Cannabinoids: New Promising Agents in the Treatment of Neurological Diseases.

“Nowadays, Cannabis sativa is considered the most extensively used narcotic. Nevertheless, this fame obscures its traditional employ in native medicine of South Africa, South America, Turkey, Egypt and in many regions of Asia as a therapeutic drug.

In fact, the use of compounds containing Cannabis and their introduction in clinical practice is still controversial and strongly limited by unavoidable psychotropic effects. So, overcoming these adverse effects represents the main open question on the utilization of cannabinoids as new drugs for treatment of several pathologies.

To date, therapeutic use of cannabinoid extracts is prescribed in patients with glaucoma, in the control of chemotherapy-related vomiting and nausea, for appetite stimulation in patients with anorexia-cachexia syndrome by HIV, and for the treatment of multiple sclerosis symptoms.

Recently, researcher efforts are aimed to employ the therapeutic potentials of Cannabis sativa in the modulation of cannabinoid receptor activity within the central nervous system, particularly for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, as well as psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders.

This review evaluates the most recent available data on cannabinoids utilization in experimental and clinical studies, and highlights their beneficial effects in the prevention of the main neurological diseases and for the clinical treatment of symptoms with them correlated.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25407719

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Cannabinoids in the treatment of pain

“Cannabinoids and the endo-cannabinoid system play an important role in the sensation of pain. As conventional analgesics are often associated with serious side-effects, cannabinoids and agonists of their receptors offer a useful alternative or coanalgesic in the treatment of pain. The aim of this work is to summarize the role of cannabinoids and their receptors in nociception and pain treatment.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2991928/

Cannabinoids seem to be effective against neuropathic pain, inflammatory pain, post-operative pain and cancer pain. Their use as analgesics or coanalgesics may offer a useful alterative option for pain management in clinical practice.” http://www.annals-general-psychiatry.com/content/9/S1/S232/abstract

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/pain-2/

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The Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model.

“High-grade glioma is one of the most aggressive cancers in adult humans and long-term survival rates are very low as standard treatments for glioma remain largely unsuccessful.

Cannabinoids have been shown to specifically inhibit glioma growth as well as neutralize oncogenic processes such as angiogenesis.

In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, we have investigated the effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) both alone and in combination with radiotherapy in a number of glioma cell lines (T98G, U87MG, and GL261).

Cannabinoids were used in two forms, pure (P) and as a botanical drug substance (BDS).

Results demonstrated a duration- and dose-dependent reduction in cell viability with each cannabinoid and suggested that THC-BDS was more efficacious than THC-P, whereas, conversely, CBD-P was more efficacious than CBD-BDS.

…increase in radiosensitivity was associated with an increase in markers of autophagy and apoptosis.

These in vitro results were recapitulated in an orthotopic murine model for glioma, which showed dramatic reductions in tumor volumes when both cannabinoids were used with irradiation.

Taken together, our data highlight the possibility that these cannabinoids can prime glioma cells to respond better to ionizing radiation, and suggest a potential clinical benefit for glioma patients by using these two treatment modalities.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25398831

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/gllomas/

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Anti-aversive role of the endocannabinoid system in the periaqueductal gray stimulation model of panic attacks in rats.

“Direct activation of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) inhibits anxiety- and panic-related behaviours in experimental animals. It has remained unclear, however, whether the local endocannabinoid signalling is recruited as a protective mechanism against aversive stimuli.

The present study tested the hypothesis that the endocannabinoid system counteracts aversive responses in the dlPAG-stimulation model of panic attacks…

The endocannabinoid system in the dlPAG attenuates the behavioural, cellular and cardiovascular consequences of aversive stimuli. This process may be considered for the development of additional treatments against panic and other anxiety-related disorders.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25388290

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/panic-attack/

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High-intensity cannabis use associated with lower plasma human immunodeficiency virus-1 RNA viral load among recently infected people who use injection drugs.

“Cannabis use is common among people who are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

While there is growing pre-clinical evidence of the immunomodulatory and anti-viral effects of cannabinoids, their possible effects on HIV disease parameters in humans are largely unknown. Thus, we sought to investigate the possible effects of cannabis use on plasma HIV-1 RNA viral loads (pVLs) among recently seroconverted illicit drug users…

Consistent with the findings from recent in vitro and in vivo studies, including one conducted among lentiviral-infected primates, we observed a strong association between cannabis use and lower pVL following seroconversion among illicit drug-using participants.

Our findings support the further investigation of the immunomodulatory or antiviral effects of cannabinoids among individuals living with HIV/AIDS.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25389027

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/hivaids/

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Transdermal Delivery of Cannabidiol Attenuates Binge Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration in a Rodent Model of an Alcohol Use Disorder

“Excessive alcohol consumption, characteristic of alcohol use disorders, results in neurodegeneration… the current study aimed to advance the preclinical development of transdermal delivery of cannabidiol (CBD) for the treatment of alcohol-induced neurodegeneration…

CBD is a main constituent of cannabis sativa… CBD is very well tolerated in humans. CBD has a plethora of actions, including anticonvulsive, anxiolytic, anti-relapse and neuroprotective properties, which make it an ideal candidate for treating multiple pathologies associated with alcohol use disorders…

These results demonstrate the feasibility of using CBD transdermal delivery systems for the treatment of alcohol-induced neurodegeneration.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4096899/

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Therapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke

“Cannabis contains over 60 different terpeno-phenol compounds…

cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabidivarin (CBDV) are known as non-psychoactive components of cannabis.

These compounds have shown anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, analgesic, anxiolytic and anti-cancer effects…

Cannabinoids may play a role in neuroprotection in disorders such as stroke, Parkinson’s disease, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy…

It is well-known that delta9-THC and other cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists are neuroprotective during global and focal ischemic injury…

Accumulating data now suggest that cannabinoid CB1 receptors contribute to neuroprotection… Emerging data now support the evidence of the anti-inflammatory action of CBD…

 We have previously reported that CBD  has a potent and long-lasting neuroprotective effect when administered both pre- and post-ischemia, whereas only pre-ischemic treatment with delta9-THC reduced the infarction size…

These results suggest that CBD may prevent post-ischemic injury progressively induced by ischemic stroke….

…anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and neuroprotective effects of CBD. In particular, CBD exerts positive pharmacological effects in ischemic stroke and other chronic diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and rheumatoid arthritis.

The cerebroprotective action of CBD is CB1 receptor-independent, long-lasting, and has potent anti-oxidant activity. Importantly, CBD use does not lead to tolerance.

In the last 10 years, it has been possible to demonstrate that CBD has the following unique therapeutic profile: 1) a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism, 2) long-lasting cerebro- protective effect after ischemic stroke, and lack of development of tolerance.

Moreover, CBD has almost no side effects, including psychotropic activity.

Preliminary studies highlight the fact that the multifunctional actions of CBD may lead to benefits in more complex systems within the brain after ischemic stroke.

CBD offers new therapeutic possibilities for treating ischemic stroke…”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4036658/

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/stroke-2/

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Cannabidiol protects liver from binge alcohol-induced steatosis by mechanisms including inhibition of oxidative stress and increase in autophagy

“Acute alcohol drinking induces steatosis, and effective prevention of steatosis can protect liver from progressive damage caused by alcohol. Increased oxidative stress has been reported as one mechanism underlying alcohol-induced steatosis.

We evaluated whether cannabidiol, which has been reported to function as an antioxidant, can protect the liver from alcohol-generated oxidative stress-induced steatosis.

Cannabidiol attenuates alcohol-mediated oxidative stress.

Cannabidiol can prevent acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in mice, possibly by preventing the increase in oxidative stress and the activation of the JNK MAPK pathway…

Importantly, cannabidiol can prevent the decrease in autophagy induced by alcohol.

Cannabidiol protects mouse liver from acute alcohol-induced steatosis through multiple mechanisms.

In conclusion, these results show that cannabidiol protects mouse liver from acute alcohol-induced steatosis through multiple mechanisms including attenuation of alcohol-mediated oxidative stress, prevention of JNK MAPK activation, and increasing autophagy.”

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0891584913015670

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Comparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity

“Alcohol is the world’s most widely used psychoactive drug, but chronic, excessive alcohol consumption leads to permanent organ damage or death..

In the current study, we use a rat model of binge alcohol consumption to determine the potential of cannabidiol (CBD) as a neuroprotectant against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity…

…we evaluated CBD as a neuroprotectant in a rat binge ethanol model.

When administered concurrently with binge ethanol exposure, CBD protected against hippocampal and entorhinal cortical neurodegeneration in a dose-dependent manner.

This study provides the first demonstration of CBD as an in vivo neuroprotectant…

CBD protects against binge alcohol-induced damage.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4183207/

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Targeting the endocannabinoid system to treat haunting traumatic memories

“One of the core symptoms in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the traumatic memory that constantly haunts the patient.

An increasing body of evidence points to the endocannabinoid (eCB) system as a key system in the regulation of emotionality and memory.

Hence, eCB enhancers may be the ideal pharmacological treatment for PTSD…

…eCBs have an essential role in maintaining emotional homeostasis and in modulating memory consolidation, retrieval and extinction.

Hence, the authors concluded that eCBs could be an ideal drug to treat PTSD by addressing both the emotional and cognitive aspects of the disorder.

Indeed, accumulating data from both clinical and pre-clinical studies suggest that targeting the eCB system may benefit PTSD.

Several studies support the self-medication hypothesis explanation for cannabis use to cope with PTSD symptoms.

To conclude, the eCB system may be a useful target for treating both the cognitive and emotional features of PTSD…”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3776936/

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd/

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