“Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is an increasing problem in the clinic and has been associated with increased rates of mortality. Currently, therapies to treat AKI are not available, so identification of new targets which, upon diagnosis of AKI, can be modulated to ameliorate renal damage is essential.
In this study, a novel cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist, SMM-295, was designed, synthesized, and tested in vitro and in silico.
These data suggests that selective CB2 receptor activation could be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment for AKI.”
“Altered glucose reabsorption via the facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) during diabetes may lead to renal proximal tubule cell (RPTC) injury, inflammation, and interstitial fibrosis. These pathologies are also triggered by activating the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R), which contributes to the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the link between CB1R and GLUT2 remains to be determined. Here, we show that chronic peripheral CB1R blockade or genetically inactivating CB1Rs in the RPTCs ameliorated diabetes-induced renal structural and functional changes, kidney inflammation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in mice. Inhibition of CB1R also downregulated GLUT2 expression, affected the dynamic translocation of GLUT2 to the brush border membrane of RPTCs, and reduced glucose reabsorption. Thus, targeting peripheral CB1R or inhibiting GLUT2 dynamics in RPTCs has the potential to treat and ameliorate DN. These findings may support the rationale for the clinical testing of peripherally restricted CB1R antagonists or the development of novel renal-specific GLUT2 inhibitors against DN.”
“Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a major challenge for Public Health systems and corresponds to the replacement of renal functional tissue by extra-cellular matrix proteins such as collagens and fibronectin. There is no efficient treatment to date for CKD except nephroprotective strategies.
The cannabinoid system and more specifically the cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) may represent a new therapeutic target in CKD.
Our review will first focus on the current state of knowledge regarding the cannabinoid system in normal renal physiology and in various experimental nephropathies, especially diabetes. We will review the data obtained in models of diabetes and obesity as well as in nonmetabolic models of renal fibrosis and emphasizes the promising role of CB1 blockers and CB2 agonists in the development of renal disease and fibrosis. Next, we will review the current state of knowledge regarding the cellular pathways involved in renal fibrogenesis and renal injury.
Overall, this review will highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting the cannabinoid receptors in CKD and diabetes.”
“Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of AKI. In this study, we investigated the role of the endocannabinoid (EC) system in renal IRI using a well-established mouse model.
Results: Renal IRI was associated with significantly increased serum BUN and creatinine, increased tubular damage score, increased expression of renal markers of inflammation and oxidative stress and elevated renal 2-AG content. Pretreatment with JZL184 was associated with a significant increase in renal 2-AG content and there was also improved serum BUN, creatinine and tubular damage score. However, renal expression of inflammation and oxidative stress markers remained unchanged.
Conclusions: This is the first report documenting that renal IRI is associated with an increase in kidney 2-AG content. Further enhancement of 2-AG levels using JZL184 improved indices of renal function and histology, but did not lower renal expression of markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms responsible for the effects observed and the potential value of 2-AG as a therapeutic target in renal IRI.”
“Obesity-related structural and functional changes in the kidney develop early in the course of obesity and occur independently of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Activating the renal cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) induces nephropathy, whereas CB1R blockade improves kidney function. Whether these effects are mediated via a specific cell type within the kidney remains unknown. Here, we show that specific deletion of CB1R in the renal proximal tubule cells did not protect the mice from obesity, but markedly attenuated the obesity-induced lipid accumulation in the kidney and renal dysfunction, injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These effects associated with increased activation of liver kinase B1 and the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase, as well as enhanced fatty acid β-oxidation. Collectively, these findings indicate that renal proximal tubule cell CB1R contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity-induced renal lipotoxicity and nephropathy by regulating the liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.”
“Long-term exposure to bioincompatible peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions frequently results in peritoneal fibrosis and ultrafiltration failure, which limits the life-long use of and leads to the cessation of PD therapy. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the pathogenesis of peritoneal fibrosis in order to design therapeutic strategies to prevent its occurrence. Peritoneal fibrosis is associated with a chronic inflammatory status as well as an elevated oxidative stress (OS) status. Beyond uremia per se, OS also results from chronic exposure to high glucose load, glucose degradation products, advanced glycation end products, and hypertonic stress. Therapy targeting the cannabinoid (CB) signaling pathway has been reported in several chronic inflammatory diseases with elevated OS. We recently reported that the intra-peritoneal administration of CB receptor ligands, including CB1 receptor antagonists and CB2receptor agonists, ameliorated dialysis-related peritoneal fibrosis. As targeting the CB signaling pathway has been reported to be beneficial in attenuating the processes of several chronic inflammatory diseases, we reviewed the interaction among the cannabinoid system, inflammation, and OS, through which clinicians ultimately aim to prolong the peritoneal survival of PD patients.”
“Cannabinoids both increase urine output and decrease urinary frequency in human subjects. However, these effects have not been systematically evaluated in intact mice, a species commonly used to evaluate the effects of novel cannabinoids.
The present studies investigated whether cannabinoid agonists reliably produce diuresis in mice at doses comparable to those that produce other cannabinoid effects and, further, identified the receptors that may mediate these effects.
These findings suggest that mice may provide a model for understanding the mixed effects of marijuana on urine output, as described in clinical studies, and aid in the development of targeted cannabinoid based therapies for bladder dysfunction.
Clinical studies have reported beneficial effects of smoked or aerosolized cannabis on bladder dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis, primarily by decreasing urinary frequency in these subjects following marijuana use. These reports contrast with the earlier clinical reports demonstrating increase in urine output after cannabis administration.
Our findings in mice demonstrate a dose related increase or decrease in urine output, providing a platform for understanding the mixed effects on urine output observed with marijuana in various clinical studies. As noted earlier in a study with rats, the diuresis induced by THC in mice also is weakly naturetic compared to furosemide and further investigations in this area may yield a new, clinically beneficial diuretic.
In contrast, our data suggest that development of peripherally selective cannabinoid CB1 agonists may be beneficial for patients suffering from bladder dysfunction.”
“These data indicate that cannabinoids have robust diuretic effects in rats that are mediated via CB1 receptor mechanisms.
Overall, our data indicate that diuresis is a CB1-mediated effect that may serve as a reliable and objective physiologic measure of cannabinoid action in rats; the circumstances under which these results represent a potential therapeutic benefit or potential liability of cannabinoids remain to be determined.
The implications of these findings currently are poorly understood, although a better understanding of mechanisms and sites of action by which cannabinoids increase urine loss may lead to the rational development of novel cannabinergic medications.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3533417/
“Diureticsaremedicinesthathelpreducetheamount of water in thebody. Diuretics areused to treatthebuildup of excessfluid in thebodythatoccurswithsomemedicalconditionssuch ascongestiveheart failure, liverdisease,andkidney disease. Somediureticsarealsoprescribed to treathighbloodpressure.Thesedrugsact on thekidneys to increaseurineoutput.Thisreducestheamount of fluid in thebloodstream,which in turnlowersbloodpressure.” http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/diuretics