How Does Marijuana Effect Outcomes After Trauma in ICU Patients? A Propensity Matched Analysis

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“Unlike several studies that focus on the effects of marijuana on the outcomes of diseases, our aim was to assess the relationship between a positive toxicology screen for marijuana and mortality in such patients.

A positive marijuana screen is associated with decreased mortality in adult trauma patients admitted to the ICU.

This association warrants further investigation of the possible physiological effects of marijuana in trauma patients.”

https://insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=28787375

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Smoking Marijuana Can Reduce Risk Of Stroke, Study Finds.

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“Smoking marijuana can reduce the risk of a stroke to a large extent, a new study has found. In the states where marijuana use is legal, strains of the drug are prescribed to cure chronic pain, anxiety, and epilepsy. A new study conducted by the University of Texas at Dallas has found cannabis can improve a person’s health by enhancing the blood and oxygen flow, thus reducing the risk of blood clots and the possibility of a stroke.” http://www.ibtimes.com/smoking-marijuana-can-reduce-risk-stroke-study-finds-2579489
“Residual Effects of THC via Novel Measures of Brain Perfusion and Metabolism in a Large Group of Chronic Cannabis Users” https://www.nature.com/npp/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/npp201744a.html
“Could cannabis PROTECT you from a stroke? People who smoke marijuana every day have better blood flow and oxygen to the brain, controversial study claims. A study by the University of Texas at Dallas has found the drug can improve oxygen and blood flow to the brain, reducing the risk of clots that cause a brain attack. In fact, the research team found chronic cannabis users have the most efficient brain blood flow of all, suggesting their stroke risk is lowest.” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-4797444/Cannabis-PROTECTS-stroke-study-claims.html
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GPR55 – a putative “type 3” cannabinoid receptor in inflammation.

“G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) shares numerous cannabinoid ligands with CB1 and CB2 receptors despite low homology with those classical cannabinoid receptors. The pharmacology of GPR55 is not yet fully elucidated; however, GPR55 utilizes a different signaling system and downstream cascade associated with the receptor. Therefore, GPR55 has emerged as a putative “type 3” cannabinoid receptor, establishing a novel class of cannabinoid receptor. Furthermore, the recent evidence of GPR55-CB1 and GPR55-CB2 heteromerization along with its broad distribution from central nervous system to peripheries suggests the importance of GPR55 in various cellular processes and pathologies and as a potential therapeutic target in inflammation.”

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GPR55 G protein-coupled receptor 55 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

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“This gene belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The encoded integral membrane protein is a likely cannabinoid receptor. It may be involved in several physiological and pathological processes by activating a variety of signal transduction pathways. ” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/9290

“The orphan receptor GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2095107/

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The orphan receptor GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor

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“Preparations of Cannabis sativa have been used for medicinal and recreational purposes for at least 4000 years and extracts of C. sativa contain over 60 different pharmacologically active components the most prominent being Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol

Ligands such as cannabidiol and abnormal cannabidiol which exhibit no CB1or CB2 activity and are believed to function at a novel cannabinoid receptor, also showed activity at GPR55.

These data suggest that GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor, and its ligand profile with respect to CB1and CB2 described here will permit delineation of its physiological function(s).”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2095107/

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Use of medical cannabis to reduce pain and improve quality of life in cancer patients.

Journal of Clinical Oncology

“Early attention to pain and symptoms in those with cancer improves both quality of life and survival. Opioid medications are the mainstay treatment of cancer-related pain.

Cannabinoids are increasingly used as adjunctive treatments for cancer pain, but clinical evidence supporting their use as an “opioid sparing agent” or to improve quality of life is as yet unknown.

Our study sought to determine if the addition of cannabinoids (medical cannabis) resulted in the reduction of the average opioid dose required for pain control, and improve self-reported quality of life indices.

Patients with cancer pain benefited from the addition of cannabinoids.

The average opioid dose decreased following access to medical cannabis.

Self-reported ratings of several quality of life indicators showed statistically significant improvement.

Our study shows a signal that cannabinoids may reduce cancer patients’ reliance on opioids to control pain.

