Cannabidiol Inhibits Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Role of Gut Microbiome

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“Epithelial ovarian cancer is among the deadliest gynecological tumors worldwide. Clinical treatment usually consists of surgery and adjuvant chemo- and radiotherapies. Due to the high rate of recurrence and rapid development of drug resistance, the current focus of research is on finding effective natural products with minimal toxic side effects for treating epithelial ovarian tumors.

Cannabidiol is among the most abundant cannabinoids and has a non-psychoactive effect compared to tetrahydrocannabinol, which is a key advantage for clinical application. Studies have shown that cannabidiol has antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic, cytotoxic, antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. However, its therapeutic value for epithelial ovarian tumors remains unclear.

This study aims to investigate the effects of cannabidiol on epithelial ovarian tumors and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

The results showed that cannabidiol has a significant inhibitory effect on epithelial ovarian tumors. In vivo experiments demonstrated that cannabidiol could inhibit tumor growth by modulating the intestinal microbiome and increasing the abundance of beneficial bacteria. Western blot assays showed that cannabidiol bound to EGFR/AKT/MMPs proteins and suppressed EGFR/AKT/MMPs expression in a dose-dependent manner. Network pharmacology and molecular docking results suggested that cannabidiol could affect the EGFR/AKT/MMPs signaling pathway.”

Integrated transcriptome and cell phenotype analysis suggest involvement of PARP1 cleavage, Hippo/Wnt, TGF-β and MAPK signaling pathways in ovarian cancer cells response to cannabis and PARP1 inhibitor treatment

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“Introduction: Cannabis sativa is utilized mainly for palliative care worldwide. Ovarian cancer (OC) is a lethal gynecologic cancer. A particular cannabis extract fraction (‘F7’) and the Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor niraparib act synergistically to promote OC cell apoptosis. Here we identified genetic pathways that are altered by the synergistic treatment in OC cell lines Caov3 and OVCAR3. 

Materials and methods: Gene expression profiles were determined by RNA sequencing and quantitative PCR. Microscopy was used to determine actin arrangement, a scratch assay to determine cell migration and flow cytometry to determine apoptosis, cell cycle and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. Western blotting was used to determine protein levels. 

Results: Gene expression results suggested variations in gene expression between the two cell lines examined. Multiple genetic pathways, including Hippo/Wnt, TGF-β/Activin and MAPK were enriched with genes differentially expressed by niraparib and/or F7 treatments in both cell lines. Niraparib + F7 treatment led to cell cycle arrest and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inhibited cell migration, reduced the % of ALDH positive cells in the population and enhanced PARP1 cleavage. 

Conclusion: The synergistic effect of the niraparib + F7 may result from the treatment affecting multiple genetic pathways involving cell death and reducing mesenchymal characteristics.”

“Cannabis sativa is utilized worldwide for palliative care and to alleviate various symptoms associated with medical conditions. Several dozen compounds are biosynthesized in the female inflorescence of each C. sativa strain. In total, around 600 different molecules can be found in cannabis, among them around 150 phytocannabinoids and hundreds of flavonoids and terpenes

Multiple studies suggest that phytocannabinoids have anti-cancer properties.

They inhibit several different features associated with cancer cells and tumors, including inhibiting cell proliferation and migration, inducing cell death, reducing angiogenesis, and inhibiting cancer cells’ invasiveness. This was demonstrated in several different cancer types, including cancers of the skin, lung, breast, prostate, and brain.

The best-studied anti-cancer activity is that of the most common phytocannabinoids cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9–tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and related synthetic compounds (e.g., HU-210 and WIN-55 212-2).

Phytocannabinoids have been found to affect cancer cells and tumors via several different genetic pathways and molecular mechanisms. For example, several signal transduction pathways can be activated by phytocannabinoids to induce cancer cell death, including cell cycle arrest, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, autophagy and/or apoptosis.”

Investigation of the cytotoxicity induced by cannabinoids on human ovarian carcinoma cells

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“Cannabinoids have been shown to induce anti-tumor activity in a variety of carcinoma cells such as breast, prostate, and brain. The aim of the present study is to investigate the anti-tumor activity of cannabinoids, CBD (cannbidiol), and CBG (cannabigerol) in ovarian carcinoma cells sensitive and resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs. Sensitive A2780 cells and resistant A2780/CP70 carcinoma cells and non-carcinoma cells were exposed to varying concentrations of CBD, CBG, carboplatin or CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists, AM251 and AM630, respectively, alone or in combination, at different exposure times and cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay. The mechanism of action of CBD and CB in inducing cytotoxicity was investigated involving a variety of apoptotic and cell cycle assays. Treatment with CBD and CBG selectively, dose and time dependently reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis. The effect of CBD was stronger than CBG in all cell lines tested. Both CBD and CBG induced stronger cytotoxicity than afforded by carboplatin in resistant cells. The cytotoxicity induced by CBD was not CB1 or CB2 receptor dependent in both carcinoma cells, however, CBG-induced cytotoxicity may involve CB1 receptor activity in cisplatin-resistant carcinoma cells. A synergistic effect was observed when cannabinoids at sublethal doses were combined with carboplatin in both carcinoma cells. The apoptotic event may involve loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, Annexin V, caspase 3/7, ROS activities, and cell cycle arrest. Further studies are required to investigate whether these results are translatable in the clinic. Combination therapies with conventional cancer treatments using cannabinoids are suggested.”

Reversion of chemoresistance by endocannabinoid-induced ER stress and autophagy activation in ovarian cancer

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“The difficulty of detection at an early stage and the ease of developing resistance to chemotherapy render ovarian cancer (OVC) difficult to cure. Although several novel cancer therapies have been developed recently, drug resistance remains a concern since chemotherapy remains as the most commonly used treatment for cancer patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need to reclaim potential combination treatments for OVC.

So far, there have been several research targeting the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in cancer. Among the various cannabinoid-based drugs, endocannabinoids, which are lipid molecules generated in the body, have been reported to produce many anti-tumor effects; however, research investigating the anti-chemoresistance effect of endocannabinoids in OVC remains unclear.

In this study, we aimed to combine endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA), and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) with chemotherapeutic drugs as a combination approach to treat OVC.

Our results showed that OVC cells expressed both cannabinoid receptors (CBR), CB1 and CB2, suggesting the possibility of endocannabinoid system (ECS) as a target. We found that the anti-chemoresistance effect mediated by endocannabinoids was caused by upregulation of ceramide levels, leading to severe endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and increased autophagy in chemoresistant cancer cells. Therefore, chemoresistant cancer cell growth was inhibited, and cell apoptosis was induced under combined treatments. Based on our results, endocannabinoids overcomed chemoresistance of OVC cells in vitro.

Our findings suggest that drugs targeting ECS may have the potential to be adjuvants for chemotherapy by increasing the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs and decreasing their side effects.”

Could cannabinoids provide a new hope for ovarian cancer patients?

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“It is known that gynecological cancers remain a worldwide problem and as shown by the statistics, there is a need for new gynecological cancer treatments. Cannabinoids, the pharmacologically active compounds of the Cannabis sativa plant, have been used for many centuries by individuals as a symptomatic treatment to alleviate pain, nausea, vomiting, and to help stimulate appetite. Research has revealed that cannabinoids also exert anti-cancer activity such as anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects through a variety of mechanisms. There is significant value in the development of these compounds as anti-cancer therapies in clinical practice as they do not produce the typical toxic side effects that exist with conventional therapies and recent clinical trials have shown their great tolerability by patients at high doses. Cannabinoids can induce psychoactive effects that could limit their progression. Therefore, non-psychoactive cannabinoids are attracting pharmacological interest due to their inability to produce psychological effects. Recent studies have focussed on non-psychoactive cannabinoids in ovarian cancer and have revealed promising pre-clinical results that indicate that these compounds may have potential benefits in the treatment of these cancers. However, there are still unanswered questions and research gaps that need to be addressed. This review summarizes the current understanding of this topic and identifies the current gaps in knowledge that provide a useful direction for future work.”

Therapeutic targeting of the tumor microenvironments with cannabinoids and their analogs: Update on clinical trials

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“Cancer is a major global public health concern that affects both industrialized and developing nations. Current cancer chemotherapeutic options are limited by side effects, but plant-derived alternatives and their derivatives offer the possibilities of enhanced treatment response and reduced side effects.

A plethora of recently published articles have focused on treatments based on cannabinoids and cannabinoid analogs and reported that they positively affect healthy cell growth and reverse cancer-related abnormalities by targeting aberrant tumor microenvironments (TMEs), lowering tumorigenesis, preventing metastasis, and/or boosting the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Furthermore, TME modulating systems are receiving much interest in the cancer immunotherapy field because it has been shown that TMEs have significant impacts on tumor progression, angiogenesis, invasion, migration, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, metastasis and development of drug resistance.

Here, we have reviewed the effective role of cannabinoids, their analogs and cannabinoid nano formulations on the cellular components of TME (endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblast and immune cells) and how efficiently it retards the progression of carcinogenesis is discussed. The article summarizes the existing research on the molecular mechanisms of cannabinoids regulation of the TME and finally highlights the human studies on cannabinoids’ active interventional clinical trials.

The conclusion outlines the need for future research involving clinical trials of cannabinoids to demonstrate their efficacy and activity as a treatment/prevention for various types of human malignancies.”

A novel mechanism of cannabidiol in suppressing ovarian cancer through LAIR-1 mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis

“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid compound. It has been shown that CBD can inhibit the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells, but the underlying specific mechanism is unclear.

We previously presented the first evidence for the expression of leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 (LAIR-1), a member of the immunosuppressive receptor family, in ovarian cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which CBD inhibits the growth of SKOV3 and CAOV3 ovarian cancer cells, and we sought to understand the concurrent role of LAIR-1.

In addition to inducing ovarian cancer cell cycle arrest and promoting cell apoptosis, CBD treatment significantly affected the expression of LAIR-1 and inhibited the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling axis and mitochondrial respiration in ovarian cancer cells. These changes were accompanied by an increase in ROS, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and suppression of mitochondrial respiration and aerobic glycolysis, thereby inducing abnormal or disturbed metabolism and reducing ATP production. A combined treatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine and CBD indicated that a reduction in ROS production would restore PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway signaling and ovarian cancer cell proliferation. We subsequently confirmed that the inhibitory effect of CBD on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal axis and mitochondrial bioenergy metabolism was attenuated by knockdown of LAIR-1. Our animal studies further support the in vivo anti-tumor activity of CBD and suggest its mechanism of action.

In summary, the present findings confirm that CBD inhibits ovarian cancer cell growth by disrupting the LAIR-1-mediated interference with mitochondrial bioenergy metabolism and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. These results provide a new experimental basis for research into ovarian cancer treatment based on targeting LAIR-1 with CBD.”

Treatment of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome in a Mouse Model by Cannabidiol, an Angiogenesis Pathway Inhibitor


“Studies suggest that ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) can be treated by reducing the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, due to the side effects of commercially available VEGF-reducing drugs, they can be ruled out as a suitable treatment for OHSS; therefore, researchers are looking for new medications to treat OHSS.

This study is aimed at investigating the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in an OHSS model and to evaluate its efficacy in modulating the angiogenesis pathway and VEGF gene expression.

For this purpose, 32 female mice were randomly divided into four groups (eight mice per group): control group, group 2 with OHSS induction, group 3 receiving 32 nmol of dimethyl sulfoxide after OHSS induction, and group 4 receiving 30 mg/kg of CBD after OHSS induction. The animals’ body weight, ovarian weight, vascular permeability (VP), and ovarian follicle count were measured, and the levels of VEGF gene and protein expression in the peritoneal fluid were assessed.

Based on the results, CBD decreased the body and ovarian weights, VP, and corpus luteum number compared to the OHSS group (p < 0.05). The peritoneal VEGF gene and protein expression levels reduced in the CBD group compared to the OHSS group (p < 0.05). Also, CBD caused OHSS alleviation by suppressing VEGF expression and VP. Overall, CBD downregulated VEGF gene expression and improved VP in OHSS.”

“Based on the present findings, CBD exerts potent antiangiogenic effects by influencing many associated pathways. It led to the alleviation of OHSS by suppressing VEGF gene expression and VP. Also, CBD downregulated VEGF expression and improved VP in OHSS. It is hoped that the current results can help reduce the symptoms and complications of OHSS and prevent the cancellation of IVF cycles.”

Phytocannabinoid Compositions from Cannabis Act Synergistically with PARP1 Inhibitor against Ovarian Cancer Cells In Vitro and Affect the Wnt Signaling Pathway


“Ovarian cancer (OC) is the single most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Cannabis sativa is used to treat various medical conditions, and is cytotoxic to a variety of cancer types. We sought to examine the effectiveness of different combinations of cannabis compounds against OC. Cytotoxic activity was determined by XTT assay on HTB75 and HTB161 cell lines. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. Gene expression was determined by quantitative PCR and protein localization by confocal microscopy. The two most active fractions, F5 and F7, from a high Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) cannabis strain extract, and their standard mix (SM), showed cytotoxic activity against OC cells and induced cell apoptosis. The most effective phytocannabinoid combination was THC+cannabichromene (CBC)+cannabigerol (CBG). These fractions acted in synergy with niraparib, a PARP inhibitor, and were ~50-fold more cytotoxic to OC cells than to normal keratinocytes. The F7 and/or niraparib treatments altered Wnt pathway-related gene expression, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype and β-catenin cellular localization. The niraparib+F7 treatment was also effective on an OC patient’s cells. Given the fact that combinations of cannabis compounds and niraparib act in synergy and alter the Wnt signaling pathway, these phytocannabinoids should be examined as effective OC treatments in further pre-clinical studies and clinical trials.”

“We suggest that cannabis might be regarded as a complementary and effective anti-cancer treatment for OC. Given the favorable safety profile of phytocannabinoids, compared to standard pharmacotherapies, we propose that clinical trials with cannabis-based products are desperately needed for OC patients.”

Anti-Cancer Activity of Cannabis sativa Phytocannabinoids: Molecular Mechanisms and Potential in the Fight against Ovarian Cancer and Stem Cells


“Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy, with about 70% of cases diagnosed only at an advanced stage.

Cannabis sativa, which produces more than 150 phytocannabinoids, is used worldwide to alleviate numerous symptoms associated with various medical conditions. Recently, studies across a range of cancer types have demonstrated that the phytocannabinoids Δ9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) have anti-cancer activity in vitro and in vivo, but also the potential to increase other drugs’ adverse effects.

THC and CBD act via several different biological and signaling pathways, including receptor-dependent and receptor-independent pathways. However, very few studies have examined the effectiveness of cannabis compounds against OC. Moreover, little is known about the effectiveness of cannabis compounds against cancer stem cells (CSCs) in general and OC stem cells (OCSCs) in particular. CSCs have been implicated in tumor initiation, progression, and invasion, as well as tumor recurrence, metastasis, and drug resistance. Several hallmarks and concepts describe CSCs. OCSCs, too, are characterized by several markers and specific drug-resistance mechanisms.

While there is no peer-reviewed information regarding the effect of cannabis and cannabis compounds on OCSC viability or development, cannabis compounds have been shown to affect genetic pathways and biological processes related to CSCs and OCSCs. Based on evidence from other cancer-type studies, the use of phytocannabinoid-based treatments to disrupt CSC homeostasis is suggested as a potential intervention to prevent chemotherapy resistance. The potential benefits of the combination of chemotherapy with phytocannabinoid treatment should be examined in ovarian cancer patients.”

“Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Cancer stem cells have been implicated in tumor initiation, progression, and invasion, as well as tumor recurrence, metastasis, and drug resistance. Cannabis is used worldwide to alleviate numerous symptoms associated with various medical conditions. Phytocannabinoids, produced by cannabis, were shown to have anti-cancer activity in cell lines and animal models, but also the potential to increase other drugs’ adverse effects. Yet, very few studies have examined the effectiveness of cannabis compounds against ovarian cancer. Cannabis compounds have been shown to affect genetic pathways and biological processes related to development of ovarian cancer stem cells. Phytocannabinoid-based treatments might be used to disrupt cancer stem cell homeostasis and thereby to prevent chemotherapy resistance. The potential benefits of the combination of chemotherapy with phytocannabinoid treatment could be examined in ovarian cancer patients.”