Cannabidiol-induced panicolytic-like effects and fear-induced antinociception impairment: the role of the CB1 receptor in the ventromedial hypothalamus.

Image result for Springer Link“The behavioural effects elicited by chemical constituents of Cannabis sativa, such as cannabidiol (CBD), on the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) are not well understood. There is evidence that VMH neurons play a relevant role in the modulation of unconditioned fear-related defensive behavioural reactions displayed by laboratory animals.

OBJECTIVES:

This study was designed to explore the specific pattern of distribution of the CB1 receptors in the VMH and to investigate the role played by this cannabinoid receptor in the effect of CBD on the control of defensive behaviours and unconditioned fear-induced antinociception.

METHODS:

A panic attack-like state was triggered in Wistar rats by intra-VMH microinjections of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). One of three different doses of CBD was microinjected into the VMH prior to local administration of NMDA. In addition, the most effective dose of CBD was used after pre-treatment with the CB1 receptor selective antagonist AM251, followed by NMDA microinjections in the VMH.

RESULTS:

The morphological procedures demonstrated distribution of labelled CB1 receptors on neuronal perikarya situated in dorsomedial, central and ventrolateral divisions of the VMH. The neuropharmacological approaches showed that both panic attack-like behaviours and unconditioned fear-induced antinociception decreased after intra-hypothalamic microinjections of CBD at the highest dose (100 nmol). These effects, however, were blocked by the administration of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (100 pmol) in the VMH.

CONCLUSION:

These findings suggest that CBD causes panicolytic-like effects and reduces unconditioned fear-induced antinociception when administered in the VMH, and these effects are mediated by the CB1 receptor-endocannabinoid signalling mechanism in VMH.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31919563

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00213-019-05435-5

“panicolytic: That reduces the flight reflex in animals when faced with danger. Any drug that has this effect.” https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/panicolytic

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Effects of short-term cannabidiol treatment on response to social stress in subjects at clinical high risk of developing psychosis.

 “Stress is a risk factor for psychosis and treatments which mitigate its harmful effects are needed.

Cannabidiol (CBD) has antipsychotic and anxiolytic effects.

OBJECTIVES:

We investigated whether CBD would normalise the neuroendocrine and anxiety responses to stress in clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) patients.

RESULTS:

One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant effect of group (HC, CHR-P, CHR-CBD (p = .005) on cortisol reactivity as well as a significant (p = .003) linear decrease. The change in cortisol associated with experimental stress exposure was greatest in HC controls and least in CHR-P patients, with CHR-CBD patients exhibiting an intermediate response. Planned contrasts revealed that the cortisol reactivity was significantly different in HC compared with CHR-P (p = .003), and in HC compared with CHR-CBD (p = .014), but was not different between CHR-P and CHR-CBD (p = .70). Across the participant groups (CHR-P, CHR-CBD and HC), changes in anxiety and experience of public speaking stress (all p’s < .02) were greatest in the CHR-P and least in the HC, with CHR-CBD participants demonstrating an intermediate level of change.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings show that it is worthwhile to design further well powered studies which investigate whether CBD may be used to affect cortisol response in clinical high risk for psychosis patients and any effect this may have on symptoms.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31915861

“Antipsychotic effects of CBD have been linked to its effects on levels of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (AEA) potentially by inhibiting its catalytic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Recent preclinical work has also suggested that CBD may block the anxiogenic effects of chronic stress that was associated with a concomitant decrease in the expression of FAAH following CBD treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to have investigated the effects of short-term treatment with CBD on experimentally induced stress in the context of psychosis risk. Notwithstanding its limitations, the present study provides a strong rationale for future studies to investigate whether CBD may have potential to mitigate the harmful effects of stress in the course of daily life by attenuating the altered neuroendocrine and psychological responses to acute stress in CHR participants.”

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00213-019-05442-6

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Effects of acute cannabidiol administration on anxiety and tremors induced by a Simulated Public Speaking Test in patients with Parkinson’s disease.

Image result for journal of psychopharmacology“Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the main components of Cannabis sativa and has anxiolytic properties, but no study has been conducted to evaluate the effects of CBD on anxiety signs and symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD).

This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of acute CBD administration at a dose of 300 mg on anxiety measures and tremors induced by a Simulated Public Speaking Test (SPST) in individuals with PD.

METHODS:

A randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial was conducted. A total of 24 individuals with PD were included and underwent two experimental sessions within a 15-day interval. After taking CBD or a placebo, participants underwent the SPST. During the test, the following data were collected: heart rate, systemic blood pressure and tremor frequency and amplitude. In addition, the Visual Analog Mood Scales (VAMS) and Self-Statements during Public Speaking Scale were applied. Statistical analysis was performed by repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) while considering the drug, SPST phase and interactions between these variables.

RESULTS:

There were statistically significant differences in the VAMS anxiety factor for the drug; CBD attenuated the anxiety experimentally induced by the SPST. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed significant differences in the drug for the variable related to tremor amplitude as recorded by the accelerometer.

CONCLUSION:

Acute CBD administration at a dose of 300 mg decreased anxiety in patients with PD, and there was also decreased tremor amplitude in an anxiogenic situation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31909680

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881119895536?journalCode=jopa

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Use of cannabidiol in anxiety and anxiety-related disorders.

“Cannabidiol (CBD) has a proposed novel role in the management of anxiety owing to its actions on the endocannabinoid system.

The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the current evidence on the safety and efficacy of CBD in anxiety and anxiety-related disorders.

RESULTS:

Eight articles were included in the review: 6 small, randomized controlled trials; 1 case series; and 1 case report. These studies examined the role of CBD in the anxiety response of healthy volunteers; in generalized anxiety disorder; in social anxiety disorder; and in the anxiety component of posttraumatic stress syndrome. No articles that evaluated CBD in panic disorder, specific phobia, separation anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder were identified. In the studies, CBD was administered orally as a capsule or as a sublingual spray and as either monotherapy or adjunctive therapy. Doses varied widely, with studies employing fixed CBD doses ranging from 6 mg to 400 mg per dose. Various anxiety assessment scales were used in the studies to assess efficacy, with CBD demonstrating improved clinical outcomes among the instruments. In general, CBD was well-tolerated and associated with minimal adverse effects, with the most commonly noted adverse effects being fatigue and sedation.

CONCLUSION:

CBD has a promising role as alternative therapy in the management of anxiety disorders. However, more studies with standardized approaches to dosing and clinical outcome measurements are needed to determine the appropriate dosing strategy for CBD and its place in therapy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31866386

https://www.japha.org/article/S1544-3191(19)30514-X/fulltext

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Anxiolytic Effects of Repeated Cannabidiol Treatment in Teenagers With Social Anxiety Disorders.

Image result for frontiers in psychology“Accumulated evidence indicates that cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychotomimetic and nonaddictive main component of the Cannabis sativa plant, reverses anxiety-like behavior. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of CBD treatment for Japanese late teenagers with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Thirty-seven 18-19-year-old Japanese teenagers with SAD and avoidant personality disorder received, in a double-blind study, cannabis oil (n = 17) containing 300 mg CBD or placebo (n = 20) daily for 4 weeks. SAD symptoms were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period using the Fear of Negative Evaluation Questionnaire and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. CBD significantly decreased anxiety measured by both scales. The results indicate that CBD could be a useful option to treat social anxiety.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31787910

“In all, the results of the current study provide evidence for anxiolytic effects of repeated CBD administration in teenagers with SAD.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02466/full

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Cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system in anxiety, depression, and dysregulation of emotion in humans.

Image result for ovid journal“This review is to summarize most recent evidence published in the last 18 months on medical and recreational use of cannabis and cannabinoids in relation to anxiety, depression (unipolar and bipolar), and dysregulation of emotions as part of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and emotionally instable personality disorders.

It also covers the investigation of endocannabinoids as potential biomarkers in these conditions. This is important with increasing medicinal use of cannabinoids and growing social tolerance towards recreational cannabis use.

RECENT FINDINGS:

There is some recent evidence suggesting cannabinoids, cannabidiol or cannabidiol-enriched cannabis preparations have anxiolytic properties. In addition, depression may be worsened by cannabis use, however, randomized controlled trials (RCT) are lacking.

New evidence also suggests that cannabidiol or cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use for PTSD and emotion regulation can induce hyporesponse to fear and stress. Further, several lines of evidence point to the endocannabinoid system as a key player in some of the reviewed disorders, in particular anxiety and PTSD.

SUMMARY:

The most recent evidence for a therapeutic use of cannabinoids in the reviewed conditions is weak and lacking well designed RCTs. However, there is some indication of the role of the endocannabinoid system in these conditions that warrant further studies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31714262

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001504-900000000-99165

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Perceived Efficacy of Medical Cannabis in the Treatment of Co-Occurring Health-Related Quality of Life Symptoms.

 Publication Cover“For persons living with chronic conditions, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) symptoms, such as pain, anxiety, depression, and insomnia, often interact and mutually reinforce one another.

There is evidence that medical cannabis (MC) may be efficacious in ameliorating such symptoms and improving HRQoL.

As many of these HRQoL symptoms may mutually reinforce one another, we conducted an exploratory study to investigate how MC users perceive the efficacy of MC in addressing co-occurring HRQoL symptoms. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of persons with a state medical marijuana card in Illinois (N = 367) recruited from licensed MC dispensaries across the state. We conducted tests of ANOVA to measure how perceived MC efficacy for each HRQoL symptom varied by total number of treated symptoms reported by participants.

Pain was the most frequently reported HRQoL treated by MC, followed by anxiety, insomnia, and depression. A large majority of our sample (75%) reported treating two or more HRQoL symptoms. In general, perceived efficacy of MC in relieving each HRQoL symptom category increased with the number of co-occurring symptoms also treated with MC. Perceived efficacy of MC in relieving pain, anxiety, and depression varied significantly by number of total symptoms experienced.

This exploratory study contributes to our understanding of how persons living with chronic conditions perceive the efficacy of MC in treating co-occurring HRQoL symptoms. Our results suggest that co-occurring pain, anxiety, and depression may be particularly amenable to treatment with MC.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31693457

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08964289.2019.1683712?journalCode=vbmd20

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The role of cannabis in treating anxiety: an update.

Image result for ovid journals “Cannabis use for medical purposes has become increasingly common, including as treatment for mental health disorders such as anxiety. Unfortunately, the evidence examining its use in mental health has been slow to evolve, but is emerging. Given the widespread use of cannabis, it is important for both clinicians and those who suffer with anxiety to understand the effects of cannabis on symptoms of anxiety. In this review, we present recent, available evidence from animal models, clinical trials, and survey studies and evaluate the contribution of these studies to the current understanding of the role of cannabis in treating anxiety.

RECENT FINDINGS:

In reviewing recent evidence, we observed significant inconsistencies across findings from preclinical studies. Large-scale surveys suggest that cannabis may be effective in reducing anxiety, however, these results stand in contrast to equivocal findings from clinical trials.

SUMMARY:

The literature evaluating the efficacy of cannabis in anxiety disorders is in its infancy. The survey data is generally positive. Although, while some animal studies posit cannabis constituents to have anxiolytic effects, others suggest the opposite or null results. Few new clinical trials have been conducted recently, and the extant trials have significant flaws in methodology. Although anecdotal evidence from survey studies, and a small signal found in animal studies and single-dose clinical trials provide early support that cannabis may be effective for alleviating anxiety, ultimately, the current evidence is equivocal. More high-quality clinical trials must be published before sound conclusions regarding the efficacy of cannabis for treating anxiety can be drawn.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31688192

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001504-900000000-99166

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Structure of an allosteric modulator bound to the CB1 cannabinoid receptor.

Image result for nature chemical biology“The CB1 receptor mediates the central nervous system response to cannabinoids, and is a drug target for pain, anxiety and seizures.

CB1 also responds to allosteric modulators, which influence cannabinoid binding and efficacy.

To understand the mechanism of these compounds, we solved the crystal structure of CB1 with the negative allosteric modulator (NAM) ORG27569 and the agonist CP55940.

The structure reveals that the NAM binds to an extrahelical site within the inner leaflet of the membrane, which overlaps with a conserved site of cholesterol interaction in many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).

The ternary structure with ORG27569 and CP55940 captures an intermediate state of the receptor, in which aromatic residues at the base of the agonist-binding pocket adopt an inactive conformation despite the large contraction of the orthosteric pocket.

The structure illustrates a potential strategy for drug modulation of CB1 and other class A GPCRs.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31659318

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41589-019-0387-2

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Cannabinoid receptor type 1 modulates the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on memory of stressed rats.

 Publication Cover“Memory and GABAergic activity in the hippocampus of stressed rats improve after n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation.

On the other hand, cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) strongly regulates inhibitory neurotransmission in the hippocampus. Speculation about a possible relation between stress, endocannabinoids, and PUFAs.

Here, we examined whether the effects of PUFAs on memory of chronically stressed rats depends on pharmacological manipulation of CB1 receptors.

Memory improved in the stressed rats that were treated with AM251 and/or n-3 PUFAs. Supplementation with n-6 PUFAs did not affect memory of stressed rats, but co-treatment with AM251 improved it, while co-treatment with WIN55,212-2 did not affect memory.

Our results demonstrate that activity of the CB1 receptors may modulate the effects of PUFAs on memory of stressed rats. This study suggests that endocannabinoids and PUFAs can both become a singular system by being self-regulated in limbic areas, so they control the effects of stress on the brain.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31637966

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1028415X.2019.1659561?journalCode=ynns20

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