Localization of cannabinoid receptors CB1, CB2, GPR55, and PPARα in the canine gastrointestinal tract.

Histochemistry and Cell Biology

“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is composed of cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, and the enzymes involved in endocannabinoid turnover.

Modulating the activity of the ECS may influence a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes.

A growing body of evidence indicates that activation of cannabinoid receptors by endogenous, plant-derived, or synthetic cannabinoids may exert beneficial effects on gastrointestinal inflammation and visceral pain.

The present ex vivo study aimed to investigate immunohistochemically the distribution of cannabinoid receptors CB1, CB2, G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), and peroxisome proliferation activation receptor alpha (PPARα) in the canine gastrointestinal tract.

Cannabinoid receptors showed a wide distribution in the gastrointestinal tract of the dog.

Since cannabinoid receptors have a protective role in inflammatory bowel disease, the present research provides an anatomical basis supporting the therapeutic use of cannabinoid receptor agonists in relieving motility disorders and visceral hypersensitivity in canine acute or chronic enteropathies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29882158

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00418-018-1684-7

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Cannabinoids and gastrointestinal motility: Pharmacology, clinical effects, and potential therapeutics in humans.

Neurogastroenterology & Motility banner

“Cannabinoid agents and cannabis are frequently used for relief of diverse gastrointestinal symptoms.

PURPOSE:

The objective of this article is to increase the awareness of gastroenterologists to the effects of cannabinoids on gastrointestinal motility, as gastroenterologists are likely to encounter patients who are taking cannabinoids, or those with dysmotility that may be associated with cannabinoid mechanisms.

The non-selective cannabinoid agonist, dronabinol, retards gastric emptying and inhibits colonic tone and phasic pressure activity.

In summary, cannabinoid mechanisms and pharmacology are relevant to the current and future practice of clinical gastroenterology.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29745439

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/nmo.13370

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Modulation of central endocannabinoid system results in gastric mucosal protection in the rat.

Brain Research Bulletin

“Previous findings showed that inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), degrading enzymes of anandamide (2-AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), reduced the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastric lesions.

The present study aimed to investigate: i./whether central or peripheral mechanism play a major role in the gastroprotective effect of inhibitors of FAAH, MAGL and AEA uptake, ii./which peripheral mechanism(s) may play a role in mucosal protective effect of FAAH, MAGL and uptake inhibitors.

Gastric mucosal damage was induced by acidified ethanol.

 

CONCLUSION:

Elevation of central endocannabinoid levels by blocking their degradation or uptake via stimulation of mucosal defensive mechanisms resulted in gastroprotective action against ethanol-induced mucosal injury. These findings might suggest that central endocannabinoid system may play a role in gastric mucosal defense and maintenance of mucosal integrity.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29438780

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0361923017306044

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Maternal administration of cannabidiol promotes an anti-inflammatory effect on the intestinal wall in a gastroschisis rat model.

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

“Gastroschisis (GS) is an abdominal wall defect that results in histological and morphological changes leading to intestinal motility perturbation and impaired absorption of nutrients.

Due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects, cannabidiol(CBD) has been used as a therapeutic agent in many diseases.

Our aim was to test the effect of maternal CBD in the intestine of an experimental model of GS.

Maternal use of CBD had a beneficial effect on the intestinal loops of GS with decreased nitrite/nitrate and iNOS expression.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29561958

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2018000500607&lng=en&tlng=en

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Effects of Hemp seed soft capsule on colonic ion transport in rats.

“To investigate the effect of Hemp seed soft capsule (HSCC) on colonic ion transport and its related mechanisms in constipation rats.

CONCLUSION:

HSSC ameliorates constipation by increasing colonic secretion, which is mediated via the coaction of cAMP-dependent and Ca2+-dependent Cl channels, NKCC, Na+-HCO3 cotransporter or Cl/HCO3 exchanger.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29204056

https://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/full/v23/i42/7563.htm

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Cannabidiol restores intestinal barrier dysfunction and inhibits the apoptotic process induced by Clostridium difficile toxin A in Caco-2 cells.

 SAGE Journals

“Clostridium difficile toxin A is responsible for colonic damage observed in infected patients.

Drugs able to restore Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced toxicity have the potential to improve the recovery of infected patients. Cannabidiol is a non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa, which has been demonstrated to protect enterocytes against chemical and/or inflammatory damage and to restore intestinal mucosa integrity.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate (a) the anti-apoptotic effect and (b) the mechanisms by which cannabidiol protects mucosal integrity in Caco-2 cells exposed to Clostridium difficile toxin A.

RESULTS:

Clostridium difficile toxin A significantly decreased Caco-2 cells’ viability and reduced transepithelial electrical resistence values and RhoA guanosine triphosphate (GTP), bax, zonula occludens-1 and occludin protein expression, respectively. All these effects were significantly and concentration-dependently inhibited by cannabidiol, whose effects were completely abolished in the presence of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) antagonist, AM251.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cannabidiol improved Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced damage in Caco-2 cells, by inhibiting the apoptotic process and restoring the intestinal barrier integrity, through the involvement of the CB1 receptor.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29238589

“In the last decade, cannabinoids extracted from the marijuana plant (Cannabis sativa) and synthetic cannabinoids have shown numerous beneficial effects on gastrointestinal (GI) functions. Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the most interesting compounds, since it exerts a wide range of beneficial pharmacological actions on GI functions, ranging from antioxidant to antinflammatory activities. CBD has been shown to act as a non-competitive negative allosteric modulator of CB1 receptors. Notably, CBD is able to restore in vitro intestinal permeability increased by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or pro-inflammatory stimuli.

Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis. Clostridium difficile-Toxin A significantly affects enterocytes permeability leading to apoptosis and colonic mucosal damage.

In the present study, we showed that Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa significantly inhibit the apoptosis rate in TcdA-exposed cells and restores barrier function by a significant RhoA GTP rescue.

We also provide evidence that the effects of Cannabidiol are mediated by CB-1 receptor.

Given the absence of any significant toxic effect in humans, cannabidiol may ideally represent an effective adjuvant treatment for Clostridium difficile-associated colitis.”   http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2050640617698622

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Review: The Role of Cannabinoids on Esophageal Function-What We Know Thus Far.

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers

“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) primarily consists of cannabinoid receptors (CBRs), endogenous ligands, and enzymes for endocannabinoid biosynthesis and inactivation. Although the presence of CBRs, both CB1 and CB2, as well as a third receptor (G-protein receptor 55 [GPR55]), has been established in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, few studies have focused on the role of cannabinoids on esophageal function. To date, studies have shown their effect on GI motility, inflammation and immunity, intestinal and gastric acid secretion, nociception and emesis pathways, and appetite control. Given the varying and sometimes limited efficacy of current medical therapies for diseases of the esophagus, further understanding and investigation into the interplay of the ECS on esophageal health and disease may present new therapeutic modalities that may help advance current treatment options. In this brief review, the current understanding of the ECS role in various esophageal functions and disorders is presented.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29098187

http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/can.2017.0031

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Potential of plant-sourced phenols for inflammatory bowel disease.

“Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an uncontrolled chronic inflammatory intestinal disorder, which requires medications for long-term therapy. Facing the challenges of severe side effects and drug resistance of conventional medications, to develop the strategies meet the stringent safety and effectiveness in the long-term treatment are urgent in the clinics.

In this regard, a growing body of evidence confirms plant-sourced phenols, such as flavonoids, catechins, stilbenes, coumarins, quinones, lignans, phenylethanoids, cannabinoid phenols, tannins, phenolic acids and hydroxyphenols, exert potent protective benefits with fewer undesirable effects in conditions of acute or chronic intestinal inflammation through improvement of colonic oxidative and pro-inflammatory status, preservation of the epithelial barrier function and modulation of gut microbiota.

In this review, the great potential of plant-sourced phenols and their action mechanisms for the treatment or prevention of IBD in recent research are summarized, which may help the further development of new preventive/adjuvant regimens for IBD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28990509

http://www.eurekaselect.com/156267/article

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Endocannabinoid-related compounds in gastrointestinal diseases.

Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine

“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an endogenous signalling pathway involved in the control of several gastrointestinal (GI) functions at both peripheral and central levels. In recent years, it has become apparent that the ECS is pivotal in the regulation of GI motility, secretion and sensitivity, but endocannabinoids (ECs) are also involved in the regulation of intestinal inflammation and mucosal barrier permeability, suggesting their role in the pathophysiology of both functional and organic GI disorders. Genetic studies in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or inflammatory bowel disease have indeed shown significant associations with polymorphisms or mutation in genes encoding for cannabinoid receptor or enzyme responsible for their catabolism, respectively. Furthermore, ongoing clinical trials are testing EC agonists/antagonists in the achievement of symptomatic relief from a number of GI symptoms. Despite this evidence, there is a lack of supportive RCTs and relevant data in human beings, and hence, the possible therapeutic application of these compounds is raising ethical, political and economic concerns. More recently, the identification of several EC-like compounds able to modulate ECS function without the typical central side effects of cannabino-mimetics has paved the way for emerging peripherally acting drugs. This review summarizes the possible mechanisms linking the ECS to GI disorders and describes the most recent advances in the manipulation of the ECS in the treatment of GI diseases.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28990365

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jcmm.13359/abstract

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Cannabidiol and Palmitoylethanolamide are anti-inflammatory in the acutely inflamed human colon.

Clinical Science “We sought to quantify the anti-inflammatory effects of two cannabinoid drugs: cannabidiol (CBD) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), in cultured cell lines and compared this effect with experimentally inflamed explant human colonic tissue.  These effects were explored in acutely and chronically inflamed colon, using inflammatory bowel disease and appendicitis explants.

Results:   IFNγ and TNFα treatment increased phosphoprotein and cytokine levels in Caco-2 cultures and colonic explants.  Phosphoprotein levels were significantly reduced by PEA or CBD in Caco-2 cultures and colonic explants.  CBD and PEA prevented increases in cytokine production in explant colon, but not in Caco-2 cells. CBD effects were blocked by the CB2antagonist AM630 and TRPV1 antagonist SB366791.  PEA effects were blocked by the PPARα antagonist GW6471.  PEA and CBD were anti-inflammatory in IBD and appendicitis explants.

Conclusion: PEA and CBD are anti-inflammatory in the human colon.  This effect is not seen in cultured epithelial cells. Appropriately sized clinical trials should assess their efficacy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28954820

http://www.clinsci.org/content/early/2017/09/26/CS20171288

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