The Effectiveness of Common Cannabis Products for Treatment of Nausea

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“Background: Even though the Cannabis plant has been used to treat nausea for millennia, few studies have measured real-time effects of common and commercially available cannabis-based products.

Study: Using the Releaf App, 886 people completed 2220 cannabis self-administration sessions intended to treat nausea between June 6, 2016 and July 8, 2019. They recorded the characteristics of self-administered cannabis products and baseline symptom intensity levels before tracking real-time changes in the intensity of their nausea.

Results: By 1 hour postconsumption, 96.4% of people had experienced symptom relief with an average symptom intensity reduction of -3.85 points on a 0 to 10 visual analog scale (SD=2.45, d=1.85, P<0.001). Symptom relief was statistically significant at 5 minutes and increased with time. Among product characteristics, flower and concentrates yielded the strongest, yet similar results; products labeled as Cannabis indica underperformed those labeled as Cannabis sativa or hybrid; and joints were associated with greater symptom relief than pipes or vaporizers. In sessions using flower, higher tetrahydrocannbinol and lower cannabidiol were generally associated with greater symptom relief (eg, within 5 min).

Conclusions: The findings suggest that the vast majority of patients self-selecting into cannabis use for treatment of nausea likely experience relief within a relative short duration of time, but the level of antiemetic effect varies with the characteristics of the cannabis products consumed in vivo. Future research should focus on longer term symptom relief, including nausea-free intervals and dosing frequency; the risks of consumption of medical cannabis, especially among high-risk populations, such as pregnant women and children; and potential interactions between cannabis, conventional antiemetics, other medications, food, tobacco, alcohol, and street drugs among specific patient populations.”

The Effectiveness and Safety of Medical Cannabis for Treating Cancer Related Symptoms in Oncology Patients

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“The use of medical cannabis (MC) to treat cancer-related symptoms is rising. However, there is a lack of long-term trials to assess the benefits and safety of MC treatment in this population. In this work, we followed up prospectively and longitudinally on the effectiveness and safety of MC treatment.

Oncology patients reported on multiple symptoms before and after MC treatment initiation at one-, three-, and 6-month follow-ups. Oncologists reported on the patients’ disease characteristics. Intention-to-treat models were used to assess changes in outcomes from baseline. MC treatment was initiated by 324 patients and 212, 158 and 126 reported at follow-ups.

Most outcome measures improved significantly during MC treatment for most patients (p < 0.005). Specifically, at 6 months, total cancer symptoms burden declined from baseline by a median of 18%, from 122 (82–157) at baseline to 89 (45–138) at endpoint (−18.98; 95%CI= −26.95 to −11.00; p < 0.001). Reported adverse effects were common but mostly non-serious and remained stable during MC treatment.

The results of this study suggest that MC treatment is generally safe for oncology patients and can potentially reduce the burden of associated symptoms with no serious MC-related adverse effects.

The main finding of the current study is that most cancer comorbid symptoms improved significantly during 6 months of MC treatment.

Additionally, we found that MC treatment in cancer patients was well tolerated and safe.”

“Cancer Pain Treatment Using Marijuana Safe and Effective, Large Study Finds”

Antiseizure Effects of Cannabidiol Leading to Increased Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Levels in the Hippocampal CA3 Subfield of Epileptic Rats


“We evaluated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on seizures and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) levels in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously monitored by video-electrocorticography up to 10 weeks after an intraperitoneal kainic acid (15 mg/kg) injection. Sixty-seven days after the induction of status epilepticus and the appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures in all rats, CBD was dissolved in medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil and administered subcutaneously at 120 mg/kg (n = 10) or 12 mg/kg (n = 10), twice a day for three days. Similarly, the vehicle was administered to ten epileptic rats. Brain levels of PPARγ immunoreactivity were compared to those of six healthy controls. CBD at 120 mg/kg abolished the seizures in 50% of rats (p = 0.033 vs. pre-treatment, Fisher’s exact test) and reduced total seizure duration (p < 0.05, Tukey Test) and occurrence (p < 0.05). PPARγ levels increased with CBD in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and subiculum (p < 0.05 vs. controls, Holm-Šidák test), but only the highest dose increased the immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA3 subfield (p < 0.001), perirhinal cortex, and amygdala (p < 0.05). Overall, these results suggest that the antiseizure effects of CBD are associated with upregulation of PPARγ in the hippocampal CA3 region.”

Cannabidiol Improves Antioxidant Capacity and Reduces Inflammation in the Lungs of Rats with Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension


“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a plant-derived compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is still an incurable disease. CBD has been suggested to ameliorate monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH, including reduction in right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), a vasorelaxant effect on pulmonary arteries and a decrease in the white blood cell count. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of chronic administration of CBD (10 mg/kg daily for 21 days) on the parameters of oxidative stress and inflammation in the lungs of rats with MCT-induced PH. In MCT-induced PH, we found a decrease in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione level (GSH), an increase in inflammatory parameters, e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68), and the overexpression of cannabinoid receptors type 1 and 2 (CB1-Rs, CB2-Rs). Administration of CBD increased TAC and GSH concentrations, glutathione reductase (GSR) activity, and decreased CB1-Rs expression and levels of inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL -1β, NF-κB, MCP-1 and CD68. In conclusion, CBD has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in MCT-induced PH. CBD may act as an adjuvant therapy for PH, but further detailed preclinical and clinical studies are recommended to confirm our promising results.”

The Efficacy of Cannabis on Multiple Sclerosis-Related Symptoms


“Multiple sclerosis (MS) is known as an autoimmune disease that damages the neurons in the central nervous system. MS is characterized by its most common symptoms of spasticity, muscle spasms, neuropathic pain, tremors, bladder dysfunction, dysarthria, and some intellectual problems, including memory disturbances. Several clinical studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of cannabis on the relief of these symptoms in MS patients. The efficacy of Cannabis sativa (C. Sativa) in the management of MS outcomes such as spasticity, pain, tremors, ataxia, bladder functions, sleep, quality of life, and adverse effects were assessed in this review.

Most clinical studies showed the positive effects of cannabinoids with their different routes of administration, such as oromucosal spray and oral form, in reducing most MS symptoms. The oromucosal spray Nabiximols demonstrated an improvement in reducing MS spasticity, pain, and quality of life with a tolerated adverse effect. Oral cannabinoids are significantly effective for treating MS pain and spasticity, while the other symptoms indicate slight improvement and the evidence is quite inconsistent. Oromucosal spray and oral cannabis are mainly used for treating patients with MS and have positive effects on treating the most common symptoms of MS, such as pain and spasticity, whereas the other MS symptoms indicated slight improvement, for which further studies are needed.”

Exploration of Multiverse Activities of Endocannabinoids in Biological Systems


“Over the last 25 years, the human endocannabinoid system (ECS) has come into the limelight as an imperative neuro-modulatory system. It is mainly comprised of endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid), cannabinoid receptors and the associated enzymes accountable for its synthesis and deterioration. The ECS plays a proven role in the management of several neurological, cardiovascular, immunological, and other relevant chronic conditions. Endocannabinoid or endogenous cannabinoid are endogenous lipid molecules which connect with cannabinoid receptors and impose a fashionable impact on the behavior and physiological processes of the individual. Arachidonoyl ethanolamide or Anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol or 2-AG were the endocannabinoid molecules that were first characterized and discovered. The presence of lipid membranes in the precursor molecules is the characteristic feature of endocannabinoids. The endocannabinoids are released upon rapid enzymatic reactions into the extracellular space via activation through G-protein coupled receptors, which is contradictory to other neurotransmitter that are synthesized beforehand, and stock up into the synaptic vesicles. The current review highlights the functioning, synthesis, and degradation of endocannabinoid, and explains its functioning in biological systems.”

Eye Tracking in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Treated with Nabilone-Results of a Phase II, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group Pilot Study


“The topic of the therapeutic use of cannabinoids in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is broadly discussed and frequently comes up in the outpatient clinic. So far, there are only a few randomized clinical trials assessing the effects of cannabinoids in PD. We are able to demonstrate a reduction in non-motor symptom (NMS) burden after the administration of nabilone. As impairment of attention and working memory have been described earlier as possible side effects, we assess cognitive performance using saccadic paradigms measured by an eye tracker. We do not observe a significant difference in any of the saccadic paradigms between PD patients on placebo versus those treated with nabilone. We, therefore, conclude that top-down inhibitory control is not affected by the tetrahydrocannabinol analogue. Nabilone did not significantly worsen cognitive performance and appears to be safe to use in selected PD patients who suffer from disabling NMS.”

Modulation of Endocannabinoid System Components in Depression: Pre-Clinical and Clinical Evidence


“Depression is characterized by continuous low mood and loss of interest or pleasure in enjoyable activities. First-line medications for mood disorders mostly target the monoaminergic system; however, many patients do not find relief with these medications, and those who do suffer from negative side effects and a discouragingly low rate of remission.

Studies suggest that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) may be involved in the etiology of depression and that targeting the ECS has the potential to alleviate depression.

ECS components (such as receptors, endocannabinoid ligands, and degrading enzymes) are key neuromodulators in motivation and cognition as well as in the regulation of stress and emotions. Studies in depressed patients and in animal models for depression have reported deficits in ECS components, which is motivating researchers to identify potential diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers within the ECS. By understanding the effects of cannabinoids on ECS components in depression, we enhance our understanding of which brain targets they hit, what biological processes they alter, and eventually how to use this information to design better therapeutic options.

In this article, we discuss the literature on the effects of cannabinoids on ECS components of specific depression-like behaviors and phenotypes in rodents and then describe the findings in depressed patients. A better understanding of the effects of cannabinoids on ECS components in depression may direct future research efforts to enhance diagnosis and treatment.”

Impact of Δ 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts Alone and in Co-Culture with Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells


“δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of arthritis, but its mechanism of action and cellular targets are still unclear. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of THC (0.1-25 µM) on synovial fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RASF) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors in respect to proliferation, calcium mobilization, drug uptake, cytokine and immunoglobulin production. Intracellular calcium and drug uptake were determined by fluorescent dyes Cal-520 and PoPo3, respectively. Cytokine and immunoglobulin production were evaluated by ELISA. Cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) were detected by flow cytometry. RASF express CB1 and CB2 and the latter was increased by tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In RASF, THC (≥5 µM) increased intracellular calcium levels/PoPo3 uptake in a TRPA1-dependent manner and reduced interleukin-8 (IL-8) and matrix metalloprotease 3 (MMP-3) production at high concentrations (25 µM). Proliferation was slightly enhanced at intermediate THC concentrations (1-10 µM) but was completely abrogated at 25 µM. In PBMC alone, THC decreased interleukin-10 (IL-10) production and increased immunoglobulin G (IgG). In PBMC/RASF co-culture, THC decreased TNF production when cells were stimulated with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) or CpG. THC provides pro- and anti-inflammatory effects in RASF and PBMC. This is dependent on the activating stimulus and concentration of THC. Therefore, THC might be used to treat inflammation in RA but it might need titrating to determine the effective concentration.”

Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of cannabidiol-rich cannabis extract in children with autism spectrum disorder: randomized, double-blind and controlled placebo clinical trial

“Introduction: Autism Spectrum Disorder is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication, social interaction, and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior. Some studies have shown that substances derived from Cannabis sativa improve the quality of life of autistic children without causing serious adverse effects, thus providing a therapeutic alternative.

Method: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a cannabis extract rich in cannabidiol (CBD) in autistic children. Sixty children, aged between 5 and 11 years, were selected and divided into two groups: the treatment group, which received the CBD-rich cannabis extract, and the control group, which received the placebo, both used the product for a period of 12 weeks. Statistical analysis was done by two-factor mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA two way).

Results: Significant results were found for social interaction [F(1,116)=14.13, p=0.0002)], anxiety [F(1,116)=5.99, p=0.016], psychomotor agitation [F(1,116)=9.22, p=0.003)], number of meals a day [F(1,116)=4.11, p=0.04)] and concentration [F (1,48)=6.75, p=0.01], the latter being significant only in mild autism spectrum disorder. Regarding safety, it was found that only three children in the treatment group (9.7%) had adverse effects, namely dizziness, insomnia, colic and weight gain.

Conclusion: CBD-rich cannabis extract was found to improve one of the diagnostic criteria for ASD (social interaction), as well as often co-existing features, and to have few serious adverse effects.”