Effects of Cannabinoid Agonists and Antagonists on Sleep and Breathing in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

Issue Cover

“There are no pharmacological treatments for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but dronabinol showed promise in a small pilot study. In anesthetized rats, dronabinol attenuates reflex apnea via activation of cannabinoid (CB) receptors located on vagal afferents; an effect blocked by cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and/or type 2 (CB2) receptor antagonists. Here, using a natural model of central sleep apnea, we examine the effects of dronabinol, alone and in combination with selective antagonists in conscious rats chronically instrumented to stage sleep and measure cessation of breathing.

RESULTS:

Dronabinol decreased the percent time spent in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. CB receptor antagonists did not reverse this effect. Dronabinol also decreased apneas during sleep, and this apnea suppression was reversed by CB1 or CB1/CB2 receptor antagonism.

CONCLUSIONS:

Dronabinol’s effects on apneas were dependent on CB1 receptor activation, while dronabinol’s effects on REM sleep were CB receptor-independent.”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Targeting fatty acid amide hydrolase as a therapeutic strategy for antitussive therapy.

European Respiratory Society

“Cough is the most common reason to visit a primary care physician, yet it remains an unmet medical need. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an enzyme that breaks down endocannabinoids, and inhibition of FAAH produces analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Cannabinoids inhibit vagal sensory nerve activation and the cough reflex, so it was hypothesised that FAAH inhibition would produce antitussive activity via elevation of endocannabinoids.

Primary vagal ganglia neurons, tissue bioassay, in vivoelectrophysiology and a conscious guinea pig cough model were utilised to investigate a role for fatty acid amides in modulating sensory nerve activation in vagal afferents. FAAH inhibition produced antitussive activity in guinea pigs with concomitant plasma elevation of the fatty acid amides N-arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide), palmitoylethanolamide, N-oleoylethanolamide and linoleoylethanolamide. Palmitoylethanolamide inhibited tussive stimulus-induced activation of guinea pig airway innervating vagal ganglia neurons, depolarisation of guinea pig and human vagus, and firing of C-fibre afferents. These effects were mediated via a cannabinoid CB2/Gi/o-coupled pathway and activation of protein phosphatase 2A, resulting in increased calcium sensitivity of calcium-activated potassium channels.

These findings identify FAAH inhibition as a target for the development of novel, antitussive agents without the undesirable side-effects of direct cannabinoid receptor agonists.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28931663

http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/50/3/1700782

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Re-visiting the Endocannabinoid System and Its Therapeutic Potential in Obesity and Associated Diseases.

 Current Diabetes Reports

“The purpose of the review was to revisit the possibility of the endocannabinoid system being a therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity by focusing on the peripheral roles in regulating appetite and energy metabolism.

Previous studies with the global cannabinoid receptor blocker rimonabant, which has both central and peripheral properties, showed that this drug has beneficial effects on cardiometabolic function but severe adverse psychiatric side effects. Consequently, focus has shifted to peripherally restricted cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor blockers as possible therapeutic agents that mitigate or eliminate the untoward effects in the central nervous system.

Targeting the endocannabinoid system using novel peripheral CB1 receptor blockers with negligible penetrance across the blood-brain barrier may prove to be effective therapy for obesity and its co-morbidities.

Perhaps the future of blockers targeting CB1 receptors will be tissue-specific neutral antagonists (e.g., skeletal muscle specific to treat peripheral insulin resistance, adipocyte-specific to treat fat excess, liver-specific to treat fatty liver and hepatic insulin resistance).”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28913816

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11892-017-0924-x

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Inhibition of Wnt/β-Catenin pathway and Histone acetyltransferase activity by Rimonabant: a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

 

“In a high percentage (≥85%) of both sporadic and familial adenomatous polyposis forms of colorectal cancer (CRC), the inactivation of the APC tumor suppressor gene initiates tumor formation and modulates the Wnt/β-Catenin transduction pathways involved in the control of cell proliferation, adhesion and metastasis.

Increasing evidence showed that the endocannabinoids control tumor growth and progression, both in vitro and in vivo.

We evaluated the effect of Rimonabant, a Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB1) inverse agonist, on the Wnt/β-Catenin pathway in HCT116 and SW48 cell lines carrying the genetic profile of metastatic CRC poorly responsive to chemotherapies.

Obtained data heavily supported the rationale for the use of cannabinoids in combined therapies for metastatic CRC harbouring activating mutations of β-Catenin.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28916833

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-11688-x

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Endocannabinoid mechanism in amphetamine-type stimulant use disorders: A short review.

Journal of Clinical Neuroscience Home

“Recent evidence shows that the endocannabinoid system is involved in amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) use disorders. To elucidate the role of the endocannabinoid system in ATS addiction, we reviewed results of studies using cannabinoid receptor agonists, antagonists as well as knockout model.

The endocannabinoid system seems to play a role in reinstatement and relapse of ATS addiction and ATS-induced psychiatric symptoms. The molecular mechanisms of this system remains unclear, the association with dopamine system in nucleus accumbens is most likely involved. However, the function of the endocannabinoid system in anxiety and anti-anxiety effects induced by ATS is more complicated.

These findings suggest that the endocannabinoid system may play an important role in the mechanism of ATS addiction and provide new idea for treating ATS addiction.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28912087

http://www.jocn-journal.com/article/S0967-5868(17)30989-X/fulltext

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

The role of cannabinoid receptors in renal diseases.

Image result for Curr Med Chem journal

“Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a major challenge for Public Health systems and corresponds to the replacement of renal functional tissue by extra-cellular matrix proteins such as collagens and fibronectin. There is no efficient treatment to date for CKD except nephroprotective strategies.

The cannabinoid system and more specifically the cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) may represent a new therapeutic target in CKD.

Our review will first focus on the current state of knowledge regarding the cannabinoid system in normal renal physiology and in various experimental nephropathies, especially diabetes.  We will review the data obtained in models of diabetes and obesity as well as in nonmetabolic models of renal fibrosis and emphasizes the promising role of CB1 blockers and CB2 agonists in the development of renal disease and fibrosis. Next, we will review the current state of knowledge regarding the cellular pathways involved in renal fibrogenesis and renal injury.

Overall, this review will highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting the cannabinoid receptors in CKD and diabetes.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28901271

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Polymorphism rs3123554 in the cannabinoid receptor gene type 2 (CNR2) reveals effects on body weight and insulin resistance in obese subjects.

Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición

“Few studies assessing the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms in CNR2 and obesity or its related metabolic parameters are available.

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the influence of polymorphism rs3123554 in the CNR2 receptor gene on obesity anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance, and adipokines in subjects with obesity.

DESIGN:

The study population consisted of 1027 obese subjects, who were performed bioelectrical impedance analyses, blood pressure measurements, serial assessments of dietary intake during three days, and biochemical tests.

RESULTS:

Genotypes GG, GA, and AA were found in 339 (33.0%), 467 (45.5%), and 221 (21.5%) respectively. Body mass index, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, insulin, HOMA-IR, and triglyceride and leptin levels were higher in A-allele carriers as compared to non A-allele carriers. No differences were seen in these parameters between the GA and AA genotypes. There were no statistical differences in dietary intake.

CONCLUSION:

The main study finding was the association of the minor allele of the SNP rs3123554 in the CNR2 gene with body weight and triglyceride, HOMA-IR, insulin, and leptin levels.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28895540

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2530016417301799?via%3Dihub

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Activation of dorsal horn cannabinoid CB2 receptor suppresses the expression of P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors in neuropathic pain rats.

Image result for journal of neuroinflammation

“More evidence suggests that dorsal spinal cord microglia is an important site contributing to CB2 receptor-mediated analgesia. The upregulation of P2Y12 and P2Y13 purinoceptors in spinal dorsal horn microglia is involved in the development of pain behavior caused by peripheral nerve injury. However, it is not known whether the expression of P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors at spinal dorsal horn will be influenced after CB2 receptor activation in neuropathic pain rats. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) and intrathecal ADPbetaS injection were performed in rats to induce neuropathic pain.

In CCI- and ADPbetaS-treated rats, AM1241 pretreatment could efficiently activate CB2 receptor, while inhibiting p38MAPK and NF-kappaB activation in the dorsal spinal cord. CB2 receptor stimulation decreased P2Y13 receptor expression via p38MAPK/NF-kappaB signaling. On the other hand, CB2 receptor activation decreased P2Y12 receptor expression via p38MAPK-independent NF-kappaB signaling pathway.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28899427

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Effects of coadministration of low dose cannabinoid type 2 receptor agonist and morphine on vanilloid receptor 1 expression in a rat model of cancer pain.

“Morphine is widely used as an analgesic to treat moderate to severe pain, but chronic morphine use is associated with development of tolerance and dependence, which limits its analgesic efficacy. Our previous research has showed that nonanalgetic dose of a cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor agonist reduced morphine tolerance in cancer pain. A previous study showed the colocalization of CB2 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in human and rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. Whether coadministration of a CB2 receptor agonist and morphine could reduce TRPV1 expression in morphine‑induced antinociception and tolerance in cancer pain is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of coadministration of a CB2 receptor agonist AM1241 and morphine on TRPV1 expression and tolerance in cancer pain. Coadministration of AM1241 and morphine for 8 days significantly reduced morphine tolerance, as assessed by measuring paw withdrawal latency to a radiant heat stimulation, in Walker 256 tumor‑bearing rats. Repeated morphine treatment for a period of 8 days induced upregulation of the TRPV1 protein expression levels in the DRG in the tumor‑bearing rats, although no change in mRNA expression. Pretreatment with AM1241 reduced this morphine‑induced upregulation of TRPV1 and the effect was reversed by the CB2 receptor antagonist AM630. Our findings suggest that coadministration of a CB2 receptor agonist AM1241 and morphine reduced morphine tolerance possibly through regulation of TRPV1 protein expression in the DRG in cancer pain.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28901432

https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/mmr.2017.7479

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Tingenone, a pentacyclic triterpene, induces peripheral antinociception due to cannabinoid receptors activation in mice.

 Image result for Inflammopharmacology.

“Several works have shown that triterpenes induce peripheral antinociception by activation of cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids; besides, several research groups have reported activation of cannabinoid receptors in peripheral antinociception.

The aim of this study was to assess the involvement of the cannabinoid system in the antinociceptive effect induced by tingenone against hyperalgesia evoked by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) at peripheral level.

The results suggest that tingenone induced a peripheral antinociceptive effect via cannabinoidreceptor activation. Therefore, this study suggests a pharmacological potential for a new analgesic drug.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28889355

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous