Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age.

 Image result for frontiers in immunology

“Among the many cannabinoids in the cannabis plant, cannabidiol (CBD) is a compound that does not produce the typical subjective effects of marijuana.

The aim of the present review is to describe the main advances in the development of the experimental and clinical use of cannabidiol CBD in neuropsychiatry.

CBD was shown to have anxiolytic, antipsychotic and neuroprotective properties. In addition, basic and clinical investigations on the effects of CBD have been carried out in the context of many other health conditions, including its potential use in epilepsy, substance abuse and dependence, schizophrenia, social phobia, post-traumatic stress, depression, bipolar disorder, sleep disorders, and Parkinson.

CBD is an useful and promising molecule that may help patients with a number of clinical conditions. Controlled clinical trials with different neuropsychiatric populations that are currently under investigation should bring important answers in the near future and support the translation of research findings to clinical settings.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30298064

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02009/full

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

New Perspectives on the Use of Cannabis in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders.

medicines-logo

“Following the discovery of the endocannabinoid system and its potential as a therapeutic target for various pathological conditions, growing interest led researchers to investigate the role of cannabis and its derivatives for medical purposes. The compounds Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol are the most abundant phytocannabinoids found in cannabis extracts, as well as the most studied. The present review aims to provide an overview of the current evidence for their beneficial effects in treating psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, anxiety, and depression. Nevertheless, further investigations are required to clarify many pending issues, especially those relative to the assessment of benefits and risks when using cannabis for therapeutic purposes, thereby also helping national and federal jurisdictions to remain updated.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30279403

https://www.mdpi.com/2305-6320/5/4/107

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabidiol prevents haloperidol-induced vacuos chewing movements and inflammatory changes in mice via PPARγ receptors.

Brain, Behavior, and Immunity

“The chronic use of drugs that reduce the dopaminergic neurotransmission can cause a hyperkinetic movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia (TD). The pathophysiology of this disorder is not entirely understood but could involve oxidative and neuroinflammatory mechanisms.

Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic compound present in Cannabis sativa plant, could be a possible therapeutic alternative for TD. This phytocannabinoid shows antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antipsychotic properties and decreases the acute motor effects of classical antipsychotics.

The present study investigated if CBD would attenuate orofacial dyskinesia, oxidative stress and inflammatory changes induced by chronic administration of haloperidol in mice. Furthermore, we verified in vivo and in vitro (in primary microglial culture) whether these effects would be mediated by PPARγ receptors.

The results showed that the male Swiss mice treated daily for 21 days with haloperidol develop orofacial dyskinesia. Daily CBD administration before each haloperidol injection prevented this effect.

Mice treated with haloperidol showed an increase in microglial activation and inflammatory mediators in the striatum. These changes were also reduced by CBD. On the other hand, the levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased in the striatum of animals that received CBD and haloperidol.

Regarding oxidative stress, haloperidol induced lipid peroxidation and reduced catalase activity. This latter effect was attenuated by CBD. The combination of CBD and haloperidol also increased PGC-1α mRNA expression, a co-activator of PPARγ receptors. Pretreatment with the PPARγ antagonist, GW9662, blocked the behavioural effect of CBD in our TD model. CBD also prevented LPS-stimulated microglial activation, an effect that was also antagonized by GW9662.

In conclusion, our results suggest that CBD could prevent haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia by activating PPARγ receptors and attenuating neuroinflammatory changes in the striatum.”

“Haloperidol, marketed under the trade name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication. Haloperidol is used in the treatment of schizophrenia, tics in Tourette syndromemania in bipolar disorder, nausea and vomiting, delirium, agitation, acute psychosis, and hallucinations in alcohol withdrawal”  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haloperidol
Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabidiol Administered During Peri-Adolescence Prevents Behavioral Abnormalities in an Animal Model of Schizophrenia.

Image result for frontiers in pharmacology

“Schizophrenia is considered a debilitating neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder and its pharmacotherapy remains problematic without recent major advances. The development of interventions able to prevent the emergence of schizophrenia would therefore represent an enormous progress.

