Novel mechanism of cannabidiol-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines.

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“Studies have emphasized an antineoplastic effect of the non-psychoactive, phyto-cannabinoid, Cannabidiol (CBD). However, the molecular mechanism underlying its antitumor activity is not fully elucidated.

Herein, we have examined the effect of CBD on two different human breast cancer cell lines: the ER-positive, well differentiated, T-47D and the triple negative, poor differentiated, MDA-MB-231 cells.

In both cell lines, CBD inhibited cell survival and induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner as observed by MTT assay, morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and ELISA apoptosis assay. CBD-induced apoptosis was accompanied by down-regulation of mTOR, cyclin D1 and up-regulation and localization of PPARγ protein expression in the nuclei and cytoplasmic of the tested cells.

The results suggest that CBD treatment induces an interplay among PPARγ, mTOR and cyclin D1 in favor of apoptosis induction in both ER-positive and triple negative breast cancer cells, proposing CBD as a useful treatment for different breast cancer subtypes.”

“Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis)”
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Appraising the “entourage effect”: antitumor action of a pure cannabinoid versus a botanical drug preparation in preclinical models of breast cancer.

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“Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death among women. Although early diagnosis and development of new treatments have improved their prognosis, many patients present innate or acquired resistance to current therapies. New therapeutic approaches are therefore warranted for the management of this disease.

Extensive preclinical research has demonstrated that cannabinoids, the active ingredients of Cannabis sativa, trigger antitumor responses in different models of cancer. Most of these studies have been conducted with pure compounds, mainly Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

The cannabis plant, however, produces hundreds of other compounds with their own therapeutic potential and the capability to induce synergic responses when combined, the so-called “entourage effect”.

Here, we compared the antitumor efficacy of pure THC with that of a botanical drug preparation (BDP). The BDP was more potent than pure THC in producing antitumor responses in cell culture and animal models of ER+/PR+, HER2+ and triple-negative breast cancer. This increased potency was not due to the presence of the 5 most abundant terpenes in the preparation.

While pure THC acted by activating cannabinoid CB2 receptors and generating reactive oxygen species, the BDP modulated different targets and mechanisms of action. The combination of cannabinoids with estrogen receptor- or HER2-targeted therapies (tamoxifen and lapatinib, respectively) or with cisplatin, produced additive antiproliferative responses in cell cultures. Combinations of these treatments in vivo showed no interactions, either positive or negative.

Together, our results suggest that standardized cannabis drug preparations, rather than pure cannabinoids, could be considered as part of the therapeutic armamentarium to manage breast cancer.”

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A peripherally restricted cannabinoid 1 receptor agonist as a novel analgesic in cancer-induced bone pain.


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“Many malignant cancers, including breast cancer, have a propensity to invade bones, leading to excruciating bone pain.

Opioids are the primary analgesics used to alleviate this cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) but are associated with numerous severe side effects, including enhanced bone degradation, which significantly impairs patients’ quality of life.

In contrast, agonists activating only peripheral CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) have been shown to effectively alleviate multiple chronic pain conditions with limited side effects, yet no studies have evaluated their role(s) in CIBP.

Here, we demonstrate for the first time that a peripherally selective CB1R agonist can effectively suppress CIBP.

Overall, our studies demonstrate that CIBP can be effectively managed by using a peripherally restricted CB1R agonist, PrNMI, without inducing dose-limiting central side effects.

Thus, targeting peripheral CB1Rs could be an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of CIBP.”

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“In the last decades, the endocannabinoid system has attracted a great interest in medicine and cancer disease is probably one of its most promising therapeutic areas.

On the one hand, endocannabinoid system expression has been found altered in numerous types of tumours compared to healthy tissue, and this aberrant expression has been related to cancer prognosis and disease outcome, suggesting a role of this system in tumour growth and progression that depends on cancer type.

On the other hand, it has been reported that cannabinoids exert an anticancer activity by inhibiting the proliferation, migration and/or invasion of cancer cells; and also tumour angiogenesis.

The endocannabinoid system may be considered as a new therapeutic target, although further studies to fully establish the effect of cannabinoids on tumour progression remain necessary.”

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Anti-invasion Effects of Cannabinoids Agonist and Antagonist on Human Breast Cancer Stem Cells.

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“Studies show that cancer cell invasion or metastasis is the primary cause of death in malignancies including breast cancer.

The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in breast cancer may account for tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis.

Recent studies have reported different effects of cannabinoids on cancer cells via CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors.

In the present study, the effects of ACEA (a selective CB1 receptor agonist) and AM251 (a selective CB1 antagonist) on CSCs and their parental cells were investigated.

It was observed that ACEA decreased CD44+/CD24-/low/ESA+ cancer stem cell invasiveness.

Since one of the main cancer recurrence factors is anti-cancer drugs fail to inhibit CSC population, this observation would be useful for cancer treatment.”

“Our results indicate that cannabinoids may interfere with invasive cancer stem cells in benefit of cancer eradication. In summary, our results clarified that cannabinoid receptor agonist possesses anti-invasion potential in both main population and breast cancer stem cells. Considering that most anti-cancer drugs do not eradicate stem cells and only target main population cells, the results disclosed here can be used for prevention of cancer recurrence.”

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Direct modulation of the outer mitochondrial membrane channel, voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) by cannabidiol: a novel mechanism for cannabinoid-induced cell death.

