β-Caryophyllene Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Angiogenesis in Colorectal Cancer Models

ijms-logo“Beta-Caryophyllene (BCP), a naturally occurring sesquiterpene abundantly found in cloves, hops, and cannabis, is the active candidate of a relatively new group of vascular-inhibiting compounds that aim to block existing tumor blood vessels.

Previously, we have reported the anti-cancer properties of BCP by utilizing a series of in-vitro anti-tumor-related assays using human colorectal carcinoma cells. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of BCP on in-vitro, ex-vivo, and in-vivo models of anti-angiogenic assays and evaluate its anti-cancer activity in xenograft tumor (both ectopic and orthotopic) mice models of human colorectal cancer.

BCP showed a remarkable reduction in tumor size and fluorescence molecular tomography signal intensity in all the mice treated with BCP, in a dose-dependent relationship, in ectopic and orthotopic tumor xenograft models, respectively. The histological analysis of the tumor from BCP-treated mice revealed a clear reduction of the density of vascularization. In addition, BCP induced apoptosis through downregulation of HSP60, HTRA, survivin, and XIAP, along with the upregulation of p21 expressions.

These results suggest that BCP acts at multiple stages of angiogenesis and could be used as a promising therapeutic candidate to halt the growth of colorectal tumor cells.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34638895/

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/22/19/10550

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

“Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18574142

The potential of cannabinoids and inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation in respiratory diseases

European Journal of Pharmacology“The global incidence of respiratory diseases and complications is increasing. Therefore, new methods of treatment, as well as prevention, need to be investigated.

A group of compounds that should be considered for use in respiratory diseases is cannabinoids. There are three groups of cannabinoids – plant-derived phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoids, and endogenous endocannabinoids including the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation.

All cannabinoids exert their biological effects through either type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1) and/or type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2). In numerous studies (in vitro and in vivo), cannabinoids and inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation have shown beneficial anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-fibrotic properties.

Although in the respiratory system, most of the studies have focused on the positive properties of cannabinoids and inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation. There are few research reports discussing the negative impact of these compounds. This review summarizes the properties and mechanisms of action of cannabinoids and inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation in various models of respiratory diseases.

A short description of the effects selected cannabinoids have on the human respiratory system and their possible use in the fight against COVID-19 is also presented. Additionally, a brief summary is provided of cannabinoid receptors properties and their expression in the respiratory system and cells of the immune system.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34648805/

“Phytocannabinoids are terpenophenolic compounds produced by specialized parts of the Cannabis sativa plant and are found in high concentrations in marijuana and hashish. In most of models, these compounds have shown positive biological properties. Anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-fibrotic actions are especially emphasized.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299921007160?via%3Dihub

Lung cancer patient who had declined conventional cancer treatment: could the self-administration of ‘CBD oil’ be contributing to the observed tumour regression?

b-on, bliblioteca do conhecimento online | BMJ“Conventional lung cancer treatments include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy; however, these treatments are often poorly tolerated by patients. Cannabinoids have been studied for use as a primary cancer treatment. Cannabinoids, which are chemically similar to our own body’s endocannabinoids, can interact with signalling pathways to control the fate of cells, including cancer cells. We present a patient who declined conventional lung cancer treatment. Without the knowledge of her clinicians, she chose to self-administer ‘cannabidiol (CBD) oil’ orally 2-3 times daily. Serial imaging shows that her cancer reduced in size progressively from 41 mm to 10 mm over a period of 2.5 years. Previous studies have failed to agree on the usefulness of cannabinoids as a cancer treatment. This case appears to demonstrate a possible benefit of ‘CBD oil’ intake that may have resulted in the observed tumour regression. The use of cannabinoids as a potential cancer treatment justifies further research.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34649854/

“Patient’s perspective

“I was not very interested in traditional cancer treatments as I was worried about the risks of surgery, and I saw my late husband suffer through the side effects of radiotherapy. My relative suggested that I should try ‘cannabidiol (CBD) oil’ to treat my cancer, and I have been taking it regularly ever since. I am ‘over the moon’ with my cancer shrinking, which I believe was caused by the ‘CBD oil’. I am tolerating it very well and I intend to take this treatment indefinitely.””

https://casereports.bmj.com/content/14/10/e244195

“Cannabis oil led to lung cancer regression in 80-year-old woman: Report”

https://www.freepressjournal.in/world/cannabis-oil-led-to-lung-cancer-regression-in-80-year-old-woman-report

“Case Report: Lung Cancer Shrinks in Patient Using CBD Oil”

https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/960949

Characterization of cannabinoid receptors expressed in Ewing sarcoma TC-71 and A-673 cells as potential targets for anti-cancer drug development

Life Sciences“Aims: Characterizing cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) expressed in Ewing sarcoma (EWS) cell lines as potential targets for anti-cancer drug development.

Main methods: CBR affinity and function were examined by competitive binding and G-protein activation, respectively. Cannabinoid-mediated cytotoxicity and cell viability were evaluated by LDH, and trypan blue assays, respectively.

