Reduced Incidence and Better Liver Disease Outcomes among Chronic HCV Infected Patients Who Consume Cannabis.

Image result for hindawi journal

“The effect of cannabis use on chronic liver disease (CLD) from Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection, the most common cause of CLD, has been controversial. Here, we investigated the impact of cannabis use on the prevalence of CLD among HCV infected individuals.

Our study revealed that cannabis users (CUs) had decreased prevalence of liver cirrhosis, unfavorable discharge disposition, and lower total health care cost versus, compared to noncannabis users (NCUs).

Among CUs, dependent cannabis use was associated with lower prevalence of liver cirrhosis, compared to nondependent use.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings suggest that cannabis use is associated with decreased incidence of liver cirrhosis, but no change in mortality nor LOS among HCV patients. These novel observations warrant further molecular mechanistic studies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30345261

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Marijuana is not associated with progression of hepatic fibrosis in liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Related image

“An estimated 22 million adults use marijuana in the USA. The role of marijuana in the progression of hepatic fibrosis remains unclear.

AIMS:

We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of marijuana on prevalence and progression of hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

We searched several databases from inception through 10 November 2017 to identify studies evaluating the role of marijuana in chronic liver disease. Our main outcome of interest was prevalence/progression of hepatic fibrosis. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and hazards ratios (HRs) were pooled and analyzed using random-effects model.

RESULTS:

Nine studies with 5 976 026 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Prevalence of hepatic fibrosis was evaluated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis C and HIV coinfection by two, four, and one studies. Progression of hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by two studies. Pooled OR for prevalence of fibrosis was 0.91 (0.72-1.15), I=75%. On subgroup analysis, pooled OR among NAFLD patients was 0.80 (0.75-0.86), I=0% and pooled OR among HCV patients was 1.96 (0.78-4.92), I=77%. Among studies evaluating HR, pooled HR for progression of fibrosis in HCV-HIV co-infected patients was 1.03 (0.96-1.11), I=0%.

CONCLUSION:

Marijuana use did not increase the prevalence or progression of hepatic fibrosis in HCV and HCV-HIV-coinfected patients. On the contrary, we noted a reduction in the prevalence of NAFLD in marijuana users. Future studies are needed to further understand the therapeutic impact of cannabidiol-based formulations in the management of NAFLD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30234644

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabis in liver disorders: a friend or a foe?

 Image result for wolters kluwer

“The recent legalization of recreational marijuana use in some parts of the world, the discovery of new indications for the clinical application of cannabis, and the acceptance of the use of cannabis in practice has been paralleled by extensive research on the active components of cannabis and the endocannabinoid system within the human body.

In this review, we evaluate the available evidence on cannabis and its constituents and the application of this evidence in clinical practice, focusing particularly on the liver and liver diseases.

Constituents of cannabis, such as cannabidiol and Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol, have shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective effects both in in vitro and clinical studies, and appear to have potential in the symptom management and treatment of various liver diseases that were previously considered difficult to manage conservatively.

In addition, the manipulation of the inherent endocannabinoid response system has found favor in many clinical fields and has generated considerable research and clinical interest. Moreover, evidence with regard to the adverse effects of marijuana use in liver diseases is weak, which has led to raise a question on the prior rules, with regard to a denial of liver transplantation to marijuana users.

All in all, the recent trends in research, clinical experiences, as well as the legislature, has opened up new avenues towards the widespread clinical application of cannabis and its derivatives as well as modifiers of the components of the endocannabinoid system. More research is required to fully exploit these new evidences.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30169449

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00042737-900000000-97980

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabinoids and reduced risk of hepatic steatosis in HIV-HCV co-infection: paving the way for future clinical research

Publication Cover

“Whether or not cannabis itself or cannabinoids contained in it may help to reduce hepatic steatosis in HIV-HCV coinfected patients remains an open question. The existing body of knowledge on the interactions between cannabis and the liver suggest a protective effect of cannabinoids on insulin resistance, diabetes, and NAFLD in the general population. Clinical research with randomized study designs is needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cannabis-based pharmacotherapies in HIV-HCV coinfected patients. Targeting the endocannabinoid system seems essential to differently manage several pathological conditions such as intestinal inflammation, obesity, diabetes and fatty liver disease. However, to date, few drugs have been tested in clinical trials. CB1-antagonists and CB2 agonists appear to be viable therapeutic options that need to be explored for the management of liver diseases. As HCV cure rates are coming close to 100% in the era of direct-acting antivirals, it is especially important to be able to identify modifiable risk factors of complications and death in HIV-HCV coinfected patients, as well as possible levers for intervention. Given the persistence of metabolic risk factors after HCV eradication, cannabis-based therapies need to be evaluated both as preventive and therapeutic tools in patients living with or at risk of liver steatosis, possibly in combination with existing conventional approaches.”

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14787210.2018.1473764

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Long-Term Heavy Recreational Cannabis Use and Serum Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Levels are not Associated with an Impaired Liver Function in Cannabis Dependents.

Publication Cover

“To shed more light on the influence of chronic cannabis use on liver function, we performed a post-hoc analysis of routine lab data of 42 inpatient treatment-seeking (9 female, median: 27 years old) pure cannabis dependents. Serum liver function tests (LFT: transaminases, bilirubin), C-reactive protein (CRP), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), and body mass index (BMI) were considered. The LFT were correlated with CDT, BMI, and cannabis-related clinical data (CR); i.e., the serum levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its major metabolites 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH) and 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), plus the cannabis-history data. The LFT was normal in 32 (76.2%) patients. There was no significant association of LFT with BMI, CRP, CDT, and CR. No significant differences were found between the group with elevated LFT (N = 10) and the group without elevated LFT (N = 32) regarding BMI, CRP, CDT, and CR, except for THC-OH, which was even lower in the elevated-LFT group. These results argue against a relevant harmful impact of chronic cannabis inhalation on the liver function of relatively healthy humans (apart from nicotine dependence). Specifically, the liver function tests were not significantly influenced by THC and THC-COOH levels, both objective markers for the amount and duration of prior cannabis use.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30052163

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02791072.2018.1482031?journalCode=ujpd20

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

The Role of Cannabinoids in the Setting of Cirrhosis.

medicines-logo

“Although the mortality rates of cirrhosis are underestimated, its socioeconomic burden has demonstrated a significant global impact. Cirrhosis is defined by the disruption of normal liver architecture after years of chronic insult by different etiologies. Treatment modalities are recommended primarily in decompensated cirrhosis and specifically tailored to the different manifestations of hepatic decompensation. Antifibrogenic therapies are within an active area of investigation.

The endocannabinoid system has been shown to play a role in liver disease, and cirrhosis specifically, with intriguing possible therapeutic benefits. The endocannabinoid system comprises cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) and their ligands, endocannabinoids and exocannabinoids.

CB1 activation enhances fibrogenesis, whereas CB2 activation counteracts progression to fibrosis. Conversely, deletion of CB1 is associated with an improvement of hepatic fibrosis and steatosis, and deletion of CB2 results in increased collagen deposition, steatosis, and enhanced inflammation.

CB1 antagonism has also demonstrated vascular effects in patients with cirrhosis, causing an increase in arterial pressure and vascular resistance as well as a decrease in mesenteric blood flow and portal pressure, thereby preventing ascites. In mice with hepatic encephalopathy, CB1 blockade and activation of CB2 demonstrated improved neurologic score and cognitive function.

Endocannabinoids, themselves also have mechanistic roles in cirrhosis. Arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA) exhibits antifibrogenic properties by inhibition of HSC proliferation and induction of necrotic death. AEA induces mesenteric vasodilation and hypotension via CB1 induction. 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) is a fibrogenic mediator independent of CB receptors, but in higher doses induces apoptosis of HSCs, which may actually show antifibrotic properties. 2-AG has also demonstrated growth-inhibitory and cytotoxic effects.

The exocannabinoid, THC, suppresses proliferation of hepatic myofibroblasts and stellate cells and induces apoptosis, which may reveal antifibrotic and hepatoprotective mechanisms. Thus, several components of the endocannabinoid system have therapeutic potential in cirrhosis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29890719

http://www.mdpi.com/2305-6320/5/2/52

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Mechanistic Potential and Therapeutic Implications of Cannabinoids in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

medicines-logo

“Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is comprised of nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). It is defined by histologic or radiographic evidence of steatosis in the absence of alternative etiologies, including significant alcohol consumption, steatogenic medication use, or hereditary disorders.

NAFLD is now the most common liver disease, and when NASH is present it can progress to fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Different mechanisms have been identified as contributors to the physiology of NAFLD; insulin resistance and related metabolic derangements have been the hallmark of physiology associated with NAFLD.

The mainstay of treatment has classically involved lifestyle modifications focused on the reduction of insulin resistance. However, emerging evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system and its associated cannabinoid receptors and ligands have mechanistic and therapeutic implications in metabolic derangements and specifically in NAFLD.

Cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonism has demonstrated promising effects with increased resistance to hepatic steatosis, reversal of hepatic steatosis, and improvements in glycemic control, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Literature regarding the role of cannabinoid receptor 2 in NAFLD is controversial.

Exocannabinoids and endocannabinoids have demonstrated some therapeutic impact on metabolic derangements associated with NAFLD, although literature regarding direct therapeutic use in NAFLD is limited. Nonetheless, the properties of the endocannabinoid system, its receptors, substrates, and ligands remain a significant arena warranting further research, with potential for a pharmacologic intervention for a disease with an anticipated increase in economic and clinical burden.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29843404

http://www.mdpi.com/2305-6320/5/2/47

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Synthesis of 13 C6 -labeled, dual-target inhibitor of Cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1 R) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).

Publication cover image

“Cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1 R) antagonists/inverse agonists have great potential in the treatment of metabolic disorders like dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

CB1 R inverse agonists have also been reported to be effective in mitigating fibrotic disorders in murine models.

Inducible nitric oxide synthase is another promising target implicated in fibrotic and inflammatory disorders.

We have disclosed MRI-1867 as a potent and selective, peripherally acting dual-target inhibitor of the cannabinoid receptor (CB1 R) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).

Herein, we report the synthesis of [13 C6 ]-MRI-1867 as a racemate from commercially available chlorobenzene-13 C6 as the starting, stable-isotope label reagent. The racemic [13 C6 ]-MRI-1867 was further processed to the stable-isotope labeled enantiopure compounds utilizing chiral chromatography. Both racemic [13 C6]-MRI-1867 and S-13 C6 -MRI-1867 will be used to quantitate unlabeled S-MRI-1867 during clinical DMPK studies and will be used as an LC-MS/MS bioanalytical standard.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29790591

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jlcr.3639

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

The endocannabinoid-alcohol crosstalk: recent advances on a bi-faceted target.

Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology banner

“Increasing evidence focuses on the endocannabinoid system as a relevant player in the induction of aberrant synaptic plasticity and related addictive phenotype following chronic excessive alcohol drinking.

Besides, the endocannabinoid system is implicated in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease.

Interestingly, whereas the involvement of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in alcohol rewarding properties is established, the central and peripheral action of CB2 cannabinoid signalling is still to be elucidated.

This review aims at giving the input to deepen knowledge on the role of the endocannabinoid system, highlighting the advancing evidence that suggests that CB1 and CB2 receptors may play opposite roles in the regulation of both the reinforcing properties of alcohol in the brain and the mechanisms responsible for cell injury and inflammation in the hepatic tissue.

The manipulation of the endocannabinoid system could represent a bi-faceted strategy to counteract alcohol-related dysfunction in central transmission and liver structural and functional disarrangement.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29770478

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1440-1681.12967

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Marijuana Use Is Not Associated With Progression to Advanced Liver Fibrosis in HIV/Hepatitis C Virus-coinfected Women.

Issue Cover

“Marijuana (hereafter “tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]”) use has been associated with liver fibrosis progression in retrospective analyses of patients with chronic hepatitis C (HCV). We studied long-term effects of THC on fibrosis progression in women coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS).

CONCLUSIONS:

In this large cohort of HIV/HCV-coinfected women, THC was not associated with progression to significant liver fibrosis. Alcohol use was independently associated with liver fibrosis, and may better predict fibrosis progression in HIV/HCV-coinfected women.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4967608/

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/63/4/512/2595097

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous