Cannabis as an anticonvulsant

BMJ Journals“There are records of the cannabis plant being used for medicinal purposes in ancient times, and in the 19th century it was used as an effective anti-epileptic drug (AED) in children.

However, because of its abuse potential, most countries imposed laws restricting its cultivation and use, and this has greatly inhibited research into possible therapeutic uses.

Things are now changing, and cannabis derivatives are now used legally to treat, for example, pain, nausea and spasticity.

The plant contains over 100 biologically active compounds, and recently it has been possible to isolate these and identify the neurochemical mechanisms by which some of them operate: one in particular, cannabidiol”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29449212

http://adc.bmj.com/content/early/2018/02/15/archdischild-2018-314921

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Systematic review of systematic reviews for medical cannabinoids: Pain, nausea and vomiting, spasticity, and harms.

Image result for Can Fam Physician

“To determine the effects of medical cannabinoids on pain, spasticity, and nausea and vomiting, and to identify adverse events.

Systematic reviews with 2 or more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that focused on medical cannabinoids for pain, spasticity, or nausea and vomiting were included.

 

There is reasonable evidence that cannabinoids improve nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy.

They might improve spasticity (primarily in multiple sclerosis).

There is some uncertainty about whether cannabinoids improve pain, but if they do, it is neuropathic pain”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29449262

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The Cannabinoids Δ8THC, CBD, and HU-308 Act via Distinct Receptors to Reduce Corneal Pain and Inflammation

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers

“Corneal injury can result in dysfunction of corneal nociceptive signaling and corneal sensitization.

Activation of the endocannabinoid system has been reported to be analgesic and anti-inflammatory.

The purpose of this research was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids with reported actions at cannabinoid 1 (CB1R) and cannabinoid 2 (CB2R) receptors and/or noncannabinoid receptors in an experimental model of corneal hyperalgesia.

Topical cannabinoids reduce corneal hyperalgesia and inflammation.

The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Δ8THC are mediated primarily via CB1R, whereas that of the cannabinoids CBD and HU-308, involve activation of 5-HT1A receptors and CB2Rs, respectively.

Cannabinoids could be a novel clinical therapy for corneal pain and inflammation resulting from ocular surface injury.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29450258

http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/can.2017.0041

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Cannabis for paediatric epilepsy: challenges and conundrums.

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“Research is expanding for the use of cannabidiol as an anticonvulsant drug. The mechanism of cannabidiol in paediatric epilepsy is unclear but is thought to play a role in modulation of synaptic transmission. Evidence for its efficacy in treating epilepsy is limited but growing, with a single pharmaceutical company-funded randomised double-blind controlled trial in children with Dravet syndrome. Progress towards the use of medicinal cannabinoids incorporates a complex interplay of social influences and political and legal reform. Access to unregistered but available cannabidiol in Australia outside of clinical trials and compassionate access schemes is state dependent and will require Therapeutic Goods Administration approval, although the cost may be prohibitive. Further clinical trials are needed to clearly define efficacy and safety, particularly long term.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29438649

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Exploration of Potentially Bioactive Peptides Generated from the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Hempseed Proteins.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

“The seed of industrial hemp is an underexploited protein source. In view of a possible use in functional foods, a hempseed protein concentrate was hydrolyzed with pepsin, trypsin, pancreatin, or a mixture of these enzymes. A detailed peptidomic analysis using data-dependent acquisition showed that the numbers of peptides identified ranged from 90 belonging to 33 parent proteins in the peptic hydrolysate to 9 belonging to 6 proteins in the pancreatin digest. The peptic and tryptic hydrolysates resulted to be the most efficient inhibitors of 3-hydroxymethyl-coenzyme A reductase activity when tested on the catalytic domain of the enzyme. Using the open access tools PeptideRanker and BIOPEP, a list of potentially bioactive peptides was generated: the alleged activities included the antioxidant property, the glucose uptake stimulating activity, the inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV and angiotensin-converting enzyme I.”

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Effects of Hemp seed soft capsule on colonic ion transport in rats.

“To investigate the effect of Hemp seed soft capsule (HSCC) on colonic ion transport and its related mechanisms in constipation rats.

CONCLUSION:

HSSC ameliorates constipation by increasing colonic secretion, which is mediated via the coaction of cAMP-dependent and Ca2+-dependent Cl channels, NKCC, Na+-HCO3 cotransporter or Cl/HCO3 exchanger.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29204056

https://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/full/v23/i42/7563.htm

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Anti-neuroinflammatory effects of grossamide from hemp seed via suppression of TLR-4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglia cells.

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

“Grossamide, a representative lignanamide in hemp seed, has been reported to possess potential anti-inflammatory effects. However, the potential anti-neuroinflammatory effects and underlying mechanisms of action of grossamide are still unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated the possible effects and underlying mechanisms of grossamide against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in BV2 microglia cells.

This study demonstrated that grossamide significantly inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and decreased the level of LPS-mediated IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA. In addition, it significantly reduced the phosphorylation levels of NF-κB subunit p65 in a concentration-dependent manner and suppressed translocation of NF-κB p65 into the nucleus. Furthermore, grossamide markedly attenuated the LPS-induced expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88).

Taken together, these data suggest that grossamide could be a potential therapeutic candidate for inhibiting neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28224333

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11010-016-2923-7

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Identification of a sustainable two-plant diet that effectively prevents age-related metabolic syndrome and extends lifespan in aged mice.

The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

“The current system of food production is linked to both the increasing prevalence of chronic disease and the deterioration of the environment, and thereby calls for novel ways of producing nutritious foods in a sustainable manner.

In the “longevity village” of Bama, China, we have identified two plant foods, hemp seed and bitter vegetable (Sonchus oleraceus), that are commonly consumed by its residents and grow abundantly in unfarmed land without fertilizers or pesticides.

Here, we show that a diet composed of these two foods (the “HB diet”) provides a sufficient variety of nutrients and confers significant health benefits.

Aged mice allowed ad libitum access to the HB diet not only had longer life spans and improved cognitive function but were also protected against age-related metabolic syndrome, fatty liver, gut dysbiosis and chronic inflammation compared to aged mice fed a control Western diet.

Furthermore, longevity-related genes (including 5’adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, sirtuin 1, nuclear respiratory factor 1 and forkhead box O3) were significantly up-regulated, while aging-related genes (including mammalian target of rapamycin and nuclear factor kappa B) were down-regulated.

These results demonstrate that the HB diet is capable of promoting health and longevity, and present a sustainable source of healthy foods that can help control the prevalence of chronic diseases and reduce agricultural impact on the environment.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29080417

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0955286316303461?via%3Dihub

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Plasma N-acylethanolamine and endocannabinoid levels in burning mouth syndrome: potential role in disease pathogenesis.

Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine

“The objective was to measure endocannabinoid (eCB) ligands and non-cannabinoid N-acylethanolamine (NAE) molecules in plasma from individuals with burning mouth syndrome (BMS), and to determine if plasma eCB/NAE levels correlated with pain, inflammation and depressive symptomatology in this cohort.

RESULTS:

Plasma levels of PEA, but not OEA, AEA or 2-AG, were significantly elevated in patients with BMS, when compared to plasma from healthy individuals. Plasma PEA, OEA and AEA levels correlated with depressive symptomatology.

CONCLUSIONS:

This is the first evidence to indicate that circulating eCB/NAE levels are altered in BMS.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29436743

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jop.12692/abstract

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