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“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid that inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death of cancer cells and activated immune cells.

Here, we studied the effects of CBD on various mitochondrial functions in BV-2 microglial cells.

Our findings indicate that CBD treatment leads to a biphasic increase in intracellular calcium levels and to changes in mitochondrial function and morphology leading to cell death.

Single-channel recordings of the outer-mitochondrial membrane protein, the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) functioning in cell energy, metabolic homeostasis and apoptosis revealed that CBD markedly decreases channel conductance.

Finally, using microscale thermophoresis, we showed a direct interaction between purified fluorescently labeled VDAC1 and CBD.

Thus, VDAC1 seems to serve as a novel mitochondrial target for CBD.

The inhibition of VDAC1 by CBD may be responsible for the immunosuppressive and anticancer effects of CBD.”

“The non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), alone has strong anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects in diverse animal models of disease such as diabetes, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In addition, CBD has been reported to have anxiolytic, antiemetic and antipsychotic effects. Moreover, CBD has been shown to possess antitumor activity in human breast carcinoma and to effectively reduce primary tumor mass, as well as size and number of lung metastasis in preclinical animal models of breast cancer.”

“In summary, in this study we have identified VDAC1 as a new molecular target for CBD. Our study suggests that CBD-induced cell death may occur through the inhibition of VDAC1 conductance and that this interaction may be responsible for the anticancer and immunosuppressive properties of CBD.”

“Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1 As an Emerging Drug Target for Novel Anti-CancerTherapeutics.”

“Finally, small molecules targeting VDAC1 can induce apoptosis. VDAC1 can thus be considered as standing at the crossroads between mitochondrial metabolite transport and apoptosis and hence represents an emerging cancer drug target.”

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Cannabidiol Induces Cytotoxicity and Cell Death via Apoptotic Pathway in Cancer Cell Lines

“In view of obtaining potential anticancer compounds, we studied the inhibitory activity and the cytotoxic effects of a candidate compound in cancer cells. The cytotoxic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in vitro were evaluated in NIH3T3 fibroblasts, B16 melanoma cells, A549 lung cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, Lenca kidney cells and SNU-C4 colon cancer cells.
The inhibitory activity of CBD was increased in all cancer cells and showed especially strong increment in breast cancer cells. The cytotoxicity of CBD increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner with growth inhibition in all cancer cell lines.
Therefore these results suggest that CBD has a possibility of anticancer agents and anticancer effects against cancer cells by modulation of apoptotic pathway in the range of 5-80 μM concentration.”
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Another Breast Cancer Awareness Month. Please Be Aware.

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“October is National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, but are you aware of the efficacy of cannabis in treating breast cancer symptoms? There’s even research that suggests cannabis can reverse the progress of the disease itself.”
“… not only as palliative but also as curative drugs.”
“Anticancer mechanisms of cannabinoids. Preparations of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana) have been used for many centuries both medicinally and recreationally. Specifically, cannabinoids are well known to exert palliative effects in cancer patients. Their best-established use is the inhibition of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Cannabinoids also inhibit pain. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in oncology might not be restricted to their aforementioned palliative actions. In addition to the well-known palliative effects of cannabinoids on some cancer-associated symptoms, a large body of evidence shows that these molecules can decrease tumour growth in animal models of cancer. In addition, cannabinoids inhibit angiogenesis and decrease metastasis in various tumour types in laboratory animals. Thus, numerous studies have provided evidence that thc and other cannabinoids exhibit antitumour effects in a wide array of animal models of cancer.”
“Long-term marijuana users show dampened stress response”
“Outdoor light at night linked with increased breast cancer risk in women”
“Low Melatonin Raises Breast Cancer Risk. Exposure to light during the nighttime may increase a woman’s risk for developing breast cancer,”
“Outdoor Light at Night May Increase Breast Cancer Risk by Up to 14 Percent”
“A Good Night’s Sleep May Reduce Risk of Breast Cancer”
“Prolonging the length of the nightly fasting interval may be a simple, nonpharmacologic strategy for reducing the risk of breast cancer recurrence.”
“Prolonged Nightly Fasting Cuts Risk for Breast Cancer Return”
“Nightly fasting may help reduce breast cancer risk”
“How fasting reduces the chance of breast cancer returning by a THIRD”
“Fasting-like diet turns the immune system against cancer”
“Could Hunger be Linked to Breast Cancer? It’s clear from this study that there is some type of link between severe hunger and the development of breast cancer.”
“Severe hunger increases breast cancer risk in war survivors”

“Poor diet in youth associated with increased risk for premenopausal breast cancer”

