“Redox imbalance may lead to overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and subsequent oxidative tissue damage which is a critical event in the course of neurodegenerative diseases. It is still not fully elucidated, however, whether oxidative stress is the primary trigger or a consequence in process of neurodegeneration.
Recent Advances: Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the propagation of neuronal injury and consequent inflammatory response, which in concert promote development of pathological alterations characteristic of most common neurodegenerative diseases.
Critical Issue: Accumulating recent evidence also suggests that there is an important interplay between the lipid endocannabinoid system (ECS; comprising of the main cannabinoid 1 and 2 receptors (CB1 and CB2), endocannabinoids and their synthetic and metabolizing enzymes) and various key inflammatory and redox-dependent processes.
Targeting the ECS in order to modulate redox state-dependent cell death, and to decrease consequent or preceding inflammatory response holds therapeutic potential in multitude of oxidative stress-related acute or chronic neurodegenerative disorders from stroke and traumatic brain injury to Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s diseases, and multiple sclerosis, just to name a few, which will be discussed in this overview.”
“The endocannabinoid (eCB) system has attracted attention for its role in various behavioral and brain functions, and as a therapeutic target in neuropsychiatric disease states, including anxiety disorders and other conditions resulting from dysfunctional responses to stress. In this mini-review, we highlight components of the eCB system that offer potential ‘druggable’ targets for new anxiolytic medications, emphasizing some of the less well-discussed options. We discuss how selectively amplifying eCBs recruitment by interfering with eCB-degradation, via fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), has been linked to reductions in anxiety-like behaviors in rodents and variation in human anxiety symptoms. We also discuss a non-canonical route to regulate eCB degradation that involves interfering with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Next, we discuss approaches to targeting eCB receptor-signaling in ways that do not involve the cannabinoid receptor subtype 1 (CB1R); by targeting the CB2R subtype and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1). Finally, we review evidence that cannabidiol (CBD), while representing a less specific pharmacological approach, may be another way to modulate eCBs and interacting neurotransmitter systems to alleviate anxiety. Taken together, these various approaches provide a range of plausible paths to developing novel compounds that could prove useful for treating trauma-related and anxiety disorders.”
“Endocannabinoids are bioactive lipids that modulate various physiological processes through G-protein-coupled receptors (CB1 and CB2) and other putative targets. By sharing the activation of the same receptors, some phytocannabinoids and a multitude of synthetic cannabinoids mimic the effects of endocannabinoids.
In recent years, a growing interest has been dedicated to the study of cannabinoids properties for their analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In addition to these well-recognized effects, various studies suggest that cannabinoids may affect cell survival, cell proliferation or cell death. These observations indicate that cannabinoids may play an important role in the regulation of cellular homeostasis and, thus, may contribute to tissue remodelling and cancer treatment.
For a long time, the study of cannabinoid receptor signalling has been focused on the classical adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. However, this pathway does not totally explain the wide array of biological responses to cannabinoids. In addition, the diversity of receptors and signalling pathways that endocannabinoids modulate offers an interesting opportunity for the development of specific molecules to disturb selectively the endogenous system.
Moreover, emerging evidences suggest that cannabinoids ability to limit cell proliferation and to induce tumour-selective cell death may offer a novel strategy in cancer treatment.
This review describes the main properties of cannabinoids in cell death and attempts to clarify the different pathways triggered by these compounds that may help to understand the complexity of respective molecular mechanisms and explore the potential clinical benefit of cannabinoids use in cancer therapies.”
“To investigate the effect of metabolic syndrome on the bladder cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1/CB2) expression and function in the fructose-fed rats (FR).
CB1/CB2 receptors mediate rat bladder relaxation through the PKA and KATP pathway. The CB1 receptor may play a more prominent role. The response is decreased in the FR bladder due to reduced expressions of the cannabinoid receptors.”
“Monoglyceride lipase (MGL) hydrolyzes monoglycerides (MGs) to glycerol and fatty acids. Among various MG species MGL also degrades 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), the most abundant endocannabinoid and potent activator of cannabinoid receptors (CBR) 1 and 2. MGL-knockout (-/-) mice exhibit pronounced 2-AG accumulation, but lack central cannabimimetic effects due to CB1R desensitization. We have previously shown that MGL affects plaque stability in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-/- mice, an established animal model for dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. In the current study, we investigated functional consequences of MGL deficiency on lipid and energy metabolism in ApoE/MGL double knockout (DKO) mice. MGL deficiency affected hepatic cholesterol metabolism by causing increased cholesterol elimination via the biliary pathway. Moreover, DKO mice exhibit lipid-triggered delay in gastric emptying without major effects on overall triglyceride and cholesterol absorption. The observed phenotype of DKO mice is likely not a consequence of potentiated CB1R signaling but rather dependent on the activation of alternative signaling pathways. We conclude that MGL deficiency causes complex metabolic changes including cholesterol metabolism and regulation of gut transit independent of the endocannabinoid system.”
“Oral, Head & Neck Cancer Awareness Month. While smoking and tobacco use are still major risk factors, the fastest growing segment of oral cancer patients is young, healthy, nonsmoking individuals due to the connection to the HPV virus. We cannot stop this virus from spreading; our only hope to save lives is with professional involvement and public awareness.” http://oralcancerfoundation.org/events/oral-head-neck-cancer-awareness-month/
“Bogarting that joint might decrease oral hpv among cannabis users. The development of oral cancer is not a result of smoking cannabis per se; rather, it is hypothesized to be a result of contracting hpv through various forms of sharing and passing joints and other smoking apparatuses. Therefore, it is hypothesized that bogarting (and not passing) joints might decrease oral hpv among cannabis smokers.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2794675/
“Type of food and risk of oral cancer. To reduce the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer, especially squamous cell carcinoma, the most common oral cancer, diet must be optimized, primarily to reduce calorie intake, monounsaturated fat, and red or processed meat. Consumption of fruits, vegetables, and cereals, which are the major source of vitamins and fiber, should be adequate in the daily diet. Optimal levels of daily allowance of micronutrients like vitamin C, E, antioxidants, zinc, beta-carotene, and folate are effective in prevention of oral cancer. Consumption of fried or broiled foods and employment of microwave cooking, because of formation of heterocyclic amines, must be avoided because of increasing risks of oral cancer including the salivary gland tumors.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17367228
“Review of Various Herbal Supplements as Complementary Treatments for Oral Cancer. Diet changes, supplementation with antioxidants, high-dose vitamin C therapy, and cannabinoid use have been suggested to decrease cancer cell replication and increase chance of remission.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863913
“Cannabinoids Attenuate Cancer Pain and Proliferation in a Mouse Model. Our results suggest that systemic administration of cannabinoids decease oral cancer pain. Our findings suggest a direct role for cannabinoid mechanisms in oral cancer pain and proliferation. The systemic administration of cannabinoid receptor agonists may have important therapeutic implications wherein cannabinoid receptor agonists may reduce morbidity and mortality of oral cancer. The present findings suggest that cannabinoid treatment may be a promising alternative therapy for oral cancer pain management.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3099480/
“Cannabinoids Inhibit Cellular Respiration of Human Oral Cancer Cells. The primary cannabinoids, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC) are known to disturb the mitochondrial function and possess antitumor activities. These observations prompted us to investigate their effects on the mitochondrial O2 consumption in human oral cancer cells (Tu183). This epithelial cell line overexpresses bcl-2 and is highly resistant to anticancer drugs. A rapid decline in the rate of respiration was observed when Δ9-THC or Δ8-THC was added to the cells. These results show the cannabinoids are potent inhibitors of Tu183 cellular respiration and are toxic to this highly malignant tumor.” https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/312686
“Evaluation of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors expression in mobile tongue squamous cell carcinoma: associations with clinicopathological parameters and patients’ survival. The present study provides evidence that CB1R and CB2R may play a role in the pathophysiological aspects of the mobile tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and even each molecule may constitute a potential target for the development of novel anti-cancer drugs for this type of malignancy.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26459312
“Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells. CBD represents the first nontoxic exogenous agent that can significantly decrease Id-1 expression in metastatic breast cancer cells. Moreover, reducing Id-1 expression with cannabinoids could also provide a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of additional aggressive cancers because Id-1 expression was found to be up-regulated during the progression of almost all types” http://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/6/11/2921.long
“The endocannabinoid system and cancer: therapeutic implication. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that cannabinoids are efficacious in reducing cancer progression (i.e. inhibition of tumour growth and metastases as well as induction of apoptosis and other anti-cancer properties) in breast, prostate and bone cancer. Although this review focuses on these three types of cancer, activation of the endocannabinoid signalling system produces anti-cancer effects in other types of cancer.” http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01327.x/full
“Medical marijuana use in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy. The purpose of the study was to better understand why patients with history of head and neck cancer (HNC) treated with radiotherapy are using medical marijuana (MM). HNC patients report MM use to help with long-term side effects of radiotherapy.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27005465
“A Population-based Case-Control Study of Marijuana Use and Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Our study suggests that moderate marijuana use is associated with reduced risk of head and neck cancer (HNSCC). In fact, many of these studies reported non-significant protective estimates of effect, consistent with a possible anticarcinogenic action of cannabinoids.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2812803/
“JWH015 is a cannabinoid (CB) receptor type 2 agonist that produces immunomodulatory effects. Since skin cells play a key role in inflammatory conditions and tissue repair, we investigated the ability of JWH015 to promote an anti-inflammatory and pro-wound healing phenotype in human primary skin cells.
The expression of CB1 and CB2 receptors (mRNA) and the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors enhanced in keratinocytes and fibroblasts following lipopolysaccharide stimulation. JWH015 reduced the concentration of major pro-inflammatory factors (IL-6 and MCP-1) and increased the concentration of a major anti-inflammatory factor (TGF-β) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells.
JWH015 induced a faster scratch gap closure. These JWH015’seffects were mainly modulated through both CB1 and CB2 receptors. Topically administered JWH015 was mostly retained in the skin and displayed a sustained and low level of transdermal permeation.
Our findings suggest that targeting keratinocytes and fibroblasts with cannabinoid drugs could represent a therapeutic strategy to resolve peripheral inflammation and promote tissue repair.”
“The endocannabinoid system is involved in some neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. An endogenous constellation of proteins related to cannabinoid1 receptor signaling, including free fatty acids, diacylglycerol lipase, and N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase, are localized in the murine retina. Moreover, the expression levels of endogenous agonists of cannabinoid receptors are changed in the vitreous fluid.
However, the role of the endocannabinoid system in the retina, particularly in the light-induced photoreceptor degeneration, remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated involvement of the cannabinoid1 receptor in light-induced retinal degeneration using in vitro and in vivo models.
Rimonabant suppressed light-induced photoreceptor cell death. Cannabinoid1 receptor expression was upregulated by light exposure. Treatment with rimonabant improved both a- and b-wave amplitudes and the thickness of the outer nuclear layer.
These results suggest that the cannabinoid1 receptor is involved in light-induced retinal degeneration and it may represent a therapeutic target in the light-induced photoreceptor degeneration related diseases.”
“The endocannabinoid system is involved in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. However, most of the findings come from experiment researches on animal model or clinical trial on chronic hepatitis C.
The roles of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) in hepatofibrosis on patients with chronic hepatitis B(CHB) have not been studied universally. This study aimed to explore the relationship between liver fibrosis and expressions of CB1 and CB2 on patients with CHB.
The hepatic expressions of CB1 and CB2 play important roles during the progression of fibrosis induced by CHB. Endogenous activation of CB1 receptors in patients with CHB enhances fibrogenesis by direct effect on activated HSCs.”