Tetrahydrocannabinol: cannabidiol oromucosal spray for treating symptoms of multiple sclerosis spasticity: newest evidence

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“Proceedings of an Almirall-sponsored satellite symposium held at the 34th Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis in Berlin, Germany, 10 October 2018.” https://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/10.2217/nmt-2018-0048

“Newest evidence for tetrahydrocannabinol:cannabidiol oromucosal spray from postapproval pragmatic studies. Postapproval studies have an essential role in demonstrating that an intervention is effective and well tolerated during use in daily clinical practice. Numerous large observational and registry studies of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC):cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray have been conducted subsequent to its approval in Europe in 2011. Collectively, these studies provide valuable insight into various aspects of THC:CBD spray during real-world use in patients with multiple sclerosis spasticity, including its long-term effectiveness and tolerability. The Italian Medicines Agency’s web-based registry is the largest observational study of THC:CBD oromucosal spray conducted to date, reporting on more than 1600 patients prescribed THC:CBD spray since it was introduced in Italy in 2013, and further supporting its effectiveness and tolerability profile.” https://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/10.2217/nmt-2018-0049

“Newest evidence for tetrahydrocannabinol:cannabidiol oromucosal spray from randomized clinical trials. Subsequent to EMA approval of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray based on results of various studies, including an enriched-design clinical trial, two newer postapproval randomized trials have confirmed its efficacy and safety for treating resistant multiple sclerosis spasticity, while simultaneously addressing specific authorities’ concerns. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase IV trial, conducted as part of the EMA’s risk management plan, found no effect of THC:CBD spray on cognition and mood after 50 weeks of treatment. In the Sativex® as add-on therapy versus further optimized first-line ANTispastics (SAVANT)  study, add-on THC:CBD spray was significantly more effective than readjusting standard antispasticity therapy and provided new evidence of efficacy as requested by German authorities. SAVANT results support practical recommendations for treating resistant multiple sclerosis spasticity in daily practice.”  https://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/10.2217/nmt-2018-0050

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Real life Experience of Medical Cannabis Treatment in Autism: Analysis of Safety and Efficacy.

Scientific Reports

“There has been a dramatic increase in the number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) worldwide. Recently anecdotal evidence of possible therapeutic effects of cannabis products has emerged.

The aim of this study is to characterize the epidemiology of ASD patients receiving medical cannabis treatment and to describe its safety and efficacy.

We analysed the data prospectively collected as part of the treatment program of 188 ASD patients treated with medical cannabis between 2015 and 2017. The treatment in majority of the patients was based on cannabis oil containing 30% CBD and 1.5% THC. Symptoms inventory, patient global assessment and side effects at 6 months were primary outcomes of interest and were assessed by structured questionnaires.

After six months of treatment 82.4% of patients (155) were in active treatment and 60.0% (93) have been assessed; 28 patients (30.1%) reported a significant improvement, 50 (53.7%) moderate, 6 (6.4%) slight and 8 (8.6%) had no change in their condition. Twenty-three patients (25.2%) experienced at least one side effect; the most common was restlessness (6.6%).

Cannabis in ASD patients appears to be well tolerated, safe and effective option to relieve symptoms associated with ASD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30655581

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-37570-y

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The Case for the Entourage Effect and Conventional Breeding of Clinical Cannabis: No “Strain,” No Gain

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“The current wave of excitement in Cannabis commerce has translated into a flurry of research on alternative sources, particularly yeasts, and complex systems for laboratory production have emerged, but these presuppose that single compounds are a desirable goal. Rather, the case for Cannabis synergy via the “entourage effect” is currently sufficiently strong as to suggest that one molecule is unlikely to match the therapeutic and even industrial potential of Cannabis itself as a phytochemical factory.

These studies and others provide a firm foundation for Cannabis synergy, and support for botanical drug development vs. that of single components, or production via fermentation methods in yeast or other micro-organisms.

This article has briefly outlined recently technological attempts to “reinvent the phytocannabinoid wheel.” Cogent arguments would support that it can be done, but should it be done? The data supporting the existence of Cannabis synergy and the astounding plasticity of the Cannabis genome suggests a reality that obviates the need for alternative hosts, or even genetic engineering of Cannabis sativa, thus proving that, “The plant does it better.””
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Self-management strategies amongst Australian women with endometriosis: a national online survey.

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“Endometriosis has a significant negative impact on the lives of women, and current medical treatments often do not give sufficient pain relief or have intolerable side effects for many women. The majority of women with primary dysmenorrhea use self-management strategies (including self-care techniques or lifestyle choices) to help manage period related symptoms, but little is known about self-management in women with endometriosis.

The aim of this survey was to determine the prevalence of use, safety, and self-rated effectiveness of common forms of self-management.

Cannabis, heat, hemp/CBD oil, and dietary changes were the most highly rated in terms of self-reported effectiveness in pain reduction. Physical interventions such as yoga/Pilates, stretching, and exercise were rated as being less effective.

Self-management was very commonly used by women with endometriosis and form an important part of self-management.

Women using cannabis reported the highest self-rated effectiveness.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30646891

https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-019-2431-x

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Assessment of Efficacy and Tolerability of Medicinal Cannabinoids in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

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“Cannabinoids have antispastic and analgesic effects; however, their role in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms is not well defined.

OBJECTIVE:

To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and tolerability of medicinal cannabinoids compared with placebo in the symptomatic treatment of patients with MS.

STUDY SELECTION:

Randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials evaluating the effect of medicinal cannabinoids by oral or oromucosal route of administration on the symptoms of spasticity, pain, or bladder dysfunction in adult patients with MS.

RESULTS:

Seventeen selected trials including 3161 patients were analyzed. Significant findings for the efficacy of cannabinoids vs placebo were SMD = -0.25 SD (95% CI, -0.38 to -0.13 SD) for spasticity (subjective patient assessment data), -0.17 SD (95% CI, -0.31 to -0.03 SD) for pain, and -0.11 SD (95% CI, -0.22 to -0.0008 SD) for bladder dysfunction. Results favored cannabinoids. Findings for tolerability were RR = 1.72 patient-years (95% CI, 1.46-2.02 patient-years) in the total adverse events analysis and 2.95 patient-years (95% CI, 2.14-4.07 patient-years) in withdrawals due to adverse events. Results described a higher risk for cannabinoids. The serious adverse events meta-analysis showed no statistical significance.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

The results suggest a limited efficacy of cannabinoids for the treatment of spasticity, pain, and bladder dysfunction in patients with MS. Therapy using these drugs can be considered as safe.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30646241

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2706499

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Cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the amygdalar cholecystokinin glutamatergic afferents to nucleus accumbens modulate depressive-like behavior.

 Image result for nature medicine“Major depressive disorder is a devastating psychiatric disease that afflicts up to 17% of the world’s population. Postmortem brain analyses and imaging studies of patients with depression have implicated basal lateral amygdala (BLA) dysfunction in the pathophysiology of depression. However, the circuit and molecular mechanisms through which BLA neurons modulate depressive behavior are largely uncharacterized. Here, in mice, we identified that BLA cholecystokinin (CCK) glutamatergic neurons mediated negative reinforcement via D2 medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and that chronic social defeat selectively potentiated excitatory transmission of the CCKBLA-D2NAc circuit in susceptible mice via reduction of presynaptic cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R). Knockdown of CB1R in the CCKBLA-D2NAc circuit elevated synaptic activity and promoted stress susceptibility. Notably, selective inhibition of the CCKBLA-D2NAc circuit or administration of synthetic cannabinoids in the NAc was sufficient to produce antidepressant-like effects. Overall, our studies reveal the circuit and molecular mechanisms of depression.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30643290

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-018-0299-9

“Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L. Results of this study show that Delta(9)-THC and other cannabinoids exert antidepressant-like actions, and thus may contribute to the overall mood-elevating properties of cannabis.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20332000

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Crystal Structure of the Human Cannabinoid Receptor CB2.

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“The cannabinoid receptor CB2 is predominately expressed in the immune system, and selective modulation of CB2 without the psychoactivity of CB1 has therapeutic potential in inflammatory, fibrotic, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Here, we report the crystal structure of human CB2 in complex with a rationally designed antagonist, AM10257, at 2.8 Å resolution. The CB2-AM10257 structure reveals a distinctly different binding pose compared with CB1. However, the extracellular portion of the antagonist-bound CB2 shares a high degree of conformational similarity with the agonist-bound CB1, which led to the discovery of AM10257’s unexpected opposing functional profile of CB2 antagonism versus CB1 agonism.

Further structural analysis using mutagenesis studies and molecular docking revealed the molecular basis of their function and selectivity for CB2 and CB1. Additional analyses of our designed antagonist and agonist pairs provide important insight into the activation mechanism of CB2. The present findings should facilitate rational drug design toward precise modulation of the endocannabinoid system.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30639103

https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0092867418316258

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Structure of a Signaling Cannabinoid Receptor 1-G Protein Complex.

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“Cannabis elicits its mood-enhancing and analgesic effects through the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that signals primarily through the adenylyl cyclase-inhibiting heterotrimeric G protein Gi. Activation of CB1-Gi signaling pathways holds potential for treating a number of neurological disorders and is thus crucial to understand the mechanism of Giactivation by CB1.

Here, we present the structure of the CB1-Gi signaling complex bound to the highly potent agonist MDMB-Fubinaca (FUB), a recently emerged illicit synthetic cannabinoid infused in street drugs that have been associated with numerous overdoses and fatalities.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30639101

https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0092867418315654

“Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L. Results of this study show that Delta(9)-THC and other cannabinoids exert antidepressant-like actions, and thus may contribute to the overall mood-elevating properties of cannabis.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20332000

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Discovering the pharmacodynamics of conolidine and cannabidiol using a cultured neuronal network based workflow.

Scientific Reports“Determining the mechanism of action (MOA) of novel or naturally occurring compounds mostly relies on assays tailored for individual target proteins.

Conolidine and cannabidiol are plant-derivatives with known antinociceptive activity but unknown MOA.

We used principal component analysis (PCA) and multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) to compare network activity profiles of conolidine/cannabidiol to a series of well-studied compounds with known MOA.

Network activity profiles evoked by conolidine and cannabidiol closely matched that of ω-conotoxin CVIE, a potent and selective Cav2.2 calcium channel blocker with proposed antinociceptive action suggesting that they too would block this channel. To verify this, Cav2.2 channels were heterologously expressed, recorded with whole-cell patch clamp and conolidine/cannabidiol was applied.

Remarkably, conolidine and cannabidiol both inhibited Cav2.2, providing a glimpse into the MOA that could underlie their antinociceptive action.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30644434

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-37138-w

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Cannabis and Mood Disorders.

 “The present review will provide an overview of the neurobiology, epidemiology, clinical impact, and treatment of cannabis use disorder (CUD) in mood disorders.

Patients with mood disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) have higher rates of cannabis use, and CUD compared to the general population. Reasons for this association are not clear, nor are the putative therapeutic effects of cannabis use, or its components delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), in these illnesses.

Cannabis use may be associated mood disorders, but more research is needed to increase our understanding of the mechanisms for this association, and to develop more effective treatments for this comorbidity.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30643708

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40429-018-0214-y

“Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L. Results of this study show that Delta(9)-THC and other cannabinoids exert antidepressant-like actions, and thus may contribute to the overall mood-elevating properties of cannabis.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20332000

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