Activation of Cannabinoid Receptors Attenuates Endothelin-1-induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Rat Ventricular Myocytes.

Image result for Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology.“Evidence suggests that activation of the endocannabinoid system offers cardioprotection.

Aberrant energy production by impaired mitochondria purportedly contributes to various aspects of cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether cannabinoid (CB) receptor activation would attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction induced by endothelin-1 (ET1).

Acute exposure to ET1 (4 h) in the presence of palmitate as primary energy substrate induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and decreased mitochondrial bioenergetics and expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation (i.e. peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC)-1α, a driver of mitochondrial biogenesis, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1β, facilitator of fatty acid uptake).

A CB1/CB2 dual agonist with limited brain penetration, CB-13, corrected these parameters. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of energy homeostasis, mediated the ability of CB-13 to rescue mitochondrial function. In fact, the ability of CB-13 to rescue fatty acid oxidation-related bioenergetics, as well as expression of PGC-1α and CPT-1β, was abolished by pharmacological inhibition of AMPK using compound C and shRNA knockdown of AMPKα1/α2, respectively.

Interventions that target CB/AMPK signaling might represent a novel therapeutic approach to address the multi-factorial problem of cardiovascular disease.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31815823

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00005344-900000000-98463

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Cannabinoids: A Guide for Use in the World of Gastrointestinal Disease.

Image result for ovid journal“Cannabinoids have been known as the primary component of cannabis for decades, but the characterization of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the 1990s opened the doors for cannabis’ use in modern medicine.

The 2 main receptors of this system, cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, are found on cells of various tissues, with significant expression in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The characterization of the ECS also heralded the understanding of endocannabinoids, naturally occurring compounds synthesized in the human body.

Although research on the effects of both endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids has been slow due to the complicated legal history of cannabis, discoveries of cannabinoids‘ treatment potential have been found in various fields of medicine, including the GI world.

Medical cannabis has since been offered as a treatment for a myriad of conditions and malignancies, including cancer, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, nausea, posttraumatic stress disorder, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cachexia, glaucoma, and epilepsy.

This article hopes to create an overview of current research on cannabinoids and the ECS, detail the potential advantages and pitfalls of their use in GI diseases, and explore possible future developments in this field.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31789770

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004836-900000000-97668

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The role of the endocannabinoid system in aetiopathogenesis of endometriosis: A potential therapeutic target.

European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Home“Endometriosis affects a large proportion of women during their reproductive years and is associated with pain and infertility, also affecting psychological wellbeing and quality of life. The pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear, although it is believed to be multifactorial.

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) consists of a number of ligands, receptors and enzymes, and has gained interests in endometriosis research. This review aims to summarise all available evidence reporting the roles of the ECS in endometriosis.

A literature search of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science electronic medical databases was performed. Original and review articles published in peer-reviewed journals were included. No publication date or publication status restrictions were imposed.

Significant differences in the concentrations and expressions of the components of the ECS were reported in the eutopic and ectopic endometrium, and the systemic circulation of women with endometriosis compared to controls. Endometriosis appears to be associated with downregulation of CB1 receptors and upregulation of TRPV1 receptors.

The role of CB1 and progesterone in anti-inflammatory action and the role of TRPV1 in inflammation and pain are of particular interests. Furthermore, the ECS has been reported to be involved in processes relevant to endometriosis, including cell migration, cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, and interacts with sex steroid hormones.

The ECS may play a role in disease establishment, progression, and pain in endometriosis. However, reports are based on studies of limited size and there are inconsistencies among the definition of their control groups. There are also conflicting reports regarding precise involvement of the ECS in endometriosis. Future research with larger numbers, strict inclusion and exclusion criteria and detailed clinical information is imperative.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31785471

https://www.ejog.org/article/S0301-2115(19)30526-3/fulltext

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Investigation of the Involvement of the Endocannabinoid System in TENS-induced Antinociception.

“Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) promotes antinociception by activating the descending pain modulation pathway and consequently releasing endogenous analgesic substances.

In addition, recent studies have shown that the endocannabinoid system controls pain. Thus, the present study investigated the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in TENS-induced antinociception of cancer pain using a cancer pain model induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) injections of Ehrlich tumor cells in male Swiss mice.

These results suggest that low- and high-frequency TENS is effective in controlling cancer pain, and the endocannabinoid system is involved in this effect at both the peripheral and central levels.

Perspective: TENS is a non-pharmacological strategy that may be used to control cancer pain. Identification of a new mechanism involved in its analgesic effect could lead to the development of clinical studies as well as an increase in its application, lessening the need for pharmacological treatments.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31785404

https://www.jpain.org/article/S1526-5900(19)30868-5/fulltext

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Influence of the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor ligands on the activity of atypical antidepressant drugs in the behavioural tests in mice.

Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior“Available data support the notion that cannabinoids, whose therapeutic value is limited due to severe adverse reactions, could be beneficial as adjunctive agents in the management of mood disorders.

Polytherapy, which is superior to monotherapy in the terms of effectiveness, usually requires lower doses of the individual components. Therefore, the main objective of our study was to determine whether administration of cannabinoid (CB) receptor ligands would enhance the antidepressant activity of atypical antidepressant drugs, i.e. agomelatine and tianeptine.

In summary, the outcomes of the present study showed that activation and inhibition of CB1 receptors as well as inhibition of CB2 receptors may increase the antidepressant activity of tianeptine, whereas only inhibition of CB1 and CB2 receptors has a potential to augment the antidepressant activity of agomelatine.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31785246

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091305719304873?via%3Dihub

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The Endocannabinoid System in Pediatric Inflammatory and Immune Diseases.

 ijms-logo“Endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors, their endogenous ligands, and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation. CB2, to a great extent, and CB1, to a lesser extent, are involved in regulating the immune response. They also regulate the inflammatory processes by inhibiting pro-inflammatory mediator release and immune cell proliferation. This review provides an overview on the role of the endocannabinoid system with a major focus on cannabinoid receptors in the pathogenesis and onset of inflammatory and autoimmune pediatric diseases, such as immune thrombocytopenia, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, obesity, neuroinflammatory diseases, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. These disorders have a high social impact and represent a burden for the healthcare system, hence the importance of individuating more innovative and effective treatments. The endocannabinoid system could address this need, representing a possible new diagnostic marker and therapeutic target.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31771129

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/23/5875

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The curative effect of a cannabinoid 2 receptor agonist on functional failure and disruptive inflammation caused by intestinal ischemia and reperfusion.

Publication cover image“As we learn more about the endocannabinoid system (ECS), our understanding and grasp of the system’s ubiquitous presence is expanding. In light of this, there is also a growing body of evidence for the therapeutic potential of ECS modulation in a range of clinical situations. Strategies include for example manipulation of the Cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor, mostly in terms of CNS processes, and activation of the Cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor as anti-inflammatory target.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31774568

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/fcp.12524

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Reduced cannabinoid 2 receptor activity increases susceptibility to induced seizures in mice.

Publication cover image“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is comprised of cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1R and CB2R), endogenous ligands, and regulatory enzymes, and serves to regulate several important physiological functions throughout the brain and body.

Recent evidence suggests that the ECS may be a promising target for the treatment of epilepsy, including epilepsy subtypes that arise from mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel SCN1A.

The objective of this study was to explore the effects of modulating CB2R activity on seizure susceptibility.

Our results demonstrate that reduced CB2R activity is associated with increased seizure susceptibility. CB2Rs might therefore provide a therapeutic target for the treatment of some forms of epilepsy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31758544

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/epi.16388

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Cannabinoid receptor 2 activation decreases severity of cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis via regulating autophagy.

Publication cover image“Cannabinoids have been shown to exert analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, and the effects of cannabinoids are mediated primarily by cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2).

The objective of this study was to determine efficacy and mechanism of CB2 activation on cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis in vivo.

CONCLUSIONS:

Activation of CB2 decreased severity of CYP-induced cystitis and ameliorated bladder inflammation. CB2 activation is protective in cystitis through the activation of autophagy and AMPK-mTOR pathway may be involved in the initiation of autophagy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31729056

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/nau.24205

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Δ9-THC and related cannabinoids suppress substance P- induced neurokinin NK1-receptor-mediated vomiting via activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor.

European Journal of Pharmacology

“Δ9-THC suppresses cisplatin-induced vomiting through activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors.

Cisplatin-evoked emesis is predominantly due to release of serotonin and substance P (SP) in the gut and the brainstem which subsequently stimulate their corresponding 5-HT3-and neurokinin NK1-receptors to induce vomiting. Δ9-THC can inhibit vomiting caused either by the serotonin precursor 5-HTP, or the 5-HT3 receptor selective agonist, 2-methyserotonin.

In the current study, we explored whether Δ9-THC and related CB1/CB2 receptor agonists (WIN55,212-2 and CP55,940) inhibit vomiting evoked by SP (50 mg/kg, i.p.) or the NK1 receptor selective agonist GR73632 (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Behavioral methods were employed to determine the antiemetic efficacy of cannabinoids in least shrews.

Our results showed that administration of varying doses of Δ9-THC (i.p. or s.c.), WIN55,212-2 (i.p.), or CP55,940 (i.p.) caused significant suppression of SP-evoked vomiting in a dose-dependent manner. When tested against GR73632, Δ9-THC also dose-dependently reduced the evoked emesis.

The antiemetic effect of Δ9-THC against SP-induced vomiting was prevented by low non-emetic doses of the CB1 receptor inverse-agonist/antagonist SR141716A (<10 mg/kg). We also found that the NK1 receptor antagonist netupitant can significantly suppress vomiting caused by a large emetic dose of SR141716A (20 mg/kg).

In sum, Δ9-THC and related cannabinoids suppress vomiting evoked by the nonselective (SP) and selective (GR73632) neurokinin NK1 receptor agonists via stimulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31738934

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299919307587?via%3Dihub

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