“Lactation linked to reduced estrogen receptor-negative, triple-negative breast cancer risk”
“Breast-Feeding Cuts ER-Neg Breast Cancer Risk in Black Women”
“Women with large breasts are at an increased risk of advanced breast cancer”
“Bigger bra size ‘linked with breast cancer’”
“Bigger Breasts Linked to Higher Incidence of Breast Cancer”
“Women with bigger breasts DO have higher risk of breast cancer, finds genetic study”
“No, Wearing a Bra Will Not Give You Breast Cancer, Study Shows”
“Doctors: Women who store phone in bras at risk for breast cancer”
“What to Know About the Breast Implants Linked to Cancer”
“9 deaths and rare cancer linked to breast implants, FDA says”
 “Prescription drugs cause more deaths than breast cancer, car crashes in state.”
“Popular Antidepressant May Promote Breast Cancer. We’ve told you before about the dangers of SSRIs, an incredibly popular class of antidepressants that can cause violent outbursts—both homicidal and suicidal. But now, researchers have found another alarming side effect: they may promote breast cancer.”
“Research shows antidepressant Paxil may cause breast cancer. Researchers have discovered that the antidepressant paroxetine, sold under the name brand Paxil, can cause breast cancer.”
“Use of SSRI antidepressants is linked to small increase in breast cancer risk”
“Antidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L”
“Sex hormones linked to breast cancer risk in women under 50”
“Female hormone supplements with estrogen, progestin linked to breast cancer risk”
“Kelp in Diet Reduces Levels of Hormone Linked to Breast Cancer”
“Some birth control pills may boost breast cancer risk, Fred Hutch study finds”
“Constant Use of Birth Control Pills Raises Risk of Breast Cancer”
“Birth Control Injections May Raise Breast Cancer Risk in Young Women”
“Breast Cancer Patients Who Receive Nutrition Education Can Lower Cancer Recurrence Rates”
“New Studies Show Importance of Diet for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk and Preventing Recurrence”
“This Diet and Olive Oil May Cut Breast Cancer Risk”
“Mediterranean Diet With Olive Oil Linked to Lower Breast Cancer Risk”
“Certain Fruits and Vegetables Linked to Lower Breast Cancer Risk”
“High fruit and vegetable intake has been linked with a reduced risk of breast cancer,”
“Fruits, Veggies Tied to Lower Breast Cancer Risk”
“Natural compound could reduce breast cancer risk in some women”
“Apples could help reduce the risk of breast cancer, study suggests”
“Apples are recommended for breast cancer”
“An apple a day to prevent cancer formation: Reducing cancer risk with flavonoids”
“Apple pectin: A natural source for cancer suppression in 4T1 breast cancer cells in vitro and express p53 in mouse bearing 4T1 cancer tumors, in vivo. Our results demonstrated that pectic acid, a natural component of apple, can prevent metastasis in both cancer cell lines and primary tumors.”
“High fat diet linked to breast cancer”
“High-fat diet during puberty linked to breast cancer risk later in life”
“High-Fat Diet Increases Breast Cancer Risk, Study Finds”
“Starch May Raise Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk, Study Finds”
“Starch intake may influence risk for breast cancer recurrence, study suggests”
“Sugar in Western diets increases risk for breast cancer tumors and metastasis. MD Anderson study in mice points to sugar’s impact on inflammatory pathways as culprit”
“Study links high sugar intake to increased risk of breast cancer”
“Sugars in Western diets increase risk for breast cancer tumors and metastasis”
“Green tea compounds in breast cancer prevention and treatment. In recent years, many in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that green tea possesses anti-cancer effects. Green tea is the distinctive “liquor” produced from the evergreen plant Camellia sinensis leaves and is the most ancient beverage in the world. Traditional Chinese medicine has recommended drinking green tea for the prevention of disease. In recent years, many scientific and medical studies suggested that green tea possesses antiproliferative, antimutagenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral and chemopreventive effects. Green tea components, especially epigallocatechin-3-gallate, possess anti-breast cancer effects.”
“Green tea polyphenols and its constituent epigallocatechin gallate inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.”
“Green tea polyphenol and epigallocatechin gallate induce apoptosis and inhibit invasion in human breast cancer cells.”
“Cup of herbal tea could help fight breast cancer. Scientists have discovered that an extract from a common plant in Pakistan may help treat breast cancer. The plant, Fagonia cretica, and known as Virgon’s Mantlem, is commonly used in herbal tea.”
“Village women a few miles from Lahore find a cure for breast cancer. Scientists have discovered that extracts from a plant, found in arid regions a few miles from Lahore, can kill cancerous cells and produces no harmful side-effects associated with chemotherapy.”
“An Aqueous Extract of Fagonia cretica Induces DNA Damage, Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells via FOXO3a and p53 Expression. Plants have proved to be an important source of anti-cancer drugs. Here we have investigated the cytotoxic action of an aqueous extract of Fagonia cretica, used widely as a herbal tea-based treatment for breast cancer. Our findings indicate that Fagonia cretica aqueous extract contains potential anti-cancer agents acting either singly or in combination against breast cancer cell proliferation via DNA damage-induced FOXO3a and p53 expression.”
“Marijuana Compound May Stop Breast Cancer From Spreading, Study Says”
“Skirt size increase linked to breast cancer risk, says study”
“Study links high sugar intake to increased risk of breast cancer”
“Study: As skirt sizes go up, so does the risk of breast cancer.”
 “Obesity Linked to Larger, More Aggressive Breast Cancers”
“Lack of vitamin D ‘significantly speeds up the growth of breast cancer tumors and causes the disease to spread'”
“Vitamin D deficiency contributes to spread of breast cancer in mice”
“You get most of your vitamin D from sunlight and dairy products, but hemp seeds do contain a small portion of it as well. Some hemp nuts have been fortified with vitamin D”
“Many women use multivitamins in the belief that these supplements will prevent chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. These results suggest that multivitamin use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.”
“Multivitamin use linked to increased risk of breast cancer, study says”
“Multivitamins Linked to Breast Cancer Risk. Study Shows Higher Risk of Breast Cancer Among Women Who Report Taking Multivitamins”
“In general, getting sufficient, but not excessive, amounts of vitamins and minerals from your diet and supplements may reduce your risk of cancer, while inadequate or excessive intake may increase the risk.”
“Folic acid linked to breast cancer growth in animal study. A new study suggests that taking large amounts of folate – a B vitamin – and its synthetic form, folic acid, might actually increase the risk of developing breast cancer.”
“Folic Acid May Increase Breast Cancer Risk; High-Dose Supplements ‘Significantly Promote’ Cancerous Cell Growth”
“Some Antihypertensives Linked to Breast Cancer Risk”
“Blood pressure drugs linked to higher breast cancer risk”
“Lowering Of Blood Pressure Achieved Through Use Of Hashish-like Drug”
“First commercialized in the 1950s, parabens are a group of synthetic compounds commonly used as preservatives in a wide range of health, beauty and personal care products. If the product you are using contains methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben and isobutylparaben, it has parabens. These ingredients are added to deodorants, toothpastes, shampoos, conditioners, body lotions and makeups, among other products, to stop the growth of fungus, bacteria and other potentially damaging microbes. Researchers have also found that some 90 percent of typical grocery items contain measurable amounts of parabens, which is why even those who steer clear of potentially harmful personal care products also carry parabens around in their bloodstreams.”
“An earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis related to more frequent use of antiperspirants/deodorants and underarm shaving. Breast cancer incidence suggests a lifestyle cause. A lifestyle factor used near the breast is the application of antiperspirants/deodorants accompanied by axillary shaving. This is the first study to investigate the intensity of underarm exposure in a cohort of breast cancer survivors. In conclusion, underarm shaving with antiperspirant/deodorant use may play a role in breast cancer.”
“17 Everyday Chemicals Could Be Linked to Breast Cancer. These everyday chemicals include those found in vehicle exhaust, flame retardants (which are commonly used on furniture, rugs and mattresses), stain-resistant textiles (like the kind used to upholster furniture), paint removers and disinfection byproducts in drinking water. The study also identified chemicals formed by combustion (benzene and butadiene), which humans are exposed to from gasoline, lawn equipment, tobacco smoke, and charred or burned food.”
“Pre-childbirth solvent exposure raises breast cancer risk. The timing of exposure to organic solvents – such as those found in cleaning products and industrial chemicals – may affect breast cancer risks in women, according to a study from the US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.”
“Exposure to Chemicals in Cosmetics. While the chemicals in cosmetics make us look, feel, and smell better, research strongly suggests that at certain exposure levels, some of these chemicals may contribute to the development of cancer in people.”
“Breast cancer ‘linked’ to chemical jobs, Stirling study suggests. Women working in jobs where they are exposed to certain chemicals may have a greater risk of developing breast cancer, a study suggests.”
“Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with
exposure to carcinogens and endocrine
“Women Who Work in These Types of Jobs Have Scary-High Rates of Breast Cancer. Why? Researchers point to a biggie: the workers may be handling carcinogenic and endocrine-dirupting chemicals, like solvents, flame retardants, and BPA–the controversial chemical in some water bottles, plastic cups, and other consumer products. Women in other industries–agricultural, plastics, canning, and the casino, bar and racetrack sectors–also had elevated breast cancer levels,”

“Fracking Linked to Breast Cancer”                                                                               “Breast cancer from fracking: Are dangerous chemicals in our drinking water?”  “Fracking Chemicals Linked to Serious Reproductive, Developmental Health Risks”                                                    “Fracking produces air pollution that increases the risk of breathing problems and cancer, study claims”

“Air pollution linked to breast cancer, study suggests. The study links the risk of breast cancer — the second leading cause of death from cancer in women — to traffic-related air pollution.”
“Poor air quality is linked to breast cancer”
“Air pollution could cause breast cancer –Study”
“New Study Links Plastics Exposure to Breast Cancer”
“Chemical exposures of women workers in the plastics industry with particular reference to breast cancer and reproductive hazards.”
“Researchers raise concerns about BPA and breast cancer”
“Study: BPA Is in Wide Variety of Paper Products. Chemical Bisphenol A Is Found in Napkins, Toilet Paper, and Cash Register Receipts”
“BPA Can Rub Off From Receipts, Money, Study Finds”
“BPA found to promote breast cancer in new study”
“Studies: Chemicals May Harm Breast Development”
“Bisphenol-A causes normal breast cells to act like cancer. BPA may limit the effectiveness of commonly used anti-cancer drugs”
“Studies: Chemicals May Harm Breast Development”
“Study: BPA Common in Kids’ Canned Foods. Researchers Say Potentially Harmful Chemical Is Leaching Into Soup From Cans”
“Can of Soup a Day Linked to High BPA Levels in Urine”
“Eating Fresh Foods May Cut Exposure to BPA.”
“Study links pesticide DDT to higher breast cancer risk”
“Breast Cancer Linked To Pesticide DDT, Study Suggests”
“DDT Linked to Fourfold Increase in Breast Cancer Risk”
“Pesticide linked to breast cancer ”
 “Breast cancer misdiagnoses cost $4 billion: Study”
“Breast Cancer Overdiagnosis Costs $4 Billion, Says Study”
“Cannabis chemical ‘helps heart'”
“Radiation-induced breast cancer in women with Hodgkin’s disease”
“Radiation-Induced Reprogramming of Breast Cancer Cells”
“Chemotherapy Can Inadvertently Encourage Cancer Growth”
“Chemotherapy could cause cancer to SPREAD and grow back even more aggressive, new study claims”
“Shock study: Chemotherapy can backfire, make cancer worse by triggering tumor growth”
“When Chemotherapy Does More Harm than Good”
“Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Treatment May Increase Risk Of Breast Cancer Spreading In Some Patients”
“Neoadjuvant chemotherapy induces breast cancer metastasis through a TMEM-mediated mechanism”
“Prophylactic Mastectomy Offers Minimal Gain in Breast Cancer”
“Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy may not significantly increase life expectancy”
“Double mastectomy may not boost life expectancy”
“Life Expectancy Might Not Increase Upon Undergoing Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy”
“Study: Many breast cancer patients opt for unnecessary preventative mastectomies”
“New study finds cancer survivors should keep healthy breasts”
“Breast Cancer Risk Linked to Virus Found in Cattle”
“Dairy Virus Linked to Breast Cancer”
“BLV Virus in Cattle can Cause Breast Cancer in Humans: Study”
“We found that women who ate the most red meat in adolescence or early adulthood had an increased risk of developing breast cancer later in life.”
“Herbs and Spices Make Grilling Healthier. Food safety research finds that certain spices can protect you against carcinogenic compounds that are created in meat while it cooks”
“High cholesterol fuels the growth and spread of breast cancer”
“Cholesterol and fat in American diet fuels breast cancer”
“These results strongly support a role for cigarette smoking
in breast cancer etiology and emphasize the importance of timing of this exposure.”
“Overall, the results of these studies suggest that smoking probably does not decrease the risk and indeed suggest that there may be an increased breast cancer risk with smoking of long duration, smoking before a first full-term pregnancy, and passive smoking.”
“Nicotine Can Fuel Breast Cancer, Study Suggests; Taiwanese researchers show a molecular connection. Nicotine may directly promote the development of breast cancer by binding to a certain cell receptor,”
“Coffee Protects Against Type of Breast Cancer”
“Healthy caffeine: Study proves coffee can ward off breast cancer”
“Coffee ‘could halve breast cancer recurrence’ in tamoxifen-treated patients”
“Two cups of coffee a day can HALVE the risk of breast cancer returning – and boosts drugs which stop tumours growing”
“Coffee protects against breast cancer recurrence, detailed findings confirm”
“Links Between Alcohol Consumption and Breast Cancer. Alcohol consumption by adult women is consistently associated with risk of breast cancer.”
 “Alcohol Linked with Lobular Breast Cancer”
 “Breast Cancer Link To Alcohol Before Pregnancy”
 “Heavy Drinking Raises Risk of Breast Cancer”
 “A drink a day tied to higher breast cancer risk, report says”
 “Study confirms breast cancer link to low alcohol use”
 “Moderate Drinking Increases Breast Cancer Risk”
 “Study: Moderate drinking ups risk of breast cancer return”
 “Warning: Even Moderate Drinking Can Increase Your Cancer Risk”
 “Based on extensive reviews of research studies, there is a strong scientific consensus of an association between alcohol drinking and several types of cancer. In its Report on Carcinogens, the National Toxicology Program of the US Department of Health and Human Services lists consumption of alcoholic beverages as a known human carcinogen. More than 100 epidemiologic studies have looked at the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer in women. These studies have consistently found an increased risk of breast cancer associated with increasing alcohol intake.”
 “Natural cures for breast cancer treatment. For centuries, herbs and plants have been used for medicinal purposes and as food as well. This review concerns about different types of plants that retain the immune stimulating and anti-tumor properties. Large variety of active phytochemicals such as carotenoids, flavonoids, ligands, polyphenolics, terpenoids, sulfides, lignans and plant sterols has been identified in different types of herbs. “Herb” is a botanical term means plants producing fruits, seeds, with nonwoody stems. These plants and herbs have played very important role in maintaining the human health. Today public has more interest in herbal remedies than synthetic medicines because herbals contains natural active compound that can support the human health”
“Drug made from herbs may fight breast cancer. Luteolin, a natural compound found in herbs such as thyme and parsley and in vegetables such as celery and broccoli, may reduce the cancer risk for women who have taken hormone replacement therapy.”

“Scientists from the University of Missouri in Columbia claim that luteolin, which occurs naturally in herbs and vegetables, can slow the development of breast cancer.”                            “The flavone luteolin, a constituent of C. sativa, is also found in spices and in vegetables such as celery and green pepper.”

