The current state and future perspectives of cannabinoids in cancer biology.

Cancer Medicine

“To date, cannabinoids have been allowed in the palliative medicine due to their analgesic and antiemetic effects, but increasing number of preclinical studies indicates their anticancer properties. Cannabinoids exhibit their action by a modulation of the signaling pathways crucial in the control of cell proliferation and survival. Many in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that cannabinoids inhibit proliferation of cancer cells, stimulate autophagy and apoptosis, and have also a potential to inhibit angiogenesis and metastasis. In this review, we present an actual state of knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms of cannabinoids’ anticancer action, but we discuss also aspects that are still not fully understood such as the role of the endocannabinoid system in a carcinogenesis, the impact of cannabinoids on the immune system in the context of cancer development, or the cases of a stimulation of cancer cells’ proliferation by cannabinoids. The review includes also a summary of currently ongoing clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids as anticancer agents.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29473338

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cam4.1312/abstract

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CBD Enhances the Anticancer Effects of THC

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“Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and other cannabinoids can act as direct anticancer agents in multiple types of cancer in culture and in vivo.
Cannabidiol Enhances the Inhibitory Effects of  Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Human GlioblastomaCell Proliferation and Survival.
Δ9-THC and Cannabidiol Inhibit the Growth of Multiple Glioblastoma Cell Lines.
Cannabidiol Enhances the Inhibitory Effects of Δ9-THC on Glioblastoma Cell Growth.
Combination treatments with cannabinoids may improve overall efficacy”

“Cannabidiol Enhances the Inhibitory Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Human Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation and Survival”   http://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/9/1/180.full

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Direct modulation of the outer mitochondrial membrane channel, voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) by cannabidiol: a novel mechanism for cannabinoid-induced cell death.

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“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid that inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death of cancer cells and activated immune cells.

Here, we studied the effects of CBD on various mitochondrial functions in BV-2 microglial cells.

Our findings indicate that CBD treatment leads to a biphasic increase in intracellular calcium levels and to changes in mitochondrial function and morphology leading to cell death.

Single-channel recordings of the outer-mitochondrial membrane protein, the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) functioning in cell energy, metabolic homeostasis and apoptosis revealed that CBD markedly decreases channel conductance.

Finally, using microscale thermophoresis, we showed a direct interaction between purified fluorescently labeled VDAC1 and CBD.

Thus, VDAC1 seems to serve as a novel mitochondrial target for CBD.

The inhibition of VDAC1 by CBD may be responsible for the immunosuppressive and anticancer effects of CBD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24309936

“The non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), alone has strong anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects in diverse animal models of disease such as diabetes, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In addition, CBD has been reported to have anxiolytic, antiemetic and antipsychotic effects. Moreover, CBD has been shown to possess antitumor activity in human breast carcinoma and to effectively reduce primary tumor mass, as well as size and number of lung metastasis in preclinical animal models of breast cancer.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3877544/

“In summary, in this study we have identified VDAC1 as a new molecular target for CBD. Our study suggests that CBD-induced cell death may occur through the inhibition of VDAC1 conductance and that this interaction may be responsible for the anticancer and immunosuppressive properties of CBD.”

https://www.nature.com/articles/cddis2013471

“Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1 As an Emerging Drug Target for Novel Anti-CancerTherapeutics.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28824871

“Finally, small molecules targeting VDAC1 can induce apoptosis. VDAC1 can thus be considered as standing at the crossroads between mitochondrial metabolite transport and apoptosis and hence represents an emerging cancer drug target.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25448878

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Cannabidiol Induces Cytotoxicity and Cell Death via Apoptotic Pathway in Cancer Cell Lines

“In view of obtaining potential anticancer compounds, we studied the inhibitory activity and the cytotoxic effects of a candidate compound in cancer cells. The cytotoxic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in vitro were evaluated in NIH3T3 fibroblasts, B16 melanoma cells, A549 lung cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, Lenca kidney cells and SNU-C4 colon cancer cells.
The inhibitory activity of CBD was increased in all cancer cells and showed especially strong increment in breast cancer cells. The cytotoxicity of CBD increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner with growth inhibition in all cancer cell lines.
Therefore these results suggest that CBD has a possibility of anticancer agents and anticancer effects against cancer cells by modulation of apoptotic pathway in the range of 5-80 μM concentration.”
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Targeting the endocannabinoid system as a potential anticancer approach.

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“The endocannabinoid system is currently under intense investigation due to the therapeutic potential of cannabinoid-based drugs as treatment options for a broad variety of diseases including cancer.

Besides the canonical endocannabinoid system that includes the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 and the endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, recent investigations suggest that other fatty acid derivatives, receptors, enzymes, and lipid transporters likewise orchestrate this system as components of the endocannabinoid system when defined as an extended signaling network.

As such, fatty acids acting at cannabinoid receptors (e.g. 2-arachidonoyl glyceryl ether [noladin ether], N-arachidonoyldopamine) as well as endocannabinoid-like substances that do not elicit cannabinoid receptor activation (e.g. N-palmitoylethanolamine, N-oleoylethanolamine) have raised interest as anticancerogenic substances.

Furthermore, the endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase, lipid transport proteins of the fatty acid binding protein family, additional cannabinoid-activated G protein-coupled receptors, members of the transient receptor potential family as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors have been considered as targets of antitumoral cannabinoid activity. Therefore, this review focused on the antitumorigenic effects induced upon modulation of this extended endocannabinoid network.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29390896  http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03602532.2018.1428344?journalCode=idmr20

“Anticancer mechanisms of cannabinoids”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4791144/
“Cannabinoids as Anticancer Drugs.”
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The Synthetic Cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 Elicits Death in Human Cancer Cell Lines.

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“Studies have revealed that cancer might be treated with cannabinoids since they can influence cancer cell survival. These findings suggest an alternative treatment option to chemo- and radiotherapy, that are associated with numerous adverse side-effects for the patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Viability staining was conducted on lung cancer, testicular cancer and neuroblastoma cells treated with different concentrations of the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 and the percentage of dead cells was compared. Activity of apoptosis-related enzymes was investigated by the presence of DNA ladder in gel electrophoresis.

RESULTS:

Treatment with different WIN 55,212-2 concentrations led to a significant dose-dependent reduction of cell viability. A DNA ladder was observed after WIN 55,212-2 treatment of testicular cancer and lung cancer cells.

CONCLUSION:

The application of WIN 55,212-2 was found to trigger cell death in the investigated cell lines. The decline in lung cancer and testicular cancer cell viability seems to have been caused by apoptosis. These findings may contribute to development of alternative cancer therapy strategies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29061818

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Cannabinoids as Anticancer Drugs.

Advances in Pharmacology

“The endocannabinoid system encompassing cannabinoid receptors, endogenous receptor ligands (endocannabinoids), as well as enzymes conferring the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids has emerged as a considerable target for pharmacotherapeutical approaches of numerous diseases. Besides palliative effects of cannabinoids used in cancer treatment, phytocannabinoids, synthetic agonists, as well as substances that increase endogenous endocannabinoid levels have gained interest as potential agents for systemic cancer treatment. Accordingly, cannabinoid compounds have been reported to inhibit tumor growth and spreading in numerous rodent models. The underlying mechanisms include induction of apoptosis, autophagy, and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells as well as inhibition of tumor cell invasion and angiogenic features of endothelial cells. In addition, cannabinoids have been shown to suppress epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, to enhance tumor immune surveillance, and to support chemotherapeutics’ effects on drug-resistant cancer cells. However, unwanted side effects include psychoactivity and possibly pathogenic effects on liver health. Other cannabinoids such as the nonpsychoactive cannabidiol exert a comparatively good safety profile while exhibiting considerable anticancer properties. So far experience with anticarcinogenic effects of cannabinoids is confined to in vitro studies and animal models. Although a bench-to-bedside conversion remains to be established, the current knowledge suggests cannabinoid compounds to serve as a group of drugs that may offer significant advantages for patients suffering from cancer diseases. The present review summarizes the role of the endocannabinoid system and cannabinoid compounds in tumor progression.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28826542

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S105435891730039X?via%3Dihub

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A Review of the Therapeutic Antitumor Potential of Cannabinoids.

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“The aim of this review is to discuss cannabinoids from a preclinical and clinical oncological perspective and provide the audience with a concise, retrospective overview of the most significant findings concerning the potential use of cannabinoids in cancer treatment.

RESULTS:

Cannabis sativa is a plant rich in more than 100 types of cannabinoids. Besides exogenous plant cannabinoids, mammalian endocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoid analogues have been identified. Cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2) have been isolated and characterized from mammalian cells. Through cannabinoid receptor and non-receptor signaling pathways, cannabinoids show specific cytotoxicity against tumor cells, while protecting healthy tissue from apoptosis. The dual antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of cannabinoids and associated signaling pathways have been investigated on a large panel of cancer cell lines. Cannabinoids also display potent anticancer activity against tumor xenografts, including tumors that express high resistance to standard chemotherapeutics. Few studies have investigated the possible synergistic effects of cannabinoids with standard oncology therapies, and are based on the preclinically confirmed concept of “cannabinoid sensitizers.” Also, clinical trials aimed to confirm the antineoplastic activity of cannabinoids have only been evaluated on a small number of subjects, with no consensus conclusions regarding their effectiveness.

CONCLUSIONS:

A large number of cannabinoid compounds have been discovered, developed, and used to study the effects of cannabinoids on cancers in model systems. However, few clinical trials have been conducted on the use of cannabinoids in the treatment of cancers in humans. Further studies require extensive monitoring of the effects of cannabinoids alone or in combination with standard anticancer strategies. With such knowledge, cannabinoids could become a therapy of choice in contemporary oncology.”

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Anticancer effects of phytocannabinoids used with chemotherapy in leukaemia cells can be improved by altering the sequence of their administration.

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“Phytocannabinoids possess anticancer activity when used alone, and a number have also been shown to combine favourably with each other in vitro in leukaemia cells to generate improved activity.

We have investigated the effect of pairing cannabinoids and assessed their anticancer activity in cell line models. Those most effective were then used with the common anti-leukaemia drugs cytarabine and vincristine, and the effects of this combination therapy on cell death studied in vitro.

Results show a number of cannabinoids could be paired together to generate an effect superior to that achieved if the components were used individually.

For example, in HL60 cells, the IC50 values at 48 h for cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) when used alone were 8 and 13 µM, respectively; however, if used together, it was 4 µM. Median-effect analysis confirmed the benefit of using cannabinoids in pairs, with calculated combination indices being <1 in a number of cases.

The most efficacious cannabinoid-pairs subsequently synergised further when combined with the chemotherapy agents, and were also able to sensitise leukaemia cells to their cytotoxic effects.

The sequence of administration of these drugs was important though; using cannabinoids after chemotherapy resulted in greater induction of apoptosis, whilst this was the opposite when the schedule of administration was reversed.

Our results suggest that when certain cannabinoids are paired together, the resulting product can be combined synergistically with common anti-leukaemia drugs allowing the dose of the cytotoxic agents to be dramatically reduced yet still remain efficacious. Nevertheless, the sequence of drug administration is crucial to the success of these triple combinations and should be considered when planning such treatments.”

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It’s Oral, Head & Neck Cancer Awareness Month. Please Be Aware.

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“Oral, Head & Neck Cancer Awareness Month. While smoking and tobacco use are still major risk factors, the fastest growing segment of oral cancer patients is young, healthy, nonsmoking individuals due to the connection to the HPV virus. We cannot stop this virus from spreading; our only hope to save lives is with professional involvement and public awareness.”  http://oralcancerfoundation.org/events/oral-head-neck-cancer-awareness-month/

“Oral Sex Linked to Rise in Oral Cancers”  https://www.roswellpark.org/cancertalk/201304/oral-sex-linked-rise-oral-cancers

“Role of human papilloma virus in the oral carcinogenesis”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19542661                                                           “A causal role for human papillomavirus in head and neck cancer.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15135592/

“Bogarting that joint might decrease oral hpv among cannabis users. The development of oral cancer is not a result of smoking cannabis per se; rather, it is hypothesized to be a result of contracting hpv through various forms of sharing and passing joints and other smoking apparatuses. Therefore, it is hypothesized that bogarting (and not passing) joints might decrease oral hpv among cannabis smokers.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2794675/

“Additive found in toothpaste and food products could cause cancer, say scientists” http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/toothpaste-additive-e171-titanium-dioxide-food-products-cancer-cause-scientists-a7541956.html

“Mouthwash And Poor Dental Hygiene May Up The Risk Of Oral Cancer”  http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2014/04/08/300257396/mouthwash-and-poor-dental-hygiene-may-up-the-risk-of-oral-cancer

“Gum Disease Linked to Risk of Oral Cancer Causing Virus”  https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2013-08-21/gum-disease-linked-to-risk-of-oral-cancer-causing-virus

“ROUGH TEETH AND RUBBING DENTURES MAY BE LINKED TO ORAL CANCER” http://www.managedhealthcareconnect.com/content/rough-teeth-and-rubbing-dentures-may-be-linked-oral-cancer

“Unhealthy lifestyles blamed for sharp rise in mouth cancer cases”  http://www.itv.com/news/2016-11-25/bad-habits-linked-to-soaring-rates-of-mouth-cancer/

“Type of food and risk of oral cancer. To reduce the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer, especially squamous cell carcinoma, the most common oral cancer, diet must be optimized, primarily to reduce calorie intake, monounsaturated fat, and red or processed meat. Consumption of fruits, vegetables, and cereals, which are the major source of vitamins and fiber, should be adequate in the daily diet. Optimal levels of daily allowance of micronutrients like vitamin C, E, antioxidants, zinc, beta-carotene, and folate are effective in prevention of oral cancer. Consumption of fried or broiled foods and employment of microwave cooking, because of formation of heterocyclic amines, must be avoided because of increasing risks of oral cancer including the salivary gland tumors.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17367228

“Coffee consumption associated with reduced risk of oral cancer: a meta-analysis”  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212440315013656

“Tobacco and alcohol use are among the strongest risk factors for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers.” https://www.cancer.org/cancer/oral-cavity-and-oropharyngeal-cancer/causes-risks-prevention/risk-factors.html

“Marijuana use on its own does not merit definitive oral cancer development, according to research. In fact, cannabis also contains cannabinoids, such as THC, which contain anticancer properties. Some of these anticancer properties include the slowing of the inflammatory arm of the immune system designed to slow free-radical growths. Some researchers link medicinal marijuana to these anticancer properties.” http://www.dentistryiq.com/articles/2014/04/should-marijuana-users-be-worried-that-smoking-causes-oral-cancer.html

“Marijuana has been used in herbal remedies for centuries. More recently, scientists reported that THC and other cannabinoids such as CBD slow growth and/or cause death in certain types of cancer cells.” http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/physicalsideeffects/chemotherapyeffects/marijuana-and-cancer

“Cannabis has been shown to kill cancer cells in the laboratory. Cannabinoids appear to kill tumor cells but do not affect their nontransformed counterparts and may even protect them from cell death.” http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/cam/patient/cannabis-pdq#section/all

“Marijuana Kills Cancer Cells, Admits The U.S. National Cancer Institute” http://naturalsociety.com/marijuana-kills-cancer-cells-admits-the-u-s-national-cancer-institute/

“US government says cannabis kills cancer cells”  http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/11820620/US-government-says-cannabis-kills-cancer-cells.html

“US government finally admits that cannabis kills cancer cells”  http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/world-news/government-finally-admits-cannabis-kills-6303176

“Review of Various Herbal Supplements as Complementary Treatments for Oral Cancer. Diet changes, supplementation with antioxidants, high-dose vitamin C therapy, and cannabinoid use have been suggested to decrease cancer cell replication and increase chance of remission.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863913

“Cannabinoids Offer Some Hope for Oral Cancer Pain”  https://www.practicalpainmanagement.com/meeting-summary/cannabinoids-offer-some-hope-oral-cancer-pain

