Cannabinoid Combination Induces Cytoplasmic Vacuolation in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

molecules-logo“This study evaluated the synergistic anti-cancer potential of cannabinoid combinations across the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines. Cannabinoids were combined and their synergistic interactions were evaluated using median effect analysis.

The most promising cannabinoid combination (C6) consisted of tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD), and displayed favorable dose reduction indices and limited cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous breast cell line, MCF-10A. C6 exerted its effects in the MCF-7 cell line by inducing cell cycle arrest in the G2 phase, followed by the induction of apoptosis.

Morphological observations indicated the induction of cytoplasmic vacuolation, with further investigation suggesting that the vacuole membrane was derived from the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, lipid accumulation, increased lysosome size, and significant increases in the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression were also observed.

The selectivity and ability of cannabinoids to halt cancer cell proliferation via pathways resembling apoptosis, autophagy, and paraptosis shows promise for cannabinoid use in standardized breast cancer treatment.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33066359/

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/25/20/4682

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Cannabidiol and Oxygen-Ozone Combination Induce Cytotoxicity in Human Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines

cancers-logo“Pancreatic cancer (PC) is related to lifestyle risks, chronic inflammation, and germline mutations in BRCA1/2ATMMLH1TP53, or CDKN2A. Surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy are the main therapeutic strategies but are less effective in patients with high-grade tumors.

Oxygen-ozone (O2/O3) therapy is an emerging alternative tool for the treatment of several clinical disorders. O2/O3 therapy has been found to ameliorate mechanisms promoting chronic pain and inflammation, including hypoxia, inflammatory mediators, and infection.

The advantages of using cannabinoids have been evaluated in vitro and in vivo models of several human cancers. Regarding PDAC, activation of cannabinoid receptors was found to induce pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis without affecting the normal pancreas cells.

In a murine model of PDAC, a combination of cannabidiol (CBD) and gemcitabine increased survival length by nearly three times. Herein, we evaluate the anticancer effect of CBD and O2/O3, alone or in combination, on two human PDAC cell lines, PANC-1 and MiaPaCa-2, examining expression profiles of 92 pancreatic adenocarcinoma associated genes, cytotoxicity, migration properties, and cell death. Finally, we assess the combination effects with gemcitabine and paclitaxel.

Summarizing, for the first time the antitumoral effect of combined therapy with CBD and oxygen-ozone therapy in PDAC is evidenced.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32992648/

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/12/10/2774

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It Is Our Turn to Get Cannabis High: Put Cannabinoids in Food and Health Baskets

molecules-logo“Cannabis is an annual plant with a long history of use as food, feed, fiber, oil, medicine, and narcotics. Despite realizing its true value, it has not yet found its true place. Cannabis has had a long history with many ups and downs, and now it is our turn to promote it.

Cannabis contains approximately 600 identified and many yet unidentified potentially useful compounds. Cannabinoids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and alkaloids are some of the secondary metabolites present in cannabis. However, among a plethora of unique chemical compounds found in this plant, the most important ones are phytocannabinoids (PCs).

Over hundreds of 21-22-carbon compounds exclusively produce in cannabis glandular hairs through either polyketide and or deoxyxylulose phosphate/methylerythritol phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathways. Trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are those that first come to mind while talking about cannabis. Nevertheless, despite the low concentration, cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabichromene (CBC), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabidivarin (CBDV), cannabinodiol (CBND), and cannabinidiol (CBDL) may have potentially some medical effects.

PCs and endocannabinoids (ECs) mediate their effects mainly through CB1 and CB2 receptors. Despite all concerns regarding cannabis, nobody can ignore the use of cannabinoids as promising tonic, analgesic, antipyretic, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-epileptic, anticancer agents, which are effective for pain relief, depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis, cardiovascular disorders, and appetite stimulation.

The scientific community and public society have now increasingly accepted cannabis specifically hemp as much more than a recreational drug. There are growing demands for cannabinoids, mainly CBD, with many diverse therapeutic and nutritional properties in veterinary or human medicine. The main objective of this review article is to historically summarize findings concerning cannabinoids, mainly THC and CBD, towards putting these valuable compounds into food, feed and health baskets and current and future trends in the consumption of products derived from cannabis.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32899626/

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/25/18/4036

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Cannabinoids and Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies

ijms-logo“Prostate cancer is a major cause of death among men worldwide.

Recent preclinical evidence implicates cannabinoids as powerful regulators of cell growth and differentiation, as well as potential anti-cancer agents.

The aim of this review was to evaluate the effect of cannabinoids on in vivo prostate cancer models.

We identified six studies that were all found to be based on in vivo/xenograft animal models.

All studies have reported that the treatment of prostate cancers in in vivo/xenograft models with various cannabinoids decreased the size of the tumor, the outcomes of which depended on the dose and length of treatment.

Within the limitation of these identified studies, cannabinoids were shown to reduce the size of prostate cancer tumors in animal models.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32872551/

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/17/6265

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Cannabis sativa L. Extracts can reverse drug resistance in colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro

Synergy“Multidrug resistance (MDR) to known chemotherapeutic agents is increasing while the development of new drugs is lacking behind. Combination therapies might increase the development of effective treatment.

Anticancer properties of C. sativa L. have been extensively studied against various cancer cell lines but research on its effectiveness on MDR in cancer is less documented.

Aim

To determine the potential resistant reversal of the cytostatic drug doxorubicin by C. sativa L. extracts through combination studies.

Method

The cytotoxic effect of the different C. sativa L. extracts was assessed against a panel of human colon cancer cells (HT-29, Caco-2, HCT-15, LS513) and normal colon cells (CCD-18Co) by MTT assay. Drug-extract combination studies were performed on HCT-15 and LS513 MDR cells.

Results

DCM: methanol- and H2O extracts moderately inhibited the growth in HCT-15 and LS513 cells (IC50: 20–100 μg/ml). DCM- and H2O extracts potently inhibited HT-29 cell growth. Higher concentrations (100 μg/ml) of the hexane- and DCM- extracts slightly stimulated growth in Caco-2 cells. All the C. sativa L. extracts were more cytotoxic towards the cancerous cells than towards the normal colon cells. Combination studies between doxorubicin and the C. sativa L. extracts revealed synergistic growth inhibitory effects (CI < 1). The sensitivity to doxorubicin increased in HCT-15 and LS513 cells by 2.08- to 74.07-fold and 2.21- to 300.7-fold, respectively, compared to verapamil which improved it by 1.41-fold and 0.05-fold, respectively.

Conclusion

C. sativa L. extracts possess direct selective cytotoxic effect on colon cells and have a potential to reverse doxorubicin resistance.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2213713019300021

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The Effects of Cannabidiol and Prognostic Role of TRPV2 in Human Endometrial Cancer

ijms-logo“Several studies support, both in vitro and in vivo, the anti-cancer effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) ligand. TRPV2, often dysregulated in tumors, is associated with altered cell proliferation and aggressiveness.

Endometrial cancer (EC) is historically divided in type I endometrioid EC and type II non-endometrioid EC, associated with poor prognosis. Treatment options with chemotherapy and combinations with radiation showed only limited efficacy. Since no data are reported concerning TRPV2 expression as well as CBD potential effects in EC, the aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of TRPV2 in biopsies and cell lines as well as the effects of CBD in in vitro models. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), cell viability, migration, and chemo-resistance have been evaluated.

Results show that TRPV2 expression increased with the malignancy of the cancer tissue and correlated with shorter PFS (p = 0.0224). Moreover, in vitro TRPV2 over-expression in Ishikawa cell line increased migratory ability and response to cisplatin. CBD reduced cell viability, activating predominantly apoptosis in type I cells and autophagy in mixed type EC cells. The CBD improved chemotherapeutic drugs cytotoxic effects, enhanced by TRPV2 over-expression. Hence, TRPV2 could be considered as a marker for optimizing the therapy and CBD might be a useful therapeutic option as adjuvant therapy.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32751388/

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/15/5409

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Anti-Cancer Potential of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids Present in Cannabis

cancers-logo“In recent years, and even more since its legalization in several jurisdictions, cannabis and the endocannabinoid system have received an increasing amount of interest related to their potential exploitation in clinical settings. Cannabinoids have been suggested and shown to be effective in the treatment of various conditions. In cancer, the endocannabinoid system is altered in numerous types of tumours and can relate to cancer prognosis and disease outcome. Additionally, cannabinoids display anticancer effects in several models by suppressing the proliferation, migration and/or invasion of cancer cells, as well as tumour angiogenesis. However, the therapeutic use of cannabinoids is currently limited to the treatment of symptoms and pain associated with chemotherapy, while their potential use as cytotoxic drugs in chemotherapy still requires validation in patients. Along with cannabinoids, cannabis contains several other compounds that have also been shown to exert anti-tumorigenic actions. The potential anti-cancer effects of cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids, present in cannabis, are explored in this literature review.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32708138/

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/12/7/1985

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Enhancing ovarian cancer conventional chemotherapy through the combination with cannabidiol loaded microparticles

 European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics“In this work, we evaluated, for the first time, the antitumor effect of cannabidiol (CBD) as monotherapy and in combination with conventional chemotherapeutics in ovarian cancer and developed PLGA-microparticles as CBD carriers to optimize its anticancer activity.

Spherical microparticles, with a mean particle size around 25 µm and high entrapment efficiency were obtained. Microparticles elaborated with a CBD:polymer ratio of 10:100 were selected due to the most suitable release profile with a zero-order CBD release (14.13±0.17 μg/day/10 mg Mps) for 40 days.

The single administration of this formulation showed an in vitro extended antitumor activity for at least 10 days and an in ovo antitumor efficacy comparable to that of CBD in solution after daily topical administration (≈1.5-fold reduction in tumor growth vs control). The use of CBD in combination with paclitaxel (PTX) was really effective.

The best treatment schedule was the pre+co-administration of CBD (10µM) with PTX. Using this protocol, the single administration of microparticles was even more effective than the daily administration of CBD in solution, achieving a ≈10- and 8- fold reduction in PTX IC50 respectively. This protocol was also effective in ovo. While PTX conducted to a 1.5-fold tumor growth inhibition, its combination with both CBD in solution (daily administered) and 10-Mps (single administration) showed a 2-fold decrease.

These results show the promising potential of CBD-Mps administered in combination with PTX for ovarian cancer treatment, since it would allow to reduce the administered dose of this antineoplastic drug maintaining the same efficacy and, as a consequence, reducing PTX adverse effects.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32682943/

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0939641120302113?via%3Dihub

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Anticancer Effect of New Cannabinoids Derived From Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid on PANC-1 and AsPC-1 Human Pancreas Tumor Cells

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“New tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) derivatives ALAM027 and ALAM108 were proposed for the treatment of the pancreatic cancer disease.

Methods: The in vitro effect of new cannabinoids ALAM027 and ALAM108 was tested against PANC-1 and AsPC-1 cell lines by CellTiter Glo assay. Pancreatic cancer xenograft model was used for the in vivo anticancer activity study of these compounds on PANC-1 cells.

Results: The in vitro study of new cannabinoids showed greater activity of ALAM108 than ALAM027 both for PANC-1 and AsPC-1 cells. The in vivo study of new cannabinoids on PANC-1 cells showed that their oral administration was effective in reducing tumor volume and tumor weight, and did not lead to any discomfort and weight loss of mice.

Conclusion: The cannabinoids ALAM108 and ALAM027 inhibited the tumor growing 1.6-2 times in mice with human PANC-1 cells.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32642629/

“The in vitro study of new cannabinoids showed greater activity of ALAM108 than of ALAM027 both for PANC-1 and AsPC-1 pancreas tumor cells. The in vivo study of these cannabinoids on PANC-1 cells showed that their oral administration decreased the tumor size 1.6–2 times and did not lead to any discomfort, psychotic effects, and weight loss of mice. Further study of these compounds will allow to determine the mechanism of their action on cancer cells and may open the way to new therapeutic drugs based on THCA.”

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/pancan.2020.0003

FIG. 1.

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PLGA Nanoparticles for the Intraperitoneal Administration of CBD in the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer: In Vitro and In Ovo Assessment.

pharmaceutics-logo“The intraperitoneal administration of chemotherapeutics has emerged as a potential route in ovarian cancer treatment. Nanoparticles as carriers for these agents could be interesting by increasing the retention of chemotherapeutics within the peritoneal cavity. Moreover, nanoparticles could be internalised by cancer cells and let the drug release near the biological target, which could increase the anticancer efficacy.

Cannabidiol (CBD), the main nonpsychotropic cannabinoid, appears as a potential anticancer drug. The aim of this work was to develop polymer nanoparticles as CBD carriers capable of being internalised by ovarian cancer cells.

The drug-loaded nanoparticles (CBD-NPs) exhibited a spherical shape, a particle size around 240 nm and a negative zeta potential (-16.6 ± 1.2 mV). The encapsulation efficiency was high, with values above 95%. A controlled CBD release for 96 h was achieved. Nanoparticle internalisation in SKOV-3 epithelial ovarian cancer cells mainly occurred between 2 and 4 h of incubation. CBD antiproliferative activity in ovarian cancer cells was preserved after encapsulation. In fact, CBD-NPs showed a lower IC50 values than CBD in solution. Both CBD in solution and CBD-NPs induced the expression of PARP, indicating the onset of apoptosis. In SKOV-3-derived tumours formed in the chick embryo model, a slightly higher-although not statistically significant-tumour growth inhibition was observed with CBD-NPs compared to CBD in solution.

To sum up, poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles could be a good strategy to deliver CBD intraperitoneally for ovarian cancer treatment.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32397428

https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4923/12/5/439

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