 “Marijuana has been used in herbal remedies for centuries. More recently, scientists reported that THC and other cannabinoids such as CBD slow growth and/or cause death in certain types of cancer cells.”
“The use of Cannabis for medicinal purposes dates back to ancient times. Cannabis has been shown to kill cancer cells in the laboratory. Studies in mouse models of metastatic breast cancer showed that cannabinoids may lessen the growth, number, and spread of tumors.”
“Cannabinoids appear to kill tumor cells but do not affect their nontransformed counterparts and may even protect them from cell death. An in vitro study of the effect of CBD on programmed cell death in breast cancer cell lines found that CBD induced programmed cell death. Other studies have also shown the antitumor effect of cannabinoids (i.e., CBD and THC) in preclinical models of breast cancer.”
“Cannabinoids and their derivatives have been utilized for their medicinal and therapeutic properties throughout history. More recently, cannabinoids have gained special attention for their role in cancer cell proliferation and death. The majority of in vivo animal studies discussed here indicate that cannabinoids from plant, synthetic and endogenous origin are capable of effectively decreasing tumor growth and invasion. Furthermore, clinical studies evaluating cannabinoid efficacy in human subjects are limited, yet these studies showed that cannabinoids may be safe and effective anti-neoplastics. Anti-cancer effects of cannabinoids in humans.”
Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Inhibits Cell Cycle Progression in Human Breast Cancer Cells through Cdc2 Regulation. Cannabinoid receptors are expressed in human breast tumors. THC inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Here, we show that Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), through activation of CB2 cannabinoid receptors, reduces human breast cancer cell proliferation by blocking the progression of the cell cycle and by inducing apoptosis”
“Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis)”
“JunD is involved in the antiproliferative effect of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on human breast cancer cells. It has been shown that cannabinoids, the active components of marijuana and their derivatives, inhibit cell cycle progression of human breast cancer cells. Here we studied the mechanism of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) antiproliferative action in these cells, and show that it involves the modulation of JunD, a member of the AP-1 transcription factor family. THC activates JunD. This is the first report showing not only that cannabinoids regulate JunD but, more generally, that JunD activation reduces the proliferation of cancer cells, which points to a new target to inhibit breast cancer progression.”
“Cannabinoids reduce ErbB2-driven breast cancer progression through Akt inhibition. The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids, the active compounds of marijuana and their derivatives, has been known for centuries. During the last decade, evidence has accumulated suggesting that cannabinoids might be useful for the treatment of cancer. These compounds exert anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-angiogenic, and anti-invasive effects in different cell-culture and animal models of cancer. Here, we used a genetically engineered animal model of ErbB2-driven metastatic breast cancer (the MMTV-neu mouse) to analyze the antitumoral potential of cannabinoids in this particularly aggressive pathology. Results presented herein (i) show that ErbB2-positive invasive human breast tumors express CB2 receptors, (ii) demonstrate that Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychotropic CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist JWH-133 significantly reduce tumor progression in a clinically relevant model of ErbB2-positive metastatic breast cancer, and (iii) shed light on the mechanism of cannabinoid antitumoral action in vivo. Taken together, these results provide a strong preclinical evidence for the use of cannabinoid-based therapies for the management of ErbB2-positive breast cancer.”
Cannabis sativa Extract Reduces Cytoskeletal Associated Proteins in Breast Cancer Cell Line. Previous studies suggested that Cannabis sativa has anti-cancer properties influencing tumor size and metastasis properties. According to evidence, THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol), a natural component from C. Sativa, had antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects. The aim of this study is to explore the action of C. sativa on tau and stathmin gene existing in breast cancer cell. Conclusions: C. sativa extract dose-dependently influences tau and stathmin relative gene expressions, which may reduce cancer metastasis.”
Antitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma. The therapeutic properties of the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, have been known since antiquity. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exhibits antitumor effects on various cancer cell types. The aim of this study was to identify natural cannabinoids with antitumor activities at least similar to those of THC and devoid of the potential central effects of this compound. We found that, surprisingly, cannabidiol acted as a more potent inhibitor of cancer cell growth than THC and that cannabigerol and cannabichromene usually followed cannabidiol in the rank of potency. In conclusion, our data indicate that cannabidiol, and possibly Cannabis extracts enriched in this natural cannabinoid, represent a promising nonpsychoactive antineoplastic strategy. In particular, for a highly malignant human breast carcinoma cell line, we have shown here that cannabidiol and a cannabidiol-rich extract counteract cell growth both in vivo and in vitro as well as tumor metastasis in vivo.”
“Marijuana Compound May Stop Breast Cancer From Spreading, Study Says. A compound found in cannabis may stop breast cancer from spreading throughout the body, according to a study by scientists at California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute. The researchers are hopeful that the compound called CBD, which is found in cannabis sativa, could be a non-toxic alternative to chemotherapy.”
“Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells. The helix-loop-helix protein Id-1, plays a crucial role during breast cancer progression. Reducing Id-1 expression could provide a rational therapeutic strategy for the treatment of aggressive human breast cancers. Cannabinoid agonists working through CB1 and CB2 receptors have been shown to act as tumor inhibitors in a variety of cancer models. In addition to Δ9-THC, CBD is also present in significant quantities in Cannabis sativa. Plant cannabinoids are stable compounds with low-toxicity profiles that are well tolerated by animals and humans during chronic administration. Our data presented here show that CBD represents the first exogenous agent that can down-regulate Id-1 expression in aggressive hormone-independent breast cancer cells. CBD represents the first nontoxic exogenous agent that can significantly decrease Id-1 expression in metastatic breast cancer cells leading to the down-regulation of tumor aggressiveness. Cannabinoids Reduce the Growth of Aggressive Human Breast Cancer Cells.”
“Pathways mediating the effects of cannabidiol on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. We discovered that CBD was the first non-toxic plant-based agent that could down-regulate Id-1 expression in aggressive hormone-independent breast cancer cells. CBD has also been shown to inhibit breast cancer metastasis. Our data demonstrate the efficacy of CBD in pre-clinical models of breast cancer. The results have the potential to lead to the development of novel non-toxic compounds for the treatment of breast cancer metastasis. Treatment with CBD leads to the inhibition of Id-1 gene expression, proliferation, and invasion in mouse mammary cancer cells, and a reduction of primary tumor volume and number of metastatic foci in vivo. CBD, therefore, represents a potential non-toxic exogenous agent for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer.”
“Cannabis compound ‘halts cancer’. A compound found in cannabis may stop breast cancer spreading throughout the body, US scientists believe.”
“Cannabidiol Induces Programmed Cell Death in Breast Cancer Cells by Coordinating the Cross-talk between Apoptosis and Autophagy. Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychoactive constituent of cannabis, is considered an antineoplastic agent on the basis of its in vitro and in vivo activity against tumor cells. We found that CBD induced both apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer cells. Characterizing more precisely the manner by which CBD kills breast cancer cells will help define the optimal applications of CBD as a cancer therapeutic. In summary, we showed that CBD, a plant-derived cannabinoid, preferentially kills breast cancer cells by inducing ER stress, inhibiting mTOR signaling, enhancing ROS generation, and mediating a complex balance between autophagy and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. These findings support the continued exploration of CBD as an alternative agent for breast cancer treatment.”
“Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa”
“Modulation of the tumor microenvironment and inhibition of EGF/EGFR pathway: Novel anti‐tumor mechanisms of Cannabidiol in breast cancer. Novel anti-tumor mechanisms of Cannabidiol in breast cancer. In the present study, we analyzed CBD’s anti-tumorigenic activity against highly aggressive breast cancer cell lines. In summary, our study shows -for the first time- that CBD inhibits breast cancer growth and metastasis. These results indicate that CBD can be used as a novel therapeutic option to inhibit growth and metastasis of highly aggressive breast cancer”
“Cannabidiolic acid, a major cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration. Cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of fiber-type cannabis plant, has been reported to possess anti-proliferative effect on cancer cells. CBD is obtained from non-enzymatic decarboxylation of its parent molecule, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). The data presented in this report suggest for the first time that as an active component in the cannabis plant, CBDA offers potential therapeutic modality in the abrogation of cancer cell migration, including aggressive breast cancers. CBDA is an inhibitor of highly aggressive human breast cancer cell migration. CBDA is a biologically active component of the fiber-type cannabis plant with potential utility as an effective anti-migration agent.”
“Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of breast cancer. Cannabinoids have been reported to possess antitumorogenic activity. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of synthetic nonpyschoactive cannabinoids on breast cancer growth and metastasis, and show that cannabinoid receptor agonists inhibit breast cancer cell growth and metastasis in vivo. We have shown that the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 are overexpressed in primary human breast tumors compared with normal breast tissue. Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of breast cancer. These results indicate that CB1 and CB2 receptors could be used to develop novel therapeutic strategies against breast cancer growth and metastasis.”
“Phyto-, endo- and synthetic cannabinoids: promising chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of breast and prostate carcinomas. Cannabinoids are classified in three groups: phytocannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and the synthetic analogues of both groups. They have become a promising tool in the treatment of cancer disease, not only as palliative agents, but also as antitumor drugs, due to their ability to inhibit the proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of tumour cells. Two of the cancers where they have shown high anticancer activity are breast and prostate tumours. The aim of this review is to evaluate the promising chemotherapeutic utility of phytocannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids in breast and prostate cancer. Cannabinoids may be promising tools in combination therapy for breast and prostate cancer, due to their direct antitumor effects, their ability to improve the efficacy of conventional antitumor drugs and their usefulness as palliative treatment.”
“Cannabinoids: a new hope for breast cancer therapy? Experimental evidence accumulated during the last decade supports that cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa and their derivatives, possess anticancer activity. Thus, these compounds exert anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-migratory and anti-invasive actions in a wide spectrum of cancer cells in culture. Moreover, tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis are hampered by cannabinoids in xenograft-based and genetically-engineered mouse models of cancer. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the anti-tumor potential of cannabinoids in breast cancer, which suggests that cannabinoid-based medicines may be useful for the treatment of most breast tumor subtypes.” 
“Zelda Therapeutics reports positive results in breast cancer study using cannabinoids.”
“Zelda shows cannabinoid anti-cancer effect. Zelda Therapeutics has demonstrated positive effects of cannabinoids against various types of human breast cancers, expanding on proof of concept results announced in November 2016.”
 “Study: Marijuana Slows Down The Growth Of Breast Cancer Tumors”
“Research finds link between chronic inflammation, tumor development in breast cancer”
“Cannabis-Derived Substances in Cancer Therapy – An Emerging Anti-Inflammatory Role for the Cannabinoids”
 “Control of Breast Cancer by the Endocannabinoid System.”
“Cannabinoid-based medicines may be useful for the treatment of most breast tumor subtypes.”
“Medical Cannabis Stops Spread of Breast Cancer”

