. Furthermore, it also exerted a potent action on monocyte differentiation as, after CBD treatment, monocytes from psoriatic individuals were unable to migrate in response to inflammatory stimuli and to fully differentiate into mature dendritic cells. Finally, a M2 skewing of monocyte-derived macrophages by CBD also contributed to the fine tuning of the magnitude of immune responses.

Conclusions: These data uncover new potential immunomodulatory properties of this cannabinoid suggesting a possible therapeutic action in the treatment of multiple inflammatory skin diseases.”

A novel insight into the neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol: maintained apelin/dopamine synthesis, NRF2 signaling, and AKT/CREB/BDNF gene expressions

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“Neuroinflammation is a process associated with degeneration and loss of neurons in different parts of the brain. The most important damage mechanisms in its formation are oxidative stress and inflammation.

This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of cannabidiol (CBD) against neuroinflammation through various mechanisms.

Thirty‑two female rats were randomly divided into 4 groups as control, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS + CBD and CBD groups. After six hours following LPS administration, rats were sacrificed, brain and cerebellum tissues were obtained. Tissues were stained with hematoxylin‑eosin for histopathological analysis. Apelin and tyrosine hydroxylase synthesis were determined immunohistochemically. Total oxidant status and total antioxidant status levels were measured, and an oxidative stress index was calculated. Protein kinase B (AKT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclic‑AMP response element‑binding protein (CREB) and nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (NRF2) mRNA expression levels were also determined. In the LPS group, hyperemia, degeneration, loss of neurons and gliosis were seen in all three tissues. Additionally, Purkinje cell loss in the cerebellum, as well as neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, were found throughout the LPS group. The expressions of AKT, BDNF, CREB and NRF2, apelin and tyrosine hydroxylase synthesis all decreased significantly.

CBD treatment reversed these changes and ameliorated oxidative stress parameters. CBD showed protective effects against neuroinflammation via regulating AKT, CREB, BDNF expressions, NRF2 signaling, apelin and tyrosine hydroxylase synthesis.”