Neuroprotection or Neurotoxicity of Illicit Drugs on Parkinson’s Disease

life-logo“Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is currently the most rapid growing neurodegenerative disease and over the past generation, its global burden has more than doubled. The onset of PD can arise due to environmental, sporadic or genetic factors. Nevertheless, most PD cases have an unknown etiology.

Chemicals, such as the anthropogenic pollutant 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and amphetamine-type stimulants, have been associated with the onset of PD. Conversely, cannabinoids have been associated with the treatment of the symptoms’. PD and medical cannabis is currently under the spotlight, and research to find its benefits on PD is on-going worldwide.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32545328/

https://www.mdpi.com/2075-1729/10/6/86

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Beneficial effects of the phytocannabinoid Δ9-THCV in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease.

Neurobiology of Disease“The antioxidant and CB2 receptor agonist properties of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ9-THCV) afforded neuroprotection in experimental Parkinson’s disease (PD), whereas its CB1 receptor antagonist profile at doses lower than 5 mg/kg caused anti-hypokinetic effects.

In the present study, we investigated the anti-dyskinetic potential of Δ9-THCV (administered i.p. at 2 mg/kg for two weeks), which had not been investigated before.

In summary, our data support the anti-dyskinetic potential of Δ9-THCV, both to delay the occurrence and to attenuate the magnitude of dyskinetic signs. Although further studies are clearly required to determine the clinical significance of these data in humans, the results nevertheless situate Δ9-THCV in a promising position for developing a cannabinoid-based therapy for patients with PD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32387338

“Δ9-THCV exhibited anti-dyskinetic properties in L-DOPA-treated Pitx3ak mutant mice. It delayed the onset of dyskinetic signs and reduced their neurochemical changes. It also reduced their intensity when given once dyskinesia was already present. This potential adds to other properties of Δ9-THCV as antiparkinsonian therapy.

In summary, our data support the anti-dyskinetic potential of Δ9-THCV to ameliorate adverse effects caused by L-DOPA, in particular delaying the occurrence and attenuating the magnitude of dyskinetic signs. This adds to its promising symptom-alleviating and neuroprotective properties described previously. Although further studies are clearly required to determine the clinical significance of these data in humans, the results nevertheless situate Δ9-THCV in a promising position for developing a cannabinoid-based therapy for PD patients.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0969996120301674?via%3Dihub

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From Cannabis sativa to Cannabidiol: Promising Therapeutic Candidate for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases.

frontiers in pharmacology – Retraction Watch“Cannabis sativa, commonly known as marijuana, contains a pool of secondary plant metabolites with therapeutic effects.

Besides Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol that is the principal psychoactive constituent of Cannabiscannabidiol (CBD) is the most abundant nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid and may represent a prototype for anti-inflammatory drug development for human pathologies where both the inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) play an important role to their etiology and progression.

To this regard, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), the most common neurodegenerative disorders, are characterized by extensive oxidative damage to different biological substrates that can cause cell death by different pathways. Most cases of neurodegenerative diseases have a complex etiology with a variety of factors contributing to the progression of the neurodegenerative processes; therefore, promising treatment strategies should simultaneously target multiple substrates in order to stop and/or slow down the neurodegeneration.

In this context, CBD, which interacts with the eCB system, but has also cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism, might be a good candidate as a prototype for anti-oxidant drug development for the major neurodegenerative disorders, such as PD and AD. This review summarizes the multiple molecular pathways that underlie the positive effects of CBD, which may have a considerable impact on the progression of the major neurodegenerative disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32210795

“The present review provided evidence that the nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoids CBD could be a potential pharmacological tool for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders; its excellent safety and tolerability profile in clinical studies renders it a promising therapeutic agent.

The molecular mechanisms associated with CBD’s improvement in PD and AD are likely multifaceted, and although CBD may act on different molecular targets all the beneficial effects are in some extent linked to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory profile, as observed in in vitro and in vivo studies. Therefore, this review describes evidence to prove the therapeutical efficacy of CBD in patients affected by neurodegenerative disorders and promotes further research in order to better elucidate the molecular pathways involved in the therapeutic potential of CBD.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2020.00124/full

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Cannabidiol exerts protective effects in an in vitro model of Parkinson’s disease activating AKT/mTOR pathway.

Fitoterapia“Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway with loss of substantia nigra pars compacta neurons and dopamine depletion. Various natural compounds showed protective actions against PD.

In this work, the protective effects of cannabidiol (CBD), obtained from Cannabis sativa, were evaluated in retinoic acid differentiated SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), an in vitro PD model.

CBD counteracted the loss of cell viability caused by MPP+, reducing apoptosis as demonstrated by the reduction of Bax and caspase 3. Moreover, CBD reduced the nuclear levels of PARP-1. The protective effects of CBD seem to be mediated by the activation of ERK and AKT/mTOR pathways.

These data suggested the involvement of ERK in the modulation of autophagy. However, beclin 1 levels were not modified neither by MPP+ nor by CBD. These results indicated that CBD may exert preventive and protective actions in PD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32184097

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0367326X20301350?via%3Dihub

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Melatonin and cannabinoids: mitochondrial-targeted molecules that may reduce inflammaging in neurodegenerative diseases.

Image result for histology and histopathology“Generally, the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases are associated with advancing age, so they are usually diagnosed in late adulthood. A primary mechanism underlying the onset of neurodegenerative diseases is neuroinflammation. Based on this background, the concept of “neuroinflammaging” has emerged. In this deregulated neuroinflammatory process, a variety of immune cells participate, especially glial cells, proinflammatory cytokines, receptors, and subcellular organelles including mitochondria, which are mainly responsible for maintaining redox balance at the cellular level. Senescence and autophagic processes also play a crucial role in the neuroinflammatory disease associated with aging.

Of particular interest, melatonin, cannabinoids, and the receptors of both molecules which are closely related, exert beneficial effects on the neuroinflammatory processes that precede the onset of neurodegenerative pathologies such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Some of these neuroprotective effects are fundamentally related to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions at the mitochondrial level due to the strategic functions of this organelle. The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent advances in the study of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration associated with age and to consider the use of new mitochondrial therapeutic targets related to the endocannabinoid system and the pineal gland.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32154907

https://www.hh.um.es/Abstracts/Vol_/_/__18212.htm

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Application of Cannabinoids in Neurosciences: Considerations and Implications.

 Current Issue Cover Image“Medicinal cannabinoid use continues to evolve across the United States, although legitimate federal recognition for medicinal purpose is lacking. Variability exists across states within the United States with respect to legislation, and health care institutions encounter challenges when patients present with a history of medicinal cannabinoid use. Emerging evidence in the field of neurosciences suggests a role of cannabinoids for neurologic medical conditions such as Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy. We aim to provide an overview of cannabinoids including a historical perspective, pharmacology, applications in neurosciences, and challenges in health care and academia. Knowledge of the appropriate role of cannabinoids in the clinical setting is essential for all health care practitioners including nursing.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32084064

https://journals.lww.com/ccnq/Abstract/2020/04000/Application_of_Cannabinoids_in_Neurosciences_.9.aspx

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Activation of CB2R with AM1241 ameliorates neurodegeneration via the Xist/miR-133b-3p/Pitx3 axis.

Publication cover image“Activation of cannabinoid receptor type II (CB2R) by AM1241 has been demonstrated to protect dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD) animals.

However, the specific mechanisms of the action of the CB2R agonist AM1241 for PD treatment have not been characterized.

The CB2 receptor agonist AM1241 alleviated PD via regulation of the Xist/miR-133b-3p/Pitx3 axis, and revealed a new approach for PD treatment.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31989652

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jcp.29530

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Microglial Phenotypes and Their Relationship to the Cannabinoid System: Therapeutic Implications for Parkinson’s Disease.

 Image result for molecules journal“Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder, the motor symptoms of which are associated classically with Lewy body formation and nigrostriatal degeneration.

Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the progression of this disease, by which microglia become chronically activated in response to α-synuclein pathology and dying neurons, thereby acquiring dishomeostatic phenotypes that are cytotoxic and can cause further neuronal death.

Microglia have a functional endocannabinoid signaling system, expressing the cannabinoid receptors in addition to being capable of synthesizing and degrading endocannabinoids. Alterations in the cannabinoid system-particularly an upregulation in the immunomodulatory CB2 receptor-have been demonstrated to be related to the microglial activation state and hence the microglial phenotype.

This paper will review studies that examine the relationship between the cannabinoid system and microglial activation, and how this association could be manipulated for therapeutic benefit in Parkinson’s disease.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31973235

“Microglia activation states and cannabinoid system: Therapeutic implications.  There is accumulating evidence indicating that cannabinoids (CBs) might serve as a promising tool to modify the outcome of inflammation, especially by influencing microglial activity. Microglia has a functional endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling system, composed of cannabinoid receptors and the complete machinery for the synthesis and degradation of eCBs. These actions make CBs a promising therapeutic tool to avoid the detrimental effects of inflammation and possibly paving the way to target microglia in order to generate a reparative milieu in neurodegenerative diseases.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27373505

“These findings imply that a hypofunction or a dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system may be responsible for some of the symptoms of these diseases. Scientific evidence shows that cannabis can provide symptomatic relief in several neurodegenerative diseases.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4070159/

“Cannabinoids can have neuroprotective effects, and this can be exploited for therapeutic strategies against neurodegenerative diseases”   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3243800/

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Effects of acute cannabidiol administration on anxiety and tremors induced by a Simulated Public Speaking Test in patients with Parkinson’s disease.

Image result for journal of psychopharmacology“Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the main components of Cannabis sativa and has anxiolytic properties, but no study has been conducted to evaluate the effects of CBD on anxiety signs and symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD).

This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of acute CBD administration at a dose of 300 mg on anxiety measures and tremors induced by a Simulated Public Speaking Test (SPST) in individuals with PD.

METHODS:

A randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial was conducted. A total of 24 individuals with PD were included and underwent two experimental sessions within a 15-day interval. After taking CBD or a placebo, participants underwent the SPST. During the test, the following data were collected: heart rate, systemic blood pressure and tremor frequency and amplitude. In addition, the Visual Analog Mood Scales (VAMS) and Self-Statements during Public Speaking Scale were applied. Statistical analysis was performed by repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) while considering the drug, SPST phase and interactions between these variables.

RESULTS:

There were statistically significant differences in the VAMS anxiety factor for the drug; CBD attenuated the anxiety experimentally induced by the SPST. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed significant differences in the drug for the variable related to tremor amplitude as recorded by the accelerometer.

CONCLUSION:

Acute CBD administration at a dose of 300 mg decreased anxiety in patients with PD, and there was also decreased tremor amplitude in an anxiogenic situation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31909680

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881119895536?journalCode=jopa

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Cannabinoids and the expanded endocannabinoid system in neurological disorders.

 Related image“Anecdotal evidence that cannabis preparations have medical benefits together with the discovery of the psychotropic plant cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) initiated efforts to develop cannabinoid-based therapeutics.

These efforts have been marked by disappointment, especially in relation to the unwanted central effects that result from activation of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), which have limited the therapeutic use of drugs that activate or inactivate this receptor.

The discovery of CB2 and of endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligands (endocannabinoids) raised new possibilities for safe targeting of this endocannabinoid system. However, clinical success has been limited, complicated by the discovery of an expanded endocannabinoid system – known as the endocannabinoidome – that includes several mediators that are biochemically related to the endocannabinoids, and their receptors and metabolic enzymes.

The approvals of nabiximols, a mixture of THC and the non-psychotropic cannabinoid cannabidiol, for the treatment of spasticity and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis, and of purified botanical cannabidiol for the treatment of otherwise untreatable forms of paediatric epilepsy, have brought the therapeutic use of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids in neurological diseases into the limelight.

In this Review, we provide an overview of the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoidome before discussing their involvement in and clinical relevance to a variety of neurological disorders, including Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, Huntington disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, stroke, epilepsy and glioblastoma.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31831863

“The existence of the endocannabinoidome explains in part why some non-euphoric cannabinoids, which affect several endocannabinoidome proteins, are useful for the treatment of neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and epilepsy.”

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41582-019-0284-z

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