“Cannabinoids Attenuate Cancer Pain and Proliferation in a Mouse Model.  Our results suggest that systemic administration of cannabinoids decease oral cancer pain. Our findings suggest a direct role for cannabinoid mechanisms in oral cancer pain and proliferation. The systemic administration of cannabinoid receptor agonists may have important therapeutic implications wherein cannabinoid receptor agonists may reduce morbidity and mortality of oral cancer. The present findings suggest that cannabinoid treatment may be a promising alternative therapy for oral cancer pain management.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3099480/

“Cannabinoids Inhibit Cellular Respiration of Human Oral Cancer Cells. The primary cannabinoids, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC) are known to disturb the mitochondrial function and possess antitumor activities. These observations prompted us to investigate their effects on the mitochondrial O2 consumption in human oral cancer cells (Tu183). This epithelial cell line overexpresses bcl-2 and is highly resistant to anticancer drugs. A rapid decline in the rate of respiration was observed when Δ9-THC or Δ8-THC was added to the cells. These results show the cannabinoids are potent inhibitors of Tu183 cellular respiration and are toxic to this highly malignant tumor.” https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/312686

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“CANNABINOIDS INHIBIT ORAL CANCER CELLS”  https://pharmotech.ch/cannabinoids-inhibit-oral-cancer-cells/

“Evaluation of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors expression in mobile tongue squamous cell carcinoma: associations with clinicopathological parameters and patients’ survival. The present study provides evidence that CB1R and CB2R may play a role in the pathophysiological aspects of the mobile tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and even each molecule may constitute a potential target for the development of novel anti-cancer drugs for this type of malignancy.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26459312

“Review: cannabidiol may be beneficial for oral mucositis. The researchers found evidence that oxidative stress control could prevent and relieve oral mucositis. Cannabidiol was found to be safe to use and demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties,” https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-02-cannabidiol-beneficial-oral-mucositis.html

“Salivary bacteria linked to oral cancers”  http://middleeast.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc/article/PIIS1470-2045(05)70266-7/abstract

“Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study”  http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/np8002673

“Targeting Id1 reduces proliferation and invasion in aggressive human salivary gland cancer cells.  Id1 suppression could represent a novel and effective approach for the treatment of salivary gland cancer.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3639030/

“Suppression of invasion and metastasis in aggressive salivary cancer cells through targeted inhibition of ID1 gene expression.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27087608

“Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells. CBD represents the first nontoxic exogenous agent that can significantly decrease Id-1 expression in metastatic breast cancer cells.  Moreover, reducing Id-1 expression with cannabinoids could also provide a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of additional aggressive cancers because Id-1 expression was found to be up-regulated during the progression of almost all types”  http://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/6/11/2921.long

“Anticancer effects of anandamide on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells via the production of receptor-independent reactive oxygen species.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24797795

“The endocannabinoid system and cancer: therapeutic implication. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that cannabinoids are efficacious in reducing cancer progression (i.e. inhibition of tumour growth and metastases as well as induction of apoptosis and other anti-cancer properties) in breast, prostate and bone cancer. Although this review focuses on these three types of cancer, activation of the endocannabinoid signalling system produces anti-cancer effects in other types of cancer.” http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01327.x/full

“Medical marijuana use in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy. The purpose of the study was to better understand why patients with history of head and neck cancer (HNC) treated with radiotherapy are using medical marijuana (MM). HNC patients report MM use to help with long-term side effects of radiotherapy.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27005465

“Head and neck cancer among marijuana users: A meta-analysis of matched case–control studies. No association between lifetime marijuana use and the development of head and neck cancer was found.”  http://www.aobjournal.com/article/S0003-9969(15)30041-8/abstract

“A Population-based Case-Control Study of Marijuana Use and Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Our study suggests that moderate marijuana use is associated with reduced risk of head and neck cancer (HNSCC). In fact, many of these studies reported non-significant protective estimates of effect, consistent with a possible anticarcinogenic action of cannabinoids.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2812803/

“Smoking Marijuana Regularly May Reduce Risk of Some Neck, Head Cancers” http://www.foxnews.com/story/2009/08/26/smoking-marijuana-regularly-may-reduce-risk-some-neck-head-cancers.html

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http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-hnscc/

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