Suppression of neuropathic pain in the circadian clock-deficient Per2m/m mice involves up-regulation of endocannabinoid system

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“Neuropathic pain often results from injuries and diseases that affect the somatosensory system. Disruption of the circadian clock has been implicated in the exacerbation of the neuropathic pain state. However, in this study, we report that mice deficient in a core clock component Period2 (Per2m/m mice) fail to develop tactile pain hypersensitivity even following peripheral nerve injury. Similar to male wild-type mice, partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL)-Per2m/m male mice showed activation of glial cells in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and increased expression of pain-related genes. Interestingly, α1D-adrenergic receptor (α1D-AR) expression was up-regulated in the spinal cord of Per2m/m mice, leading to increased production of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), an endocannabinoid receptor ligand. This increase in 2-AG suppressed the PSL-induced tactile pain hypersensitivity. Furthermore, intraspinal dorsal horn injection of adeno-associated viral vectors expressing α1D-AR also attenuated pain hypersensitivity in PSL-wild-type male mice by increasing 2-AG production.

Our findings reveal an uncovered role of the circadian clock in neuropathic pain disorders and suggest a link between α1D-AR signaling and the endocannabinoid system.”

How depression and antidepressant drugs affect endocannabinoid system?-review of clinical and preclinical studies

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“As major depressive disorder is becoming a more and more common issue in modern society, it is crucial to discover new possible grip points for its diagnosis and antidepressive therapy.

One of them is endocannabinoid system, which has been proposed as a manager of emotional homeostasis, and thus, endocannabinoid alterations have been found in animals undergoing various preclinical models of depression procedures as well as in humans suffering from depressive-like disorders.

In this review article, studies regarding those alterations have been summed up and analyzed. Another important issue raised by the researchers is the impact of currently used antidepressive drugs on endocannabinoid system so that it would be possible to predict reversibility of endocannabinoid alterations following stress exposure and, in the future, to be able to design individually personalized therapies.

Preclinical studies investigating this topic have been analyzed and described in this article. Unfortunately, too few clinical studies in this field exist, what indicates an urgent need for collecting such data, so that it would be possible to compare them with preclinical outcomes and draw reliable conclusions.”

Cannabinoids from inflorescences fractions of Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (Cannabaceae) against human pathogenic bacteria

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Cannabinoids; tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN), might show antibacterial activity. Trema orientalis is a species in the Cannabaceae that is closely related to Cannabis through plastome phylogenetic evidence. This species is widely distributed throughout tropical Asia and is used as traditional medicine, particularly for the treatment of infectious diseases. However, no studies on the antibacterial activity of cannabinoid-containing inflorescences extracts are available. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine cannabinoid content and antibacterial activity of inflorescences fractions from T. orientalis native to Thailand.


We hypothesized that inflorescences from T. orientalis might display cannabinoids similar to Cannabis because of their close taxonomic relationship. We extracted the mature inflorescences and infructescence of T. orientalis in three disparate populations from different Thailand floristic regions. Extractions were subsequently partitioned into hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions using distilled water and chloroform. The lipophilic extracts were further fractionated by the column chromatography with gradient elution and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Characterized cannabinoids were used in bioassays with multidrug-resistance bacteria.


Lipophilic extracts and fractions of inflorescences from all Thailand floristic regions consistently displayed cannabinoids (THC, CBD and CBN) in various quantities. These extracts exhibited inhibitory activity for Staphylococcus aureusPseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii strains with minimum inhibitory concentration values varying from 31.25 to 125 µg/mL.


Our study is the first to report cannabinoid detection in extracts from inflorescences of T. orientalis, a species in the Cannabaceae. These extracts and their fractions containing cannabinoids showed pronounced antibacterial activity. The use of analytic methods also demonstrated reproducible cannabinoid extraction.”

“Trema orientalis is a pioneer species in the cannabis family (Cannabaceae) that is widely distributed in Thai community forests and forest edges.  T. orientalis can serve as a source of non-toxic natural lipophilic compounds that can be useful as bioactive ingredients in supplement feed development.”

Risk of motor vehicle collision associated with cannabis and alcohol use among patients presenting for emergency care

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“Background: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between cannabis and alcohol use and occurrence of motor vehicle collision (MVC) among patients in the emergency department (ED).

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of visits to EDs in Denver, CO, Portland, OR, and Sacramento, CA by drivers who were involved in MVCs and presented with injuries (cases) and non-injured drivers (controls) who presented for medical care. We obtained blood samples and measured delta-9-THC and its metabolites. Alcohol levels were determined by breathalyzer or samples taken in the course of clinical care. Participants completed a research-assistant-administered interview consisting of questions about drug and alcohol use prior to their visit, context of use, and past-year drug and alcohol use. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the association between MVC and cannabis/alcohol use, adjusted for demographic characteristics. We then stratified participants based on levels of cannabis use and calculated the odds of MVC across these levels, first using self-report and then using blood levels for delta-9-THC in separate models. We conducted a case-crossover analysis, using 7-day look-back data to allow each participant to serve as their own control. Sensitivity analyses examined the influence of usual use patterns and driving in a closed (car, truck, van) versus open (motorcycle, motorbike, all-terrain vehicle) vehicle.

Results: Cannabis alone was not associated with higher odds of MVC, while acute alcohol use alone, and combined use of alcohol and cannabis were both independently associated with higher odds of MVC. Stratifying by level of self-reported or measured cannabis use, higher levels were not associated with higher odds for MVC, with or without co-use of alcohol; in fact, high self-reported acute cannabis use was associated with lower odds of MVC (odds ratio [OR] 0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05-0.65). In the case-crossover analysis, alcohol use alone or in combination with cannabis was associated with higher odds of MVC, while cannabis use alone was again associated with decreased odds of MVC.

Conclusions: Alcohol use alone or in conjunction with cannabis was consistently associated with higer odds for MVC. However, the relationship between measured levels of cannabis and MVC was not as clear. Emphasis on actual driving behaviors and clinical signs of intoxication to determine driving under the influence has the strongest rationale.”

“Decades of research have established that alcohol increases the risk for motor vehicle collision (MVC) in a dose-dependent manner.”

“Cannabis alone was not associated with higher odds of MVC,”

A label free chemoproteomic-based platform to disclose cannabidiol molecular mechanism of action on chronic myelogenous leukemia cancer cells

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“The discovery of the interactome of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid from Cannabis sativa L., has been here performed on chronic myelogenous leukemia cancer cells, using an optimized chemo-proteomic stage, which links Drug Affinity Responsive Target Stability with Limited Proteolysis Multiple Reaction Monitoring approaches. The obtained results showed the ability of CBD to target simultaneously some potential protein partners, corroborating its well-known poly-pharmacology activity. In human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cancer cells, the most fascinating protein partner was identified as the 116 kDa U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein element called EFTUD2, which fits with the spliceosome complex. The binding mode of this oncogenic protein with CBD was clarified using mass spectrometry-based and in silico analysis.”

“Recent studies exposed that CBD decreases the proliferation of human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cancer cells by prompting apoptosis”

Development of cannabidiol derivatives as potent broad-spectrum antibacterial agents with membrane-disruptive mechanism

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“The emergence of antibiotic resistance has brought a significant burden to public health. Here, we designed and synthesized a series of cannabidiol derivatives by biomimicking the structure and function of cationic antibacterial peptides.

This is the first report on the design of cannabidiol derivatives as broad-spectrum antibacterial agents.

Through the structure-activity relationship (SAR) study, we found a lead compound 23 that killed both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria via a membrane-targeting mechanism of action with low resistance frequencies. Compound 23 also exhibited very weak hemolytic activity, low toxicity toward mammalian cells, and rapid bactericidal properties.

To further validate the membrane action mechanism of compound 23, we performed transcriptomic analysis using RNA-seq, which revealed that treatment with compound 23 altered many cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis-related genes in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. More importantly, compound 23 showed potent in vivo antibacterial efficacy in murine corneal infection models caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

These findings would provide a new design idea for the discovery of novel broad-spectrum antibacterial agents to overcome the antibiotic resistance crisis.”

“Natural compounds have been found as an important source of antibiotics. Cannabidiol (CBD), which is derived from the plant cannabis, has a variety of pharmacological activities, including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-epileptic, anti-anxiety, anticonvulsant, anti-cancer, antipsychotic, and antibacterial activities.”

Cannabidiol and its Potential Evidence-Based Psychiatric Benefits – A Critical Review

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“The endocannabinoid system shows promise as a novel target for treating psychiatric conditions.

Cannabidiol (CBD), a naturally occurring cannabinoid, has been investigated in several psychiatric conditions, with diverse effects and an excellent safety profile compared to standard treatments. Even though the body of evidence from randomised clinical trials is growing, it remains relatively limited in most indications.

This review comprises a comprehensive literature search to identify clinical studies on the effects of CBD in psychiatric conditions. The literature search included case studies, case reports, observational studies, and RCTs published in English before July 27, 2023, excluding studies involving nabiximols or cannabis extracts containing CBD and ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Completed studies were considered, and all authors independently assessed relevant publications.Of the 150 articles identified, 54 publications were included, covering the effects of CBD on healthy subjects and various psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, substance use disorders (SUDs), anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and autism spectrum disorders. No clinical studies have been published for other potential indications, such as alcohol use disorder, borderline personality disorder, depression, dementia, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

This critical review highlights that CBD can potentially ameliorate certain psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, SUDs, and PTSD. However, more controlled studies and clinical trials, particularly investigating the mid- to long-term use of CBD, are required to conclusively establish its efficacy and safety in treating these conditions. The complex effects of CBD on neural activity patterns, likely by impacting the endocannabinoid system, warrant further research to reveal its therapeutic potential in psychiatry.”

An Overview of Cannabidiol as a Multifunctional Drug: Pharmacokinetics and Cellular Effects

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“Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive compound derived from Cannabis Sativa, has garnered increasing attention for its diverse therapeutic potential.

This comprehensive review delves into the complex pharmacokinetics of CBD, including factors such as bioavailability, distribution, safety profile, and dosage recommendations, which contribute to the compound’s pharmacological profile. CBD’s role as a pharmacological inhibitor is explored, encompassing interactions with the endocannabinoid system and ion channels.

The compound’s anti-inflammatory effects, influencing the Interferon-beta and NF-κB, position it as a versatile candidate for immune system regulation and interventions in inflammatory processes. The historical context of Cannabis Sativa’s use for recreational and medicinal purposes adds depth to the discussion, emphasizing CBD’s emergence as a pivotal phytocannabinoid.

As research continues, CBD’s integration into clinical practice holds promise for revolutionizing treatment approaches and enhancing patient outcomes. The evolution in CBD research encourages ongoing exploration, offering the prospect of unlocking new therapeutic utility.”

“CBD has demonstrated a wide range of potential therapeutic effects in both preclinical and clinical studies across various neurological, psychiatric, autoimmune, and cardiovascular disorders. The pharmacological inhibitory properties of CBD, combined with its anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and antioxidant characteristics, make it a versatile compound with diverse applications.”

Research progress on the cannabinoid type-2 receptor and Parkinson’s disease

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“Parkinson’s disease (PD) is featured by movement impairments, including tremors, bradykinesia, muscle stiffness, and imbalance. PD is also associated with many non-motor symptoms, such as cognitive impairments, dementia, and mental disorders. Previous studies identify the associations between PD progression and factors such as α-synuclein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, and cell death.

The cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2 receptor) is a transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor and has been extensively studied as part of the endocannabinoid system. CB2 receptor is recently emerged as a promising target for anti-inflammatory treatment for neurodegenerative diseases.

It is reported to modulate mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, iron transport, and neuroinflammation that contribute to neuronal cell death. Additionally, CB2 receptor possesses the potential to provide feedback on electrophysiological processes, offering new possibilities for PD treatment. This review summarized the mechanisms underlying PD pathogenesis. We also discussed the potential regulatory role played by CB2 receptor in PD.”

“Cannabinoids, as an emerging therapeutic agent, have attracted wide attention for their great potential in the treatment of various diseases.”

The Effect of Nabiximols on Driving Ability in Adults with Chronic Tic Disorders: Results of a Substudy Analysis of the Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled CANNA-TICS Trial

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“Background: The multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, phase IIIb CANNA-TICS (CANNAbinoids in the treatment of TICS) trial showed clear trends for improvement of tics, depression, and quality of life with nabiximols versus placebo in adult patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and other chronic tic disorders. Although in general nabiximols was well tolerated, it is unclear whether treatment using this cannabis extract influences driving skills in patients with chronic tic disorders. 

Methods: Here we report results of the “Fitness to Drive” substudy of the CANNA-TICS trial. The key endpoint was fitness to drive as a binary criterion with a computerized assessment at baseline and after 9 weeks of stable treatment (week 13) with nabiximols or placebo. A patient was considered unfit to drive according to the German Federal Highway Research Institute guidelines. 

Results: In the substudy, a total of 64 patients (76.6% men, mean±standard deviation of age: 36.8±13.9) were recruited at two study sites. The number of patients who were fit to drive increased from 24 (55.8%) at baseline to 28 (71.8%) at week 13 among 43 patients treated with nabiximols, and decreased from 14 (66.7%) to 10 (52.6%) among 21 patients who received placebo. The risk difference (nabiximols – placebo) was 0.17 (95% confidence interval=-0.08 to 0.43) in favor of nabiximols. Specifically, only 2 of 24 (8.3%) patients in the nabiximols, but 4 of 14 (28.6%) patients in the placebo group changed for the worse from fit (at baseline) to unfit (at week 13) to drive, whereas 8 of 19 (42.1%) patients in the nabiximols, and only 2 of 7 (28.6%) patients in the placebo group improved from unfit to fit. 

Conclusion: Treatment with nabiximols does not impair skills relevant to driving in those patients with tic disorders who were fit to drive at baseline and even improved fitness to drive in a subset of patients who were unfit to drive before start of treatment.”