“Cannabinoids as Anticancer Drugs.”

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Cannabis sativa Extract Reduces Cytoskeletal Associated Proteins in Breast Cancer Cell Line

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Olivia Newton-John champions the use of ‘magical, miracle’ medicinal cannabis

Cannabis is a "magical miracle plant" says singer Olivia Newton-John.

“Let’s get medicinal, says Olivia Newton-John, who has spoken out about the use of medicinal cannabis on a recent visit to Australia. “I will do what I can to encourage it. It’s an important part of treatment and it should be available,” the singer, who announced a second battle with breast cancer in May, told News Corp Australia. The Australian entertainer said the drug – which is legal in her home state of California – had helped her during her second fight against cancer.”

“OLIVIA NEWTON-JOHN TELLS HOW MARIJUANA IS HELPING HER BEAT CANCER”.“I use medicinal cannabis, which is really important for pain and healing,” “It’s a plant that has been maligned for so long, and has so many abilities to heal.”“I will do what I can to encourage it,” “It’s an important part of treatment, and it should be available. I use it for the pain and it’s also a medicinal thing to do — the research shows it’s really helpful.””

 “It’s a magical miracle plant:’ Olivia Newton-John reveals husband John Easterling grows marijuana to aid her breast cancer battle… as star recalls her struggle to tell daughter Chloe about heartbreaking diagnosis. In an emotional interview with Karl Stefanovic on 60 Minutes, Olivia revealed that the controversial plant has helped her immeasurably in her cancer battle. ”It’s been a maligned plant all these years and it really is a magical miracle plant.””


“Olivia Newton-John on Being a Cancer ‘Thriver’ and Using Weed to Cope with Her Relapse: It’s a ‘Healing Plant’”

Olivia Newton-John credits weed for helping cancer battle

“Olivia Newton-John’s cancer battle is going well… Thanks to cannabis oil!”

“Olivia Newton-John is Using Cannabis Oil for her Breast Cancer—Here’s How It Could Help”

“Cannabis Oil Will Help Olivia Newton-John Battle Breast Cancer”

“Olivia Newton-John Is Using Cannabis Oil To Treat Her Cancer”


Olivia Newton-John is using medical marijuana during her battle with breast cancer”
“Olivia Newton-John reveals marijuana helping her beat cancer”

“‘I use cannabis’: Olivia Newton-John talks cancer treatment”

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 “”I use medicinal cannabis, which is really important for pain and healing. It’s a plant that has been maligned for so long and has so many abilities to heal,” Newton-John told the Daily Telegraph in a recent interview. Newton-John does not have a problem with her supplies of cannabis oil as her daughter, Chloe Lattanzi, owns a cannabis farm in Oregon, and can be easily obtained in her home state of California, where the use of medical marijuana is legal. However, as many parts of the world are still pessimistic about the medical use of marijuana, Newton-John has declared that she will advocate for its use, including in her home country Australia, where obtaining permits to use it still requires a long process even after it was legalized earlier this year. “I will do what I can to encourage it. It’s an important part of treatment, and it should be available. I use it for the pain and it’s also a medicinal thing to do — the research shows it’s really helpful,” Newton John said.”
 “Olivia Newton-John champions use of medicinal cannabis in breast cancer battle”
“Newton-John champions medicinal cannabis use after it helped her cancer battle”
‘It’s really important and should be available’: Olivia Newton-John speaks for the first time about how ‘medical cannabis’ is helping her beat breast cancer”
“Grammy-winning singer/songwriter and actor Olivia Newton-John has opened up about her use of marijuana. “I use medicinal cannabis, which is really important for pain and healing,”“I will do what I can to encourage it. It’s an important part of treatment, and it should be available.””
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“Olivia Newton-John Admits to Using Home-Grown Medical Marijuana to Battle Cancer”

 “Grassed Lightning: Olivia Newton-John is using cannabis instead of popping pills for breast cancer pain relief”

“WEED ALL ABOUT IT.  Olivia Newton-John reveals she is drinking cannabis extract to ease her back pain as she battles cancer”

“Olivia Newton-John Reveals She Was Unable to Walk After Cancer Relapse – and She’s Using Marijuana to Ease Pain”

“Olivia Newton-John uses medical marijuana to treat cancer”

“Olivia Newton-John Talks Using Medical Marijuana In Cancer Treatment. “I use medical cannabis, which is really important to pain and healing. It’s an important part of treatment, and it should be available.””

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“I’m really hoping that you will have it accessible to people. Particularly for people who are in pain. It’s not just cancer, it’s many, many illnesses. In children with epilepsy, parents are going to jail for trying to help their children, by giving them medicinal cannabis. That has to change, and I think it will. I think people are realizing this has been a maligned plant but it’s a healing plant with lots of wonderful properties. It can help alot of people. And they’re doing alot of research into the healing properties of cannabis, it’s not just for pain but to cure things. So it’s a very exciting time in the research as well.” –Olivia Newton-John

 “A picture of health! Olivia Newton-John beams at the ONJ Wellness Walk and Research Run in Melbourne as she battles cancer for the second time”

 “‘It’s a magical miracle plant:’ Olivia Newton-John reveals husband John Easterling grows marijuana to aid her breast cancer battle”
 “Actress and singer Olivia Newton-John believes in the ‘healing properties’ of medical cannabis and hopes it will become legal, including for children.”
Bright: Dressed in a lime-coloured ONJ Cancer wellness and Research Centre track suit top over a matching T-shirt in a lighter shade of green, she seemed fit and happy
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