Treatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

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“Spasticity is a common neurologic condition in patients with multiple sclerosis, stroke, cerebral palsy or an injured spinal cord. Animal studies suggest that THC has an inhibitory effect on polysynaptic reflexes.

Some spastic patients claim improvement after inhaling cannabis. We tested muscle tone, reflexes, strength and performed EMGs before and after double-blinded oral administration of either 10 or 5 mg THC or placebo.

10 mg THC significantly reduced spasticity by clinical measurement (P less than 0.01).

Responses varied, but benefit was seen in three of three patients with “tonic spasms.””

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Intra-cerebral cannabidiol infusion-induced neuroprotection is partly associated with the TNF-α/TNFR1/NF-кB pathway in transient focal cerebral ischaemia.

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“Stroke is a neurological disease, which, in addition to high mortality, imposes many financial and mental burdens on families and the society.

The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cannabidiol (CBD) on one of the major inflammatory pathways in cerebral ischaemia.

RESULTS:

Administration of CBD (100 and 200 ng/rat) caused a significant reduction in infarction, brain oedema, and BBB permeability compared with the vehicle-received group. Down-regulation of TNF-α, TNFR1, and NF-кB expression was also observed by CBD.

CONCLUSION:

The results achieved in this study support the idea that CBD has a cerebroprotective effect (partly through suppression of TNF-α, TNFR1, and NF-кB) on ischaemic injury.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28872345

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02699052.2017.1358397?journalCode=ibij20

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Smoking Marijuana Can Reduce Risk Of Stroke, Study Finds.

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“Smoking marijuana can reduce the risk of a stroke to a large extent, a new study has found. In the states where marijuana use is legal, strains of the drug are prescribed to cure chronic pain, anxiety, and epilepsy. A new study conducted by the University of Texas at Dallas has found cannabis can improve a person’s health by enhancing the blood and oxygen flow, thus reducing the risk of blood clots and the possibility of a stroke.” http://www.ibtimes.com/smoking-marijuana-can-reduce-risk-stroke-study-finds-2579489
“Residual Effects of THC via Novel Measures of Brain Perfusion and Metabolism in a Large Group of Chronic Cannabis Users” https://www.nature.com/npp/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/npp201744a.html
“Could cannabis PROTECT you from a stroke? People who smoke marijuana every day have better blood flow and oxygen to the brain, controversial study claims. A study by the University of Texas at Dallas has found the drug can improve oxygen and blood flow to the brain, reducing the risk of clots that cause a brain attack. In fact, the research team found chronic cannabis users have the most efficient brain blood flow of all, suggesting their stroke risk is lowest.” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-4797444/Cannabis-PROTECTS-stroke-study-claims.html
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Modulation of Astrocyte Activity by Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid.

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“The astrocytes have gained in recent decades an enormous interest as a potential target for neurotherapies, due to their essential and pleiotropic roles in brain physiology and pathology. Their precise regulation is still far from understood, although several candidate molecules/systems arise as promising targets for astrocyte-mediated neuroregulation and/or neuroprotection.

The cannabinoid system and its ligands have been shown to interact and affect activities of astrocytes. Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid derived from Cannabis. CBD is devoid of direct CB1 and CB2 receptor activity, but exerts a number of important effects in the brain. Here, we attempt to sum up the current findings on the effects of CBD on astrocyte activity, and in this way on central nervous system (CNS) functions, across various tested models and neuropathologies.

The collected data shows that increased astrocyte activity is suppressed in the presence of CBD in models of ischemia, Alzheimer-like and Multiple-Sclerosis-like neurodegenerations, sciatic nerve injury, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. Moreover, CBD has been shown to decrease proinflammatory functions and signaling in astrocytes.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28788104

http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/18/8/1669

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Correlation Between Cannabidiol-Induced Reduction of Infarct Volume and Inflammatory Factors Expression in Ischemic Stroke Model.

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“Recent studies demonstrated that cannabidiol had neuroprotective property. There is some evidence about effective role of cannabidiol in reduction of ischemic damages. It has been reported that infarct size is influenced by various factors after MCAO, including inflammatory factors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cannabidiol on infarction volume and correlation of infarct size with tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) expression.

RESULTS:

The present results indicate that in the MCAO-induced cerebral ischemia, administration of cannabidiol (100 and 200 ng/rat) causes a significant reduction in infarction volume in comparison with the vehicle group. Also, there were significant correlations between decrease of regional infarct volume and TNFR1/NF-κB expression.

CONCLUSION:

The results of this study indicate that cannabidiol reduced cerebral infarction possibly through diminishing TNFR1/NF-κB-induced neurotoxicity in transient focal cerebral ischemia.”

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Neuroprotection in oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative diseases: role of endocannabinoid system modulation.

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“Redox imbalance may lead to overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and subsequent oxidative tissue damage which is a critical event in the course of neurodegenerative diseases. It is still not fully elucidated, however, whether oxidative stress is the primary trigger or a consequence in process of neurodegeneration.

Recent Advances: Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the propagation of neuronal injury and consequent inflammatory response, which in concert promote development of pathological alterations characteristic of most common neurodegenerative diseases.

Critical Issue: Accumulating recent evidence also suggests that there is an important interplay between the lipid endocannabinoid system (ECS; comprising of the main cannabinoid 1 and 2 receptors (CB1 and CB2), endocannabinoids and their synthetic and metabolizing enzymes) and various key inflammatory and redox-dependent processes.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS:

Targeting the ECS in order to modulate redox state-dependent cell death, and to decrease consequent or preceding inflammatory response holds therapeutic potential in multitude of oxidative stress-related acute or chronic neurodegenerative disorders from stroke and traumatic brain injury to Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s diseases, and multiple sclerosis, just to name a few, which will be discussed in this overview.”

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Cannabinoid CB2 receptor ligand profiling reveals biased signalling and off-target activity

“The cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2R) represents a promising therapeutic target for various forms of tissue injury and inflammatory diseases. There is a great interest in the development of selective type-2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) agonists as potential drug candidates for various pathophysiological conditions, which include chronic and inflammatory pain, pruritus, diabetic neuropathy and nephropathy, liver cirrhosis, and protective effects after ischaemic-reperfusion injury.” https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms13958

“Pain relief without the high. Researchers at Leiden University led by Mario van der Stelt (Leiden Institute for Chemistry) have set ‘gold standards’ for developing new painkillers based on the medicinal effects of cannabis.”  https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170104103916.htm

ScienceDaily
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In vivo TSPO and cannabinoid receptor type 2 availability early in post-stroke neuroinflammation in rats: a positron emission tomography study.

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“Upregulated levels of 18-kDa translocator proteins (TSPO) and type 2 endocannabinoid receptors (CB2) are considered to reflect different aspects of microglia-related neuroinflammatory responses in the brain. Relative to the increase in the TSPO expression that occurs slightly later during neuroinflammation in a proinflammatory fashion, CB2 activation is considered to relate to the neuroprotective responses that occurs predominantly at an early stage of brain disorders. These findings, however, were deduced from studies with different animal samples under different experimental settings. Here, we aimed to examined the differences in TSPO binding and CB2 availability at an early stage of stroke in the same animal using positron emission tomography (PET).

CONCLUSIONS:

The present results provide in vivo evidence of different responses of microglia occurring in the acute state of stroke. The use of the CB2 tracer [11C]NE40 allows us to evaluate the roles played by the neuroprotective aspect of microglia in acute neuroinflammatory processes.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28356120

https://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12974-017-0851-4

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A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Haemodynamic Effects of Cannabidiol

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“Cannabidiol (CBD) is the second most abundant phytocannabinoid, after Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and was first isolated from the cannabis extract in 1940.

Given the increasing clinical use of CBD, and the numerous effects of CBD in the cardiovascular system, the aim of the present study was to systematically review and analyse in vivo studies evaluating the effects of CBD on alterations in haemodynamics.

From the limited data available, we conclude that acute and chronic administration of CBD had no effect on BP or HR under control conditions, but reduces BP and HR in stressful conditions, and increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) in mouse models of stroke.

This meta-analysis and systematic review has highlighted the haemodynamic effects of CBD administration in vivo.

The positive effects induced by CBD include maintaining the fall in BP after global hypoxia, reducing the increase in MBP and HR post-stress, and increasing BF in ischaemia-reperfusion models.

It is possible that beneficial effects of CBD on haemodynamics occurs when the cardiovascular system is abnormally altered, suggesting that CBD may be used as a treatment for various cardiovascular disorders, such as hypertension, myocardial infarction and stroke.”

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphar.2017.00081/full

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Inflammatory Regulation by Driving Microglial M2 Polarization: Neuroprotective Effects of Cannabinoid Receptor-2 Activation in Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

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“The cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2R) was initially thought to be the “peripheral cannabinoid receptor.” Recent studies, however, have documented CB2R expression in the brain in both glial and neuronal cells, and increasing evidence suggests an important role for CB2R in the central nervous system inflammatory response.

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), which occurs when a diseased cerebral vessel ruptures, accounts for 10-15% of all strokes. Although surgical techniques have significantly advanced in the past two decades, ICH continues to have a high mortality rate.

The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of CB2R stimulation in acute phase after experimental ICH in rats and its related mechanisms.

These findings demonstrated that CB2R stimulation significantly protected the brain damage and suppressed neuroinflammation by promoting the acquisition of microglial M2 phenotype in acute stage after ICH.

Taken together, this study provided mechanism insight into neuroprotective effects by CB2R stimulation after ICH.”

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