Antitumor Activity of Abnormal Cannabidiol and Its Analog O-1602 in Taxol-Resistant Preclinical Models of Breast Cancer.

Image result for frontiers in pharmacology“Cannabinoids exhibit anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic properties.

Contrary to most cannabinoids present in the Cannabis plant, some, such as O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol, have no or only little affinity to the CB1 or CB2 cannabinoid receptors and instead exert their effects through other receptors.

Here, we investigated whether the synthetic regioisomers of cannabidiol, abnormal cannabidiol, and a closely related compound, O-1602, display antitumorigenic effects in cellular models of breast cancer and whether it could reduce tumorigenesis in vivo.

Several studies have shown the effects of cannabinoids on chemotherapy-sensitive breast cancer cell lines, but less is known about the antitumorigenic effects of cannabinoids in chemotherapy-resistant cell lines.

Paclitaxel-resistant MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines were used to study the effect of O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol on viability, apoptosis, and migration. The effects of O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol on cell viability were completely blocked by the combination of GPR55 and GPR18-specific siRNAs. Both O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol decreased viability in paclitaxel-resistant breast cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner through induction of apoptosis. The effect of these cannabinoids on tumor growth in vivo was studied in a zebrafish xenograft model. In this model, treatment with O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol (2 µM) significantly reduced tumor growth.

Our results suggest that atypical cannabinoids, like O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol, exert antitumorigenic effects on paclitaxel-resistant breast cancer cells. Due to their lack of central sedation and psychoactive effects, these atypical cannabinoids could represent new leads for the development of additional anticancer treatments when resistance to conventional chemotherapy occurs during the treatment of breast and possibly other cancers.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31611800

“Our results suggest that some cannabinoids acting through the GPR55 and/or GPR18 receptors can be helpful in inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines that are unresponsive to paclitaxel. The effects of O-1602 and Abn-CBD on cell viability were observed both in vitro and in a zebrafish xenograft model. These drugs were also reducing cell migration. Taken together, even if no synergistic antitumor effect is always observed when cannabinoids and chemotherapeutic agents are combined as an anticancer treatment, cannabinoids can still provide anticancer benefits on top of their palliative effects. This is particularly important in the context of cancers that have developed resistance to current chemotherapies.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2019.01124/full

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Cellular Distribution of Canonical and Putative Cannabinoid Receptors in Canine Cervical Dorsal Root Ganglia.

Image result for frontiers in veterinary science“Growing evidence indicates cannabinoid receptors as potential therapeutic targets for chronic pain.

Consequently, there is an increasing interest in developing cannabinoid receptor agonists for treating human and veterinary pain.

The present study may represent a morphological substrate to consider in order to develop therapeutic strategies against chronic pain.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31608295

“The anti-nociceptive potential of the endocannabinoid system has prompted the development of therapeutic cannabinoid receptors agonists or medical marjiuana to be used in pets in order to treat chronic pain.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2019.00313/full

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Absence of Entourage: Terpenoids Commonly Found in Cannabis sativa Do Not Modulate the Functional Activity of Δ9-THC at Human CB1 and CB2 Receptors.

 View details for Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research cover image“Compounds present in Cannabis sativa such as phytocannabinoids and terpenoids may act in concert to elicit therapeutic effects. Cannabinoids such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) directly activate cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2); however, it is not known if terpenoids present in Cannabis also affect cannabinoid receptor signaling. Therefore, we examined six common terpenoids alone, and in combination with cannabinoid receptor agonists, on CB1 and CB2 signaling in vitro.

Results: α-Pinene, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene, linalool, limonene, and β-myrcene (up to 30-100 μM) did not change membrane potential in AtT20 cells expressing CB1 or CB2, or affect the response to a maximally effective concentration of the synthetic cannabinoid CP55,940. The presence of individual or a combination of terpenoids did not affect the hyperpolarization produced by Δ9-THC (10 μM): (CB1: control, 59%±7%; with terpenoids (10 μM each) 55%±4%; CB2: Δ9-THC 16%±5%, with terpenoids (10 μM each) 17%±4%). To investigate possible effect on desensitization of CB1 responses, all six terpenoids were added together with Δ9-THC and signaling measured continuously over 30 min. Terpenoids did not affect desensitization, after 30 min the control hyperpolarization recovered by 63%±6% in the presence of the terpenoids recovery was 61%±5%.

Discussion: None of the six of the most common terpenoids in Cannabis directly activated CB1 or CB2, or modulated the signaling of the phytocannabinoid agonist Δ9-THC. These results suggest that if a phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effect exists, it is not at the CB1 or CB2 receptor level. It remains possible that terpenoids activate CB1 and CB2 signaling pathways that do not involve potassium channels; however, it seems more likely that they may act at different molecular target(s) in the neuronal circuits important for the behavioral effect of Cannabis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31559333

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/can.2019.0016

“Terpenoids and Phytocannabinoids Co-Produced in Cannabis Sativa Strains Show Specific Interaction for Cell Cytotoxic Activity. We found that in “high THC” or “high CBD” strains, phytocannabinoids are produced alongside certain sets of terpenoids. Only co-related terpenoids enhanced the cytotoxic activity of phytocannabinoids on MDA-MB-231 and HCT-116 cell lines. This was found to be most effective in natural ratios found in extracts of cannabis inflorescence.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31438532

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Involvement of Spinal Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors in Exercise-Induced Antinociception.

Neuroscience“Muscle pain affects approximately 11-24% of the global population.

Several studies have shown that exercise is a non-pharmacological therapy to pain control. It has been suggested that the endocannabinoid system is involved in this antinociceptive effect.

The present study aimed to investigate whether spinal cannabinoid CB2 receptors participate in the exercise-induced antinociception.

The present study suggests that activation of spinal cannabinoid CB2 receptors and reduction of activated microglia are involved in exercise-induced antinociception.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31473278

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306452219306165?via%3Dihub

“Exercise activates the endocannabinoid system.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14625449

“The endocannabinoid system and pain.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19839937

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Cannabinoids in Gynecological Diseases

Related image“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a multifunctional homeostatic system involved in many physiological and pathological conditions. The ligands of the ECS are the endo­cannabinoids, whose actions are mimicked by exogenous cannabinoids, such as phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids. Responses to the ligands of the ECS are mediated by numerous receptors like the classical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) as well as ECS-related receptors, e.g., G protein-coupled receptors 18 and 55 (GPR18 and GPR55), transient receptor potential ion channels, and nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The ECS regulates almost all levels of female reproduction, starting with oocyte production through to parturition. Dysregulation of the ECS is associated with the development of gynecological disorders from fertility disorders to cancer. Cannabinoids that act at the ECS as specific agonists or antagonists may potentially influence dysregulation and, therefore, represent new therapeutic options for the therapy of gynecological disorders.”

https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/499164

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The “entourage effect”: Terpenes coupled with cannabinoids for the treatment of mood disorders and anxiety disorders.

“Mood disorders are the most prevalent mental conditions encountered in psychiatric practice. Numerous patients suffering from mood disorders present with treatment-resistant forms of depression, co-morbid anxiety, other psychiatric disorders and bipolar disorders.

Standardized essential oils (such as that of Lavender officinalis) have been shown to exert clinical efficacy in treating anxiety disorders. As endocannabinoids are suggested to play an important role in major depression, generalized anxiety and bipolar disorders, Cannabis sativa, was suggested for their treatment.

The endocannabinoid system is widely distributed throughout the body including the brain, modulating many functions. It is involved in mood and related disorders, and its activity may be modified by exogenous cannabinoids.

CB1 and CB2 receptors primarily serve as the binding sites for endocannabinoids as well as for phytocannabinoids, produced by cannabis inflorescences. However, ‘cannabis’ is not a single compound product but is known for its complicated molecular profile, producing a plethora of phytocannabinoids alongside a vast array of terpenes.

Thus, the “entourage effect” is the suggested positive contribution derived from the addition of terpenes to cannabinoids. Here we review the literature on the effects of cannabinoids and discuss the possibility of enhancing cannabinoid activity on psychiatric symptoms by the addition of terpenes and terpenoids.

Possible underlying mechanisms for the anti-depressant and anxiolytic effects are reviewed. These natural products may be an important potential source for new medications for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31481004

http://www.eurekaselect.com/174648/article

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Insights into biased signaling at cannabinoid receptors: synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists.

Biochemical Pharmacology“Cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2) are promising targets for a number of diseases, including obesity, neuropathic pain, and multiple sclerosis, among others.

Upon ligand-mediated activation of these receptors, multiple receptor conformations could be stabilized, resulting in a complex pattern of possible intracellular effects. Although numerous compounds have been developed and widely used to target cannabinoid receptors, their mode of action and signaling properties are often only poorly characterized.

From a drug development point of view, unraveling the underlying complex signaling mechanism could offer the possibility to generate medicines with the desired therapeutic profile.

Recently, an increased interest has emerged for the development of agonists that are signaling pathway-selective and thereby do not evoke on-target adverse effects. This phenomenon, in which specific pathways are preferred upon receptor activation by certain ligands, is also known as ‘biased signaling’.

For a particular group of cannabinoid receptor ligands (i.e. CB1/CB2 agonists), namely the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs), the research on biased signaling is still in its infancy and interesting outcomes are only recently being revealed.

Therefore, this review aims at providing insights into the recent knowledge about biased agonism mediated by SCRAs so far. In addition, as these outcomes are obtained using a distinct panel of functional assays, the accompanying difficulties and challenges when comparing functional outcomes are critically discussed. Finally, some guidance on the conceptualization of ideal in vitro assays for the detection of SCRA-mediated biased agonism, which is also relevant for compounds belonging to other chemical classes, is provided.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31472128

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006295219303132?via%3Dihub

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Δ8 -Tetrahydrocannabivarin has potent anti-nicotine effects in multiple rodent models of nicotine dependence.

British Journal of Pharmacology banner“Both types of cannabinoid receptors – CB1 and CB2 – regulate brain functions relating to addictive drug-induced reward and relapse. CB1 receptor antagonists and CB2 receptor agonists have anti-addiction efficacy, in animal models, against a broad range of addictive drugs.

Δ9 -Tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ9 -THCV) – a cannabis constituent – acts as a CB1 antagonist and a CB2 agonist. Δ8 -Tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ8 -THCV) is a Δ9 -THCV analogue with similar combined CB1 antagonist/CB2agonist properties.

KEY RESULTS:

Δ8 -THCV significantly attenuated intravenous nicotine self-administration, and both cue-induced and nicotine-induced relapse to nicotine-seeking behavior in rats. Δ8 -THCV also significantly attenuated nicotine-induced conditioned place preference and nicotine withdrawal in mice.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

We conclude that Δ8 -THCV may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of nicotine dependence. We also suggest that tetrahydrocannabivarins should be tested for possible anti-addiction efficacy in a broader range of preclinical animal models, against other addictive drugs, and eventually in humans.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31454413

https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bph.14844

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Activation of Cannabinoid Receptors Promote Periodontal Cell Adhesion and Migration.

Journal of Clinical Periodontology banner“Medical and recreational cannabis use is increasing significantly, but its impacts on oral health remains unclear.

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active component in cannabis, on periodontal fibroblast cell adhesion and migration to explore its role in periodontal regeneration and wound healing.

RESULTS:

Both CB1 and CB2 were expressed in periodontal tissues but with different expression patterns. THC promoted periodontal cell wound healing by inducing HPLF cell adhesion and migration. This was mediated by focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation and its modulation of MAPK activities. The effect of cannabinoids on periodontal fibroblast cell adhesion and migration were mainly dependent on the CB2.

CONCLUSION:

These results suggested that cannabinoids may contribute to developing new therapeutics for periodontal regeneration and wound healing.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31461164

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jcpe.13190

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Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid receptor 2 in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications.

European Journal of Pharmacology“The biological effects of endocannabinoid system are mediated by two types of receptors, cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2). They play a pivotal role in the management of pain, inflammation, cancer, obesity and diabetes mellitus.

CB2 receptor activity downregulation is hallmark of inflammation and oxidative stress. Strong evidence display the relation between activation of CB2 receptors with decrease in the pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-apoptotic factors. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have been validated to confirm the role of CB2 receptor in the management of obesity, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus by regulating glucose and lipid metabolism.

Activation of CB2 receptor has led to reduction of inflammatory cytokines; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κβ) and also amelioration of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species playing role in apoptosis. Many studies confirmed the role of CB2 receptors in the insulin secretion via facilitating calcium entry into the pancreatic β-cells. CB2 receptors also displayed improvement in the neuronal and renal functions by decreasing the oxidative stress and downregulating inflammatory cascade.

The present review addresses, potential role of CB2 receptor activation in management of diabetes and its complications. It also includes the role of CB2 receptors as an anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory for the treatment of DM and its complications. Also, an informative summary of CB2 receptor agonist drugs is provided with their potential role in the reduction of glucose levels, increment in the insulin levels, decrease in the hyperglycaemic oxidative stress and inflammation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31461639

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299919305801?via%3Dihub

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