Further prospective controlled studies are needed to further elucidate the role of cannabinoids in the treatment of cancer pain.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28148191

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GPR55: A therapeutic target for Parkinson’s disease?

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“The GPR55 receptor is expressed abundantly in the brain, especially in the striatum, suggesting it might fulfill a role in motor function. Indeed, motor behavior is impaired in mice lacking GPR55, which also display dampened inflammatory responses.

Abnormal-cannabidiol (Abn-CBD), a synthetic cannabidiol (CBD) isomer, is a GPR55 agonist that may serve as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

In this study, we explored whether modulating GPR55 could also represent a therapeutic approach for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD).

These results demonstrate for the first time that activation of GPR55 might be beneficial in combating PD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28807673

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0028390817303842

“The orphan receptor GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2095107/

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Cannabis Roots: A Traditional Therapy with Future Potential for Treating Inflammation and Pain

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“The cannabis plant is known for its multiple uses: the leaves, flowers, seeds, stalks, and resin glands have all been exploited for food, fuel, fiber, medicine, and other uses.

The roots of the cannabis plant have a long history of medical use stretching back millennia. However, the therapeutic potential of cannabis roots has been largely ignored in modern times.

In the first century, Pliny the Elder described in Natural Histories that a decoction of the root in water could be used to relieve stiffness in the joints, gout, and related conditions. By the 17th century, various herbalists were recommending cannabis root to treat inflammation, joint pain, gout, and other conditions.

Active compounds identified and measured in cannabis roots include triterpenoids, friedelin (12.8 mg/kg) and epifriedelanol (21.3 mg/kg); alkaloids, cannabisativine (2.5 mg/kg) and anhydrocannabisativine (0.3 mg/kg); carvone and dihydrocarvone; N-( p-hydroxy-b-phenylethyl)-p-hydroxy-trans-cinnamamide (1.6 mg/kg); various sterols such as sitosterol (1.5%), campesterol (0.78%), and stigmasterol (0.56%); and other minor compounds, including choline. Of note, cannabis roots are not a significant source of D9 – tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol, or other known phytocannabinoids.

Conclusion: The current available data on the pharmacology of cannabis root components provide significant support to the historical and ethnobotanical claims of clinical efficacy. Certainly, this suggests the need for reexamination of whole root preparations on inflammatory and malignant conditions employing modern scientific techniques.”

http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/can.2017.0028

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The novel cannabinoid receptor GPR55 mediates anxiolytic-like effects in the medial orbital cortex of mice with acute stress.

Biomed Central

“The G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is a novel cannabinoid receptor, whose exact role in anxiety remains unknown. The present study was conducted to explore the possible mechanisms by which GPR55 regulates anxiety and to evaluate the effectiveness of O-1602 in the treatment of anxiety-like symptoms. Mice were exposed to two types of acute stressors: restraint and forced swimming. Anxiety behavior was evaluated using the elevated plus maze and the open field test. We found that O-1602 alleviated anxiety-like behavior in acutely stressed mice. We used lentiviral shRNA to selective ly knockdown GPR55 in the medial orbital cortex and found that knockdown of GPR55 abolished the anxiolytic effect of O-1602. We also used Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of ROCK, and U73122, an inhibitor of PLC, and found that both inhibitors attenuated the effectiveness of O-1602. Western blot analysis revealed that O-1602 downregulated the expression of GluA1 and GluN2A in mice. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays an important role in anxiety and O-1602 may have therapeutic potential in treating anxiety-like symptoms.”

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Cumulative Lifetime Marijuana Use and Incident Cardiovascular Disease in Middle Age: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.

American Journal of Public Health Logo

“To investigate the effects of marijuana in the development of incident cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes.

Compared with no marijuana use, cumulative lifetime and recent marijuana use showed no association with incident CVD, stroke or transient ischemic attacks, coronary heart disease, or CVD mortality.

Marijuana use was not associated with CVD when stratified by age, gender, race, or family history of CVD.

Neither cumulative lifetime nor recent use of marijuana is associated with the incidence of CVD in middle age.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28207342

http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/10.2105/AJPH.2017.303654

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