Key findings: qRT-PCR detected CB1 (CB1R) and CB2 receptor (CB2R) mRNA in TC-71 cells. However, binding screens revealed that CBRs expressed exhibit atypical properties relative to canonical receptors, because specific binding in TC-71 could only be demonstrated by the established non-selective CB1/CB2R radioligand [3H]WIN-55,212-2, but not CB1/CB2R radioligand [3H]CP-55,940. Homologous receptor binding demonstrated that [3H]WIN-55,212-2 binds to a single site with nanomolar affinity, expressed at high density. Further support for non-canonical CBRs expression is provided by subsequent binding screens, revealing that only 9 out of 28 well-characterized cannabinoids with high affinity for canonical CB1 and/or CB2Rs were able to displace [3H]WIN-55,212-2, whereas two ligands enhanced [3H]WIN-55,212-2 binding. Five cannabinoids producing the greatest [3H]WIN-55,212-2 displacement exhibited high nanomolar affinity (Ki) for expressed receptors. G-protein modulation and adenylyl cyclase assays further indicate that these CBRs exhibit distinct signaling/functional profiles compared to canonical CBRs. Importantly, cannabinoids with the highest affinity for non-canonical CBRs reduced TC-71 viability and induced cytotoxicity in a time-dependent manner. Studies in a second EWS cell line (A-673) showed similar atypical binding properties of expressed CBRs, and cannabinoid treatment produced cytotoxicity.

Significance: Cannabinoids induce cytotoxicity in EWS cell lines via non-canonical CBRs, which might be a potential therapeutic target to treat EWS.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34592231/

Cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) were detected in EWS TC-71 and A-673 cells. CBRs expressed in EWS cell lines exhibit atypical binding and signaling characteristics. Ligands with highest affinity for these non-canonical CBRs induce EWS cell death.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0024320521009802?via%3Dihub

 

The strengths and limits of cannabinoids and their receptors in cancer: Insights into the role of tumorigenesis-underlying mechanisms and therapeutic aspects

Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy“Cancer, as a mysterious and complex disease, has a multi-stage molecular process that uses the cellular molecular machine and multiple signaling pathways to its advantage. Cannabinoids, as terpenophenolic compounds and their derivatives, showed influences on immune system responses, inflammation, and cell growth that have sparked a growing interest in exploring their effects on cancer cell fate, as well. A large body of evidence in experimental models indicating the involvement of cannabinoids and their related receptors in cancer cell growth, development, and fate. In accordance, the present study provided insights regarding the strengths and limits of cannabinoids and their receptors in critical steps of tumorigenesis and its underlying molecular pathways such as; cancer cell proliferation, type of cell death pathway, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis and, immune system response. Based on the results of the present study and due to the contribution of cannabinoids in various cancer cell growth control processes, these compounds cancer can be considered worthwhile in finding new alternatives for cancer therapy.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34624678/

“Cannabinoids execute critical roles in multiple steps of tumorigenesis. Cannabinoids trigger apoptosis, autophagy and mitophagy in cancer cells. Cannabinoids attenuate angiogenesis; thus regulate tumor invasion. Cannabinoids and their receptors can be effective therapeutic targets in cancer pathogenesis.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0753332221010635?via%3Dihub

 

Cannabidiol Effectively Promoted Cell Death in Bladder Cancer and the Improved Intravesical Adhesion Drugs Delivery Strategy Could Be Better Used for Treatment

pharmaceutics-logo“Cannabidiol (CBD), a primary bioactive phytocannabinoid extracted from hemp, is reported to possess potent anti-tumorigenic activity in multiple cancers.

However, the effects of CBD on bladder cancer (BC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms are rarely reported.

Here, several experiments proved that CBD promoted BC cells (T24, 5637, and UM-UC-3) death.

In summary, this work demonstrates that CBD may become a novel reliable anticancer drug and the developed intravesical adhesion system is expected to turn into a potential means of BC chemotherapy drug delivery.

We believe that our study makes a significant contribution to the field because these results can be developed as a promising strategy for a safer and more efficient anticancer therapy.”

https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4923/13/9/1415/htm

Cannabidiol Induces Apoptosis and Perturbs Mitochondrial Function in Human and Canine Glioma Cells

Frontiers in Pharmacology (@FrontPharmacol) | Twitter“Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychoactive compound found in cannabis, is frequently used both as a nutraceutical and therapeutic.

Despite anecdotal evidence as an anticancer agent, little is known about the effect CBD has on cancer cells. Given the intractability and poor prognoses of brain cancers in human and veterinary medicine, we sought to characterize the in vitro cytotoxicity of CBD on human and canine gliomas.

Glioma cells treated with CBD showed a range of cytotoxicity from 4.9 to 8.2 μg/ml; canine cells appeared to be more sensitive than human.

These results demonstrate the cytotoxic nature of CBD in human and canine glioma cells and suggest a mechanism of action involving dysregulation of calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial activity.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34456736/

“In this present study, we demonstrate that highly purified CBD isolate reduced proliferation and induced caspase-mediated cell death, suggestive of apoptosis, in both canine glioma cell lines SDT3G and J3TBG as well as the human glioma cell lines U87MG and U373MG Uppsala. The growing body of knowledge of the pharmacology, anticancer effects, and other therapeutically relevant properties of cannabidiol reveal the exciting potential of CBD as a potential clinical therapeutic.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2021.725136/full

The Pathophysiology and the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids in Prostate Cancer

cancers-logo“Prostate cancer is the second most frequently occurring cancer diagnosed among males. Recent preclinical evidence implicates cannabinoids as powerful regulators of cell growth and differentiation. In this review, we focused on studies that demonstrated anticancer effects of cannabinoids and their possible mechanisms of action in prostate cancer. Besides the palliative effects of cannabinoids, research from the past two decades has demonstrated their promising potential as antitumor agents in a wide variety of cancers. This analysis may provide pharmacological insights into the selection of specific cannabinoids for the development of antitumor drugs for the treatment of prostate cancer.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34439262/

“Prostate cancer, after lung cancer, is the leading cause of death among men. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms and the etiological factors of prostate cancer development are still poorly understood, there are several factors associated with the risk of developing the disease such as age, family history, lifestyle-related factors (e.g., smoking, diet), and testosterone levels. Cannabinoids are an emerging class of pharmacological molecules that may exert their therapeutic effect against different cancers, including those from the prostate. Several studies have shown that various agonists are able to target cannabinoid receptors exhibited on prostate cancer cells.”

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/13/16/4107

Therapeutic Potential of Neoechinulins and Their Derivatives: An Overview of the Molecular Mechanisms Behind Pharmacological Activities

Neuroenergetics, Nutrition and Brain Health | Authors“Neoechinulins are diketopiperazine type indole alkaloids that demonstrate radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-neurodegenerative, neurotrophic factor-like, anticancer, pro-apoptotic, and anti-apoptotic properties.

An array of neoechinulins such as neoechinulins A-E, isoechinulins A-C, cryptoechunilin have been isolated from various fungal sources like Aspergillus sp., Xylaria euglossa, Eurotium cristatum, Microsporum sp., etc. Besides, neoechinulin derivatives or stereoisomers were also obtained from diverse non-fungal sources viz. Tinospora sagittata, Opuntia dillenii, Cyrtomium fortunei, Cannabis sativa, and so on.

The main purpose of this review is to provide update information on neoechinulins and their analogues about the molecular mechanisms of the pharmacological action and possible future research. The recent data from this review can be used to create a basis for the discovery of new neoechinulin-based drugs and their analogues in the near future.

The online databases PubMed, Science and Google scholar were researched for the selection and collection of data from the available literature on neoechinulins, their natural sources and their pharmacological properties.

The published books on this topic were also analysed. In vitro and in vivo assays have established the potential of neoechinulin A as a promising anticancer and anti-neuroinflammatory lead molecule. Neoechinulin B was also identified as a potential antiviral drug against hepatitis C virus.

Toxicological and clinical trials are needed in the future to improve the phyto-pharmacological profile of neoquinolines. From the analysis of the literature, we found that neoechinulins and their derivatives have special biological potential.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34336908/

“In the future, neoquinolines may be introduced into functional foods or dietary compounds (nutraceuticals) that benefit human health by preventing or treating diseases, or by correcting metabolic disorders, or by preventing the progression or recurrence of a pathological situation.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnut.2021.664197/full

Myrcene-What Are the Potential Health Benefits of This Flavouring and Aroma Agent?

Neuroenergetics, Nutrition and Brain Health | Authors“Myrcene (β-myrcene) is an abundant monoterpene which occurs as a major constituent in many plant species, including hops and cannabis. It is a popular flavouring and aroma agent (food additive) used in the manufacture of food and beverages. This review aims to report on the occurrence, biological and toxicological profile of β-myrcene. The main reported biological properties of β-myrcene-anxiolytic, antioxidant, anti-ageing, anti-inflammatory, analgesic properties-are discussed, with the mechanisms of activity. Here we also discuss recent data regarding the safety of β-myrcene. Overall, β-myrcene has shown promising health benefits in many animal studies. However, studies conducted in humans is lacking. In the future, there is potential for the formulation and production of non-alcoholic beers, functional foods and drinks, and cannabis extracts (low in THC) rich in β-myrcene.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34350208/

“β-Myrcene characteristically gives cannabis strains a mildly sweet flavour profile and provides scent notes that are spicy, earthy and musky. Cannabis strains which contain high concentrations of myrcene (>0.5% myrcene), are likely to induce sedative qualities (“couch-lock effect”), which are classically attributed to Cannabis indica Lam (a synonym of C. sativa L.) strains. On the other hand, strains low in β-myrcene (<0.5%) are likely to induce a more energic “high”.β-Myrcene reported biological activities include analgesic, sedative, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and anticancer effects.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnut.2021.699666/full