Induced Fit Docking and Automated QSAR Studies Reveal the ER-α Inhibitory Activity of Cannabis sativa in Breast Cancer

Background: Breast Cancer (BC), a common death-causing disease and the deadliest cancer next to lung cancer, is characterized by an abnormal growth of cells in the tissues of the breast. BC chemotherapy is marked by targeting the activities of some receptors such as Estrogen Receptor alpha (ER-α). At present, one of the most commonly used and approved marketed therapeutic drug for BC is tamoxifen. Despite the short term success of tamoxifen usage, its long time treatment has been associated with significant side effects. Therefore, there is a pressing need for the development of novel anti-estrogens for the prevention and treatment of BC.

Objective: In this study, we evaluate the inhibitory effect of Cannabis Sativa phyto-constituents on ER-α.

Method: Glide and Induced Fit Docking followed by ADME, Automated QSAR and Binding free energy (ΔGbind) studies were used to evaluate the anti-breast cancer and ER-α inhibitory activity of Cannabis sativa, which has been reported to be effective in inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation.

Results: Phyto-constituents of Cannabis sativa possess lower docking scores and good ΔGbind when compared to that of tamoxifen. ADME and AutoQSAR studies revealed that our lead compounds demonstrated the properties required to make them promising therapeutic agents.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Naringenin, Dihydroresveratrol, Baicalein, Apigenin and Cannabitriol could have relatively better inhibitory activity than tamoxifen and could be a better and patent therapeutic candidate in the treatment of BC. Further research such as in vivo and/or in vitro assays could be conducted to attest the ability of these compounds.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33563181/

https://www.eurekaselect.com/190950/article

 

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The pro-apoptosis effects of Echinacea purpurea and Cannabis sativa extracts in human lung cancer cells through caspase-dependent pathway

 Logo of bmccmt“Considering the advantages of using medicinal herbs as supplementary treatments to sensitize conventional anti-cancer drugs, studying functional mechanisms and regulatory effects of Echinacea purpurea (as a non-cannabinoid plant) Image result for echinacea purpurea

and Cannabis sativa (as a cannabinoid plant) are timely and required.Image result for cannabis sativa

The potential effects of such herbs on lung cancer cell growth, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, caspase activity and their cannabinomimetic properties on the CB2 receptor are addressed in the current study.

Results: Echinacea purpurea (EP) root extract induced a considerable decrease in A549 viable cells, showing a time and dose-dependent response. The cell toxicity of EP was accompanied by induction of early apoptosis and cell accumulation at the sub G1 phase of the cell cycle. The elevation of cellular ROS level and caspase 3 activity indicate ROS-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis following the treatment of A549 cells by EP extract. The observed effects of EP extract on A549 growth and death were abrogated following blockage of CB2 using AM630, a specific antagonist of the CB2 receptor. Increasing concentrations of Cannabis sativa (CS) induced A549 cell death in a time-dependent manner, followed by induction of early apoptosis, cell cycle arrest at sub G1 phase, elevation of ROS level, and activation of caspase 3. The CB2 blockage caused attenuation of CS effects on A549 cell death which revealed consistency with the effects of EP extract on A549 cells.

Conclusions: The pro-apoptotic effects of EP and CS extracts on A549 cells and their possible regulatory role of CB2 activity might be attributed to metabolites of both herbs. These effects deserve receiving more attention as alternative anti-cancer agents.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33446187/

“Both cannabinoid receptors and naturally occurring cannabinoids, known as phytocannabinoids, have potential therapeutic applications based on their pivotal roles in regulating immunologic responses, alleviating inflammation, tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and migration. Based on the findings, it can be postulated that EP and CS extracts can inhibit lung cancer cell growth and induce apoptosis and should be considered as an alternative anti-cancer agent in lung cancer.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809807/

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The Role of Cannabinoids as Anticancer Agents in Pediatric Oncology

cancers-logo“Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals that bind to receptors in the human body and, in turn, modulate the endocannabinoid system (ECS). They can be endogenously produced, synthetic, or derived from the plant Cannabis sativa L.

Research over the past several decades has shown that the ECS is a cellular communication network essential to maintain multiple biological functions and the homeostasis of the body. Indeed, cannabinoids have been shown to influence a wide variety of biological effects, including memory, pain, reproduction, bone remodeling or immunity, to name a few.

Unsurprisingly, given these broad physiological effects, alterations of the ECS have been found in different diseases, including cancer. In recent years, the medical use of cannabis has been approved in different countries for a variety of human conditions. However, the use of these compounds, specifically as anticancer agents, remains controversial.

Studies have shown that cannabinoids do have anticancer activity in different tumor types such as breast cancer, melanoma, lymphoma and adult brain cancer. Specifically, phytocannabinoids Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of adult cancer cells, as well as modulate angiogenesis and metastasis.

