Successful Treatment of a Fibromyalgia Patient Using a Homeopathic Preparation of Cannabis sativa

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“Background: Homeopathy has been used in observational and controlled studies to treat patients with fibromyalgia (FM), but none has previously used the remedy Cannabis sativa.

Case history: A 51-year-old female patient presenting with diffuse pain and sleep disorder was diagnosed with FM using the relevant American College of Rheumatology criteria. She reported having 18 tender points, a pain score (visual analog scale, VAS) of 9.0, and a well-being VAS of 5.0. She was prescribed Cannabis sativa 6 cH, five drops sublingually thrice a day.

Results: After 2 months, she returned asymptomatic, with 0 tender points, pain VAS of 0, and well-being VAS of 9.0. The Modified Naranjo Criteria for Homeopathy score was equal to +9, suggesting the clinical outcome was causally attributable to the medicine prescribed.

Conclusion: This case study reveals the positive role of homeopathic treatment in FM. Studies using a randomized controlled design, including pragmatic trials to determine treatment effectiveness in real-world clinical practice, are indicated in this field.”

The Main Therapeutic Applications of Cannabidiol (CBD) and Its Potential Effects on Aging with Respect to Alzheimer’s Disease

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“The use of cannabinoids (substances contained specifically in hemp plants) for therapeutic purposes has received increased attention in recent years. Presently, attention is paid to two main cannabinoids: delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). With respect to the psychotropic effects and dependence potential of THC (though it is very mild), its use is associated with certain restrictions, and thus the therapeutic properties of CBD are frequently emphasized because there are no limitations associated with the risk of dependence. Therefore, this review covers the main pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic features of CBD (including characteristics of endocannabinoidome) with respect to its possible beneficial effects on selected diseases in clinical practice. A substantial part of the text deals with the main effects of CBD on aging, including Alzheimer’s disease and related underlying mechanisms.”

“According to all the results of the available clinical studies, CBD has shown clear therapeutic efficacy in the elderly human population. The frequency of side effects is comparable to other classes of drugs, and the risks of using CBD in elderly patients are rated as moderate.”

The Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Potential of Leaves and Inflorescences Extracts of Selected Hemp Varieties Obtained with scCO2

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“Cannabis sativa, a versatile plant with numerous varieties, holds promising potential for a wide range of biological activity. As raw materials for research, we chose leaves and inflorescences of hemp varieties such as Białobrzeskie, Henola, and Tygra, which are cultivated mainly for their fibers or seeds. The choice of extraction is a key step in obtaining the selected compositions of active compounds from plant material. Bearing in mind the lipophilic nature of cannabinoids, we performed supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) extraction at 50 °C under 2000 (a) and 6000 PSI (b). The cannabinoid contents were determined with the use of the HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant capabilities were assessed through a series of procedures, including the DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, and FRAP methods. The capacity to inhibit enzymes that play a role in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and tyrosinase was also studied. The dominant cannabinoids in the extracts were cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). The highest concentration of eight cannabinoids was detected in the Tygra inflorescences extract (b). The most notable antioxidant properties were provided by the Tygra inflorescences extract (b). Nonetheless, it was the Henola inflorescences extract (b) that demonstrated the most efficient inhibition of AChE and BChE, and tyrosinase was inhibited the most significantly by the Białobrzeskie inflorescences extract (b). Multidimensional comparative analysis enrolled all assays and revealed that the Henola inflorescences extract (b) showed the most substantial neuroprotective potential.”

Protective Actions of Cannabidiol on Aging-Related Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Alterations in Liver and Lung of Long Evans Rats

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“Background: Aging is characterised by the progressive accumulation of oxidative damage which leads to inflammation and apoptosis in cells. This affects all tissues in the body causing the deterioration of several organs. Previous studies observed that cannabidiol (CBD) could extend lifespan and health span by its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and autophagy properties. However, research on the anti-aging effect of CBD is still in the beginning stages. This study aimed to investigate the role of cannabidiol (CBD) in the prevention of age-related alterations in liver and lung using a murine model.

Methods: 15-month-old Long Evans rats were treated with 10 mg/kg b.w./day of CBD for 10 weeks and compared to animals of the same age as old control and 2-month-old animals as young control. Gene and/or protein expressions, by RT-qPCR and Western blotting, respectively, were assessed in terms of molecules related to oxidative stress (GST, GPx, GR and HO-1d), inflammation (NFκB, IL-1β and TNF-α) and apoptosis (BAX, Bcl-2, AIF, and CASP-1). In addition, MDA and MPO levels were measured by colorimetric assay. Results were analysed by ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer test, considering statistically significant a p < 0.05.

Results: GST, GPx and GR expressions were significantly reduced (p < 0.01) in liver samples from old animals compared to young ones and CBD treatment was able to revert it. A significant increase was observed in old animals compared to young ones in relation to oxidative stress markers (MDA and HO-1d), proinflammatory molecules (NFκB, IL-1β and TNF-α), MPO levels and proapoptotic molecules (BAX, AIF and CASP-1), while no significant alterations were observed in the antiapoptotic molecules (Bcl-2). All these changes were more noticeable in the liver, while the lung seemed to be less affected. In almost all the measured parameters, CBD treatment was able to revert the alterations caused by age restoring the levels to those observed in the group of young animals.

Conclusions: Chronic treatment with CBD in 15-month-old rats showed beneficial effects in lung and more significantly in liver by reducing the levels of inflammatory, oxidative and apoptotic mediators, and hence the cell damage associated with these three processes inherent to aging.”

“This study’s results suggest that chronic treatment with CBD in 15-month-old rats could have beneficial effects in the lung and more significantly in the liver by reducing the levels of inflammatory, oxidative, and apoptotic mediators, and hence the cell damage associated with these three processes inherent to aging.”

Cannabidiol Mitigates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pancreatic Pathology: A Promising Therapeutic Strategy

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“Background: Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are a component of certain types of bacteria and can induce an inflammatory response in the body, including in the pancreas. Cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychoactive compound found in cannabis, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects and may offer potential therapeutic benefits for conditions involving inflammation and damage. The aim of this study was to investigate any potential preventative effects of CBD on experimental LPS-induced pancreatic pathology in rats. 

Materials and Methods: Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups as control, LPS (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]), LPS+CBD, and CBD (5 mg/kg, i.p.) groups. Six hours after administering LPS, the rats were euthanized, and blood and pancreatic tissue samples were taken for biochemical, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), histopathological, and immunohistochemical examinations. 

Results: The results indicated that LPS decreased serum glucose levels and increased lipase levels. It also caused severe hyperemia, increased vacuolization in endocrine cells, edema, and slight inflammatory cell infiltrations at the histopathological examination. Insulin and amylin expressions decreased during immunohistochemical analyses. At the PCR analysis, Silent Information Regulator 2 homolog 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha expressions decreased and tumor protein p53 expressions increased in the LPS group. CBD improved the biochemical, PCR, histopathological, and immunohistochemical results. 

Conclusions: The findings of the current investigation demonstrated that LPS damages both the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. However, CBD demonstrated marked ameliorative effects in the pancreas in LPS induced rat model pancreatitis.”

Chronic Cannabigerol as an Effective Therapeutic for Cisplatin-Induced Neuropathic Pain

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“Cannabigerol (CBG), derived from the cannabis plant, acts as an acute analgesic in a model of cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) in mice. There are no curative, long-lasting treatments for CIPN available to humans. We investigated the ability of chronic CBG to alleviate mechanical hypersensitivity due to CIPN in mice by measuring responses to 7 and 14 days of daily CBG. We found that CBG treatment (i.p.) for 7 and 14 consecutive days significantly reduced mechanical hypersensitivity in male and female mice with CIPN and reduced pain sensitivity up to 60-70% of baseline levels (p < 0.001 for all), 24 h after the last injection. Additionally, we found that daily treatment with CBG did not evoke tolerance and did not incur significant weight change or adverse events. The efficacy of CBG was independent of the estrous cycle phase. Therefore, chronic CBG administration can provide at least 24 h of antinociceptive effect in mice. These findings support the study of CBG as a long-lasting neuropathic pain therapy, which acts without tolerance in both males and females.”

Medical Cannabis Alleviates Chronic Neuropathic Pain Effectively and Sustainably without Severe Adverse Effect: A Retrospective Study on 99 Cases

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“Introduction: Medical cannabis may provide a treatment option for chronic neuropathic pain. However, empirical disease-specific data are scarce.

Methods: This is a retrospective observational study including 99 patients with chronic neuropathic pain. These patients received medical cannabis by means of inhaling dried flowers with tetrahydrocannabinol content of <12-22% at a maximal daily dose of 0.15-1 g. Up to six follow-ups were carried out at intervals of 4-6 weeks. Pain severity, sleep disturbance, general improvement, side effects, and therapy tolerance at the follow-up consultations were assessed in interviews and compared with the baseline data using non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

Results: Within 6 weeks on the therapy, median of the pain scores decreased significantly from 7.5 to 4.0 (p < 0.001). The proportion of patients with severe pain (score >6) decreased from 96% to 16% (p < 0.001). Sleep disturbance was significantly improved with the median of the scores decreased from 8.0 to 2.0 (p < 0.001). These improvements were sustained over a period of up to 6 months. There were no severe adverse events reported. Mild side effects reported were dryness in mucous tissue (5.4%), fatigue (4.8%), and increased appetite (2.7%). Therapy tolerance was reported in 91% of the interviews.

Conclusion: Medical cannabis is safe and highly effective for treating neuropathic pain and concomitant sleep disturbance.”

In Vitro Antiproliferative Effect of Cannabis Extract PHEC-66 on Melanoma Cell Lines

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“Melanoma, an aggressive form of skin cancer, can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated early. Melanoma is widely recognized to resist advanced cancer treatments, including immune checkpoint inhibitors, kinase inhibitors, and chemotherapy. Numerous studies have shown that various Cannabis sativa extracts exhibit potential anticancer effects against different types of tumours both in vitro and in vivo. This study is the first to report that PHEC-66, a Cannabis sativa extract, displays antiproliferative effects against MM418-C1, MM329 and MM96L melanoma cells. Although these findings suggest that PHEC-66 has promising potential as a pharmacotherapeutic agent for melanoma treatment, further research is necessary to evaluate its safety, efficacy, and clinical applications.”

“In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that PHEC-66 extract derived from Cannabis sativa exerts a significant cytotoxic effect on MM418-C1, MM329, and MM96L melanoma cell lines while having a lesser effect on human keratinocytes (HaCaT), human epidermal melanocytes (HEM), and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). Although the mechanism of PHEC-66’s anti-melanoma activity remains unknown, this study suggests it may induce apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways. Further research is necessary to fully comprehend the underlying mechanisms of PHEC-66’s actions and assess its potential as a natural source of anticancer compounds.”

Chronic wound-related pain, wound healing and the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids and endocannabinoid system modulation

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“Chronic wounds represent a significant burden on the individual, and the healthcare system. Individuals with chronic wounds report pain to be the most challenging aspect of living with a chronic wound, with current therapeutic options deemed insufficient. The cutaneous endocannabinoid system is an important regulator of skin homeostasis, with evidence of system dysregulation in several cutaneous disorders. Herein, we describe the cutaneous endocannabinoid system, chronic wound-related pain, and comorbidities, and review preclinical and clinical evidence investigating endocannabinoid system modulation for wound-related pain and wound healing. Based on the current literature, there is some evidence to suggest efficacy of endocannabinoid system modulation for promotion of wound healing, attenuation of cutaneous disorder-related inflammation, and for the management of chronic wound-related pain. However, there is 1) a paucity of preclinical studies using validated models, specific for the study of chronic wound-related pain and 2) a lack of randomised control trials and strong clinical evidence relating to endocannabinoid system modulation for wound-related pain. In conclusion, while there is some limited evidence of benefit of endocannabinoid system modulation in wound healing and wound-related pain management, further research is required to better realise the potential of targeting the endocannabinoid system for these therapeutic applications.”

“Modulation of the endocannabinoid system may be beneficial for wound-related pain. Cannabinoid-based therapeutics may promote wound healing and reduce inflammation.”

Anti-oxidant effects of cannabidiol relevant to intracerebral hemorrhage

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“Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subtype of stroke with a high mortality rate. Oxidative stress cascades play an important role in brain injury after ICH.

Cannabidiol, a major non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids, has drawn increasing interest in recent years as a potential therapeutic intervention for various neuropsychiatric disorders.

Here we provide a comprehensive review of the potential therapeutic effects of cannabidiol in countering oxidative stress resulting from ICH. The review elaborates on the various sources of oxidative stress post-ICH, including mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, iron toxicity, inflammation, and also highlights cannabidiol’s ability to inhibit ROS/RNS generation from these sources. The article also delves into cannabidiol’s role in promoting ROS/RNS scavenging through the Nrf2/ARE pathway, detailing both extranuclear and intranuclear regulatory mechanisms.

Overall, the review underscores cannabidiol’s promising antioxidant effects in the context of ICH and suggests its potential as a therapeutic option.”

“These results suggest that CBD may be an effective treatment against ICH-induced OS.”