Here, we investigated whether treatment with cannabidiol (CBD – a compound of Cannabis sativa that presents an antipsychotic profile in animals and humans) during peri-adolescence would prevent schizophrenia-like behavioral abnormalities in an animal model of schizophrenia: the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) strain.

Treatment with CBD prevented the emergence of SHRs’ hyperlocomotor activity (a model for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia) and deficits in prepulse inhibition of startle and contextual fear conditioning (cognitive impairments). CBD did not induce any of the potential motor or metabolic side effects evaluated. Treatment with CBD increased the prefrontal cortex 5-HIAA/serotonin ratio and the levels of 5-HIAA on post-natal days 61 and 90, respectively.

Our data provide pre-clinical evidence for a safe and beneficial effect of peripubertal and treatment with CBD on preventing positive and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia, and suggest the involvement of the serotoninergic system on this effect.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30186164

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.00901/full

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Effect of Cannabidiol on Medial Temporal, Midbrain, and Striatal Dysfunction in People at Clinical High Risk of Psychosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Image result for jama psychiatry

“Cannabidiol (CBD) has antipsychotic effects in humans, but how these are mediated in the brain remains unclear.

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms that underlie the therapeutic effects of CBD in psychosis.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

Cannabidiol may partially normalize alterations in parahippocampal, striatal, and midbrain function associated with the CHR state. As these regions are critical to the pathophysiology of psychosis, the influence of CBD at these sites could underlie its therapeutic effects on psychotic symptoms.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30167644

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/fullarticle/2697762

“Psychosis: Cannabis extract normalizes brain function” https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/322926.php
“Cannabis extract helps reset brain function in psychosis” https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-08-cannabis-reset-brain-function-psychosis.html
“Cannabis extract helps reset brain function in psychosis” https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-08/kcl-ceh082818.php
Cannabidiol Reduces Symptoms of Psychosis. A new study found that the chemical extracted from cannabis has antipsychotic effects.” https://www.usnews.com/news/health-care-news/articles/2018-08-29/one-dose-of-cannabidiol-reduces-symptoms-of-psychosis
“MEDICAL MARIJUANA: CANNABIS EXTRACT CBD USED TO SUCCESSFULLY TREAT PSYCHOSIS.” https://www.newsweek.com/cannabidiol-cannabis-extract-could-treat-symptoms-psychosis-1094353

 “Single dose of the cannabis compound CBD reduces psychotic symptoms by normalising brain activity” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-6110591/Single-dose-cannabis-compound-CBD-reduces-psychotic-symptoms-normalising-brain-activity.html

“British scientists have unraveled how a non-intoxicating component of cannabis acts in key brain areas to reduce abnormal activity in patients at risk of psychosis, suggesting the ingredient could become a novel anti-psychotic medicine.” https://www.theglobeandmail.com/cannabis/article-scientists-unravel-how-cannabis-component-may-fight-psychosis/

“Science proves component in weed actually helps fight psychosis” https://nypost.com/2018/08/29/science-proves-component-in-weed-actually-helps-fight-psychosis/
“We Now Have Evidence That a Marijuana Compound Can Help People With Psychosis” https://futurism.com/cbd-psychosis/
Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Impact of substance use disorder on gray matter volume in schizophrenia.

Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging

“Substance use may confound the study of brain structure in schizophrenia. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine whether differences in regional gray matter volumes exist between schizophrenia patients with (n = 92) and without (n = 66) clinically significant cannabis and/or alcohol use histories compared to 88 healthy control subjects.

Relative to controls, patients with schizophrenia had reduced gray matter volume in the bilateral precentral gyrus, right medial frontal cortex, right visual cortex, right occipital pole, right thalamus, bilateral amygdala, and bilateral cerebellum regardless of substance use history.

Within these regions, we found no volume differences between patients with schizophrenia and a history of cannabis and/or alcohol compared to patients with schizophrenia without a clinically significant substance use history.

Our data support the idea that a clinically meaningful history of alcohol or cannabis use does not significantly compound the gray matter deficits associated with schizophrenia.”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

The Role of Cannabis within an Emerging Perspective on Schizophrenia.

medicines-logo

“Approximately 0.5% of the population is diagnosed with some form of schizophrenia, under the prevailing view that the pathology is best treated using pharmaceutical medications that act on monoamine receptors.

We briefly review evidence on the impact of environmental forces, particularly the effect of autoimmune activity, in the expression of schizophrenic profiles and the role of Cannabis therapy for regulating immunological functioning.

A review of the literature shows that phytocannabinoid consumption may be a safe and effective treatment option for schizophrenia as a primary or adjunctive therapy.

Conclusions: Emerging research suggests that Cannabis can be used as a treatment for schizophrenia within a broader etiological perspective that focuses on environmental, autoimmune, and neuroinflammatory causes of the disorder, offering a fresh start and newfound hope for those suffering from this debilitating and poorly understood disease.”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

The endocannabinoid system in mental disorders: Evidence from human brain studies.

Biochemical Pharmacology

“Mental disorders have a high prevalence compared with many other health conditions and are the leading cause of disability worldwide. Several studies performed in the last years support the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the etiopathogenesis of different mental disorders.

The present review will summarize the latest information on the role of the endocannabinoid system in psychiatric disorders, specifically depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. We will focus on the findings from human brain studies regarding alterations in endocannabinoid levels, cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes in patients suffering mental disorders.

Studies carried out in humans have consistently demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system is fundamental for emotional homeostasis and cognitive function. Thus, deregulation of the different elements that are part of the endocannabinoid system may contribute to the pathophysiology of several mental disorders. However, the results reported are controversial. In this sense, different alterations in gene and/or protein expression of CB1 receptors have been shown depending on the technical approach used or the brain region studied.

Despite the current discrepancies regarding cannabinoid receptors changes in depression and schizophrenia, present findings point to the endocannabinoid system as a pivotal neuromodulatory pathway relevant in the pathophysiology of mental disorders.

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia: Implications for Pharmacological Intervention.

 

“The term schizophrenia describes a group of multifaceted psychiatric conditions causing significant impairment of the quality of life of affected patients. Although multiple pharmacological treatment options exist, e.g. first- or second-generation antipsychotics, these therapeutics often cause disturbing side effects, such as extrapyramidal symptoms, prolactin increase, sexual dysfunction and/or metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, cognitive impairments and negative symptoms, two factors significantly influencing the course and outcome, are not sufficiently addressed by the available antipsychotics.

Since its discovery, multiple clinical and preclinical studies have linked the endocannabinoid system to schizophrenia.

Both the endocannabinoid anandamide and the cannabinoid CB1 receptor are deeply linked to underlying disease processes. Based hereon, clinical trials in schizophrenia have explored cannabidiol, a primary component of Cannabis sativa, and rimonabant, a partial antagonist to the CB1 receptor.

While the latter did not reveal positive results, cannabidiol significantly ameliorated psychotic symptoms, which was associated with an increase in anandamide serum levels. However, the exact mechanisms of the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol are not fully understood, and, furthermore, only a limited number of clinical trials in humans have been concluded to date.

Thus, the level of proof of safety and efficacy required to approve the therapeutic use of cannabidiol in schizophrenia is currently lacking. However, cannabidiol is a promising candidate as an effective and mechanistically different antipsychotic treatment with a favourable side-effect profile. We therefore conclude that further studies are urgently needed to clarify the antipsychotic effects and safety profile of cannabidiol, and to fully explore its potential antipsychotic mechanism.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30022465

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40263-018-0539-z

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabidiol does not display drug abuse potential in mice behavior.

Image result for aps acta pharmacologica

“Recent evidence suggests that cannabidiol (CBD) may be useful for the treatment of different neuropsychiatric disorders.

However, some controversy regarding its profile as a drug of abuse hampers the further development of basic and clinical studies.

In this study, the behavioral profile of CBD as a potential drug of abuse was evaluated in C57BL/6J mice.

Taken together, these results show that CBD lacks activity as a drug of abuse and should stimulate the development of the basic and clinical studies needed to elucidate its potential therapeutic use for the treatment of neuropsychiatric and drug use disorders.”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous