Potential clinical benefits of CBD-rich Cannabis extracts over purified cannabidiol (CBD) in treatment-resistant epilepsy: observational data meta-analysis

“This meta-analysis paper describes the analysis of observational clinical studies on the treatment of refractory epilepsy with cannabidiol (CBD)-based products. Beyond attempting to establish the safety and efficacy of such products, we also investigated if there is enough evidence to assume any difference in efficacy between CBD-rich extracts compared to purified CBD products.

The systematic search took place in February/2017 and updated in December/2017 using the keywords “epilepsy” or “Dravet” or “Lennox-Gastaut” or “CDKL5” combined with “Cannabis”, “cannabinoid”, “cannabidiol” or “CBD” resulting in 199 papers. The qualitative assessment resulted in 11 valid references, with an average impact factor of 8.1 (ranging from 1.4 to 47.8). The categorical data of a total of 670 patients were analyzed by Fischer test. The average daily dose ranged between 1 and 50 mg/kg, with treatment length from 3 to 12 months (mean 6.2 months).

Two thirds of patients reported improvement in the frequency of convulsive crisis (399/622, 64%). There were more reports of improvement from patients treated with CBD-rich extracts (318/447, 71%) than patients treated with purified CBD (81/223, 36%), with statistical significance (p<0.0001).

Nevertheless, when the standard clinical threshold of a “50% reduction or more in the frequency of convulsive crisis” was applied, only 39% of the individuals were considered “responders”, and there was no difference (p=0.56) between treatments with CBD-rich extracts (97/255, 38%) and purified CBD (94/223, 42%).

Patients treated with CBD-rich extracts reported lower average dose (6.1 mg/kg/day) than those using purified CBD (27.1 mg/kg/day). The reports of mild (109/285 vs 291/346, p<0.0001) and severe (23/285 vs 77/346, p<0.0001) adverse effects were more frequent in products containing purified CBD than in CBD-rich extracts.

CBD-rich extracts seem to present a better therapeutic profile than purified CBD, at least in this population of patients with refractory epilepsy. The roots of this difference is likely due to synergistic effects of CBD with other phytocompounds (aka Entourage effect), but this remains to be confirmed in controlled clinical studies.”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

The Association Between Tetrahydrocannabinol and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Utilizing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Urology Home

“To further define the relationship between tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), specifically how THC use associates with the frequency of LUTS in young community-dwelling men in the United States.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database was queried (2005-2008). Men ages 20-59 who completed the urinary and substance abuse questionnaires were included. The presence of LUTS was defined as having ≥2 of the following: nocturia (≥2), hesitancy, incomplete emptying, or incontinence. THC use was self-reported, and participants were considered regular smokers if they endorsed smoking at least once per month. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to analyze the relationship between THC and LUTS.

RESULTS:

Among 3,037 men who met inclusion criteria, 14.4% (n=477) of subjects reported THC use. In multivariable analyses, adjusting for clinical variables, regular THC users remained significantly less likely to report LUTS (odds ratio of 0.55; CI 95% 0.408-0.751, p<0.01) compared to non-users.

CONCLUSION:

Obesity, diabetes, and multiple co-morbidities are well-established risk factors for LUTS within the NHANES. Regular THC use, however, appears to be protective from LUTS in young community-dwelling men.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30142408

https://www.goldjournal.net/article/S0090-4295(18)30881-1/fulltext

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabidiol modulates serotonergic transmission and prevents allodynia and anxiety-like behavior in a model of neuropathic pain.

Image result for ovid journal

“Clinical studies indicate that cannabidiol (CBD), the primary non-addictive component of cannabis that interacts with the serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor, may possess analgesic and anxiolytic effects. However, its effects on 5-HT neuronal activity, as well as its impact in models of neuropathic pain are unknown.

Seven days of treatment with CBD reduced mechanical allodynia, decreased anxiety-like behavior, and normalized 5-HT activity. Anti-allodynic effects of CBD were fully prevented by capsazepine (10 mg/kg/day, s.c., for 7 days) and partially prevented by WAY 100635 (2 mg/kg/day, s.c., for 7 days), while the anxiolytic effect was blocked only by WAY.

Overall, repeated treatment with low-dose CBD induces analgesia predominantly via TRPV1 activation, reduces anxiety via 5-HT1A receptor activation, and rescues impaired 5-HT neurotransmission under neuropathic pain conditions.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30157131

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00006396-900000000-98870

“Cannabis pain relief without the ‘high’. Canadian researchers pinpoint the mechanism of cannabidiol for safe pain relief without side effects”  https://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-10/muhc-cpr102418.php

“Effective dose of cannabidiol for safe pain relief without the typical ‘high'”  https://www.news-medical.net/news/20181025/Effective-dose-of-cannabidiol-for-safe-pain-relief-without-the-typical-high.aspx

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Self-Reported Effectiveness and Safety of Trokie® Lozenges: A Standardized Formulation for the Buccal Delivery of Cannabis Extracts.

 Image result for frontiers in neuroscience

“Therapeutic use of cannabinoids, the main active ingredients of Cannabissativa L., is often hindered by their limited bioavailability and undesirable psychoactivity. We conducted an observational study in December 2016 and another one in February 2018 to investigate respectively: (i) the effectiveness of Trokie® lozenges, a standardized formulation containing cannabis extracts, to deliver cannabinoids via buccal absorption and (ii) its long-term safety.

Participants were members of the Palliative Care Corporation health clinic, registered California cannabis patients, and had a diagnosis of chronic non-cancer pain. For the effectiveness study, 49 participants were asked to self-report pain perception before and after 1-12 weeks of taking Trokie® lozenges, using an 11-point pain intensity numeric rating scale (PI-NRS).

A mean reduction in PI-NRS score of 4.9 ± 2.0 points was observed. Onset of analgesia typically varied between 5 and 40 min, which seems consistent with, at least partial, buccal absorption. In the safety study, 35 participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about adverse events (AEs) associated with Trokie® lozenges. AEs were reported by 16 subjects (46%), the most common being dizziness/unsteadiness (N = 7), bad taste (N = 5), and throat irritation/dry mouth (N = 4). None of the self-reported AEs resulted in a serious medical situation and most of them had limited impact on daily functions.

Despite the AEs, 90% of participants reported being “satisfied” or “very satisfied” with the product. These observations suggest that buccal administration of standardized extracts via Trokie® lozenges may represent an efficacious and safe approach to cannabis administration.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30154694

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2018.00564/full 

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabis and the Health and Performance of the Elite Athlete.

 

Image result for wolters kluwer

“Cannabis (marijuana) is undergoing extensive regulatory review in many global jurisdictions for medical and nonmedical access. Cannabis has potential impact on the health of athletes as well as on performance in both training and in competition. The aim of this general review is to identify and highlight the challenges in interpreting information with respect to elite athletic performance, and to point to important research areas that need to be addressed.

MAIN RESULTS:

Cannabis may be primarily inhaled or ingested orally for a range of medical and nonmedical reasons; evidence for efficacy is limited but promising for chronic pain management. Although evidence for serious harms from cannabis use on health of athletes is limited, one should be cognizant of the potential for abuse and mental health issues. Although the prevalence of cannabis use among elite athletes is not well-known, use is associated with certain high-risk sports. There is no evidence for cannabis use as a performance-enhancing drug.

CONCLUSIONS:

Medical and nonmedical cannabis use among athletes reflects changing societal and cultural norms and experiences. Although cannabis use is more prevalent in some athletes engaged in high-risk sports, there is no direct evidence of performance-enhancing effects in athletes. The potential beneficial effects of cannabis as part of a pain management protocol, including reducing concussion-related symptoms, deserve further attention.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30153174

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00042752-201809000-00009

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Orthopaedic surgery patients who use