Despite increasing evidence that cannabinoids elicit antitumor effects in adult cancers, there is minimal data available on their effects in children or in pediatric cancers despite public and clinical demand for information. Here we describe a comprehensive and critical review of what is known about the effects of cannabinoids on pediatric cancers, highlight current gaps in knowledge and identify the critical issues that need addressing before considering these promising but controversial drugs for use in pediatric oncology.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33466435/

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/13/1/157

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Cannabis-Derived Compounds Cannabichromene and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Interact and Exhibit Cytotoxic Activity against Urothelial Cell Carcinoma Correlated with Inhibition of Cell Migration and Cytoskeleton Organization

molecules-logo“Cannabis sativa contains more than 500 constituents, yet the anticancer properties of the vast majority of cannabis compounds remains unknown. We aimed to identify cannabis compounds and their combinations presenting cytotoxicity against bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC), the most common urinary system cancer.

An XTT assay was used to determine cytotoxic activity of C. sativa extracts on T24 and HBT-9 cell lines. Extract chemical content was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to determine apoptosis and cell cycle, using stained F-actin and nuclei. Scratch and transwell assays were used to determine cell migration and invasion, respectively. Gene expression was determined by quantitative Polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

The most active decarboxylated extract fraction (F7) of high-cannabidiol (CBD) C. sativa was found to contain cannabichromene (CBC) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Synergistic interaction was demonstrated between CBC + THC whereas cannabinoid receptor (CB) type 1 and type 2 inverse agonists reduced cytotoxic activity.

Treatments with CBC + THC or CBD led to cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. CBC + THC or CBD treatments inhibited cell migration and affected F-actin integrity. Identification of active plant ingredients (API) from cannabis that induce apoptosis and affect cell migration in UC cell lines forms a basis for pre-clinical trials for UC treatment.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33477303/

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/26/2/465

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Cannabis is associated with blood pressure reduction in older adults – A 24-hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring study

Patient–physician distance - European Journal of Internal Medicine“Background: Medical cannabis use is increasing rapidly in the past several years, with older adults being the fastest growing group. Nevertheless, the evidence for cardiovascular safety of cannabis use is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cannabis on blood pressure, heart rate, and metabolic parameters in older adults with hypertension.

Results: Twenty-six patients with a mean age of 70.42 ± 5.37 years, 53.8% females completed the study. At 3 months follow-up, the mean 24-hours systolic and diastolic blood pressures were reduced by 5.0 mmHg and 4.5 mmHg, respectively (p<0.001 for both). The nadir for the blood pressure and heart rate was achieved at 3 hours post-administration. The proportion of normal dippers changed from 27.3% before treatment to 45.5% afterward. No significant changes were seen in the different metabolic parameters assessed by blood tests, anthropometric measurements, or ECG exam.

Conclusion: amongst older adults with hypertension, cannabis treatment for 3 months was associated with a reduction in 24-hours systolic and diastolic blood pressure values with a nadir at 3 hours after cannabis administration.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33483174/

https://www.ejinme.com/article/S0953-6205(21)00005-4/fulltext

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The effectiveness of inhaled Cannabis flower for the treatment of agitation/irritability, anxiety, and common stress

Cognetivity publishes MS paper in BMC Neurology Journal - Cognetivity  Neurosciences

“Background: An observational research design was used to evaluate which types of commonly labeled Cannabis flower product characteristics are associated with changes in momentary feelings of distress-related symptoms.

Results: In total, a decrease in symptom intensity levels was reported in 95.51% of Cannabis usage sessions, an increase in 2.32% of sessions, and no change in 2.16% of sessions. Fixed effects models showed, on average, respondents recorded a maximum symptom intensity reduction of 4.33 points for agitation/irritability (SE = 0.20, p < 0.01), 3.47 points for anxiety (SE = 0.13, p < 0.01), and 3.98 for stress (SE = 0.12, p < 0.01) on an 11-point visual analog scale. Fixed effects regressions showed that, controlling for time-invariant user characteristics, mid and high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) levels were the primary independent predictor of increased symptom relief, and that when broken out by symptom type, this effect was only statistically significant for our largest sample of users, those reporting anxiety rather than agitation/irritability or stress. Cannabidiol (CBD) levels were generally not associated with changes in symptom intensity levels. In a minority of cannabis use sessions (< 13%), cannabis users reported anxiogenic-related negative side effects (e.g., feeling anxious, irritable, paranoid, rapid pulse, or restless), whereas in a majority of sessions (about 66%), users reported positive anxiolytic side effects (e.g., feeling chill, comfy, happy, optimistic, peaceful, or relaxed).

Conclusions: The findings suggest the majority of patients in our sample experienced relief from distress-related symptoms following consumption of Cannabis flower, and that among product characteristics, higher THC levels were the strongest predictors of relief.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33526145/

“Our findings suggest that self-directed use of Cannabis flower, especially that with higher THC levels, is associated with significant improvements in at least short-term feelings of distress in many users, likely a contributing factor to its widespread popularity and consumption in the U.S.”

https://jcannabisresearch.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s42238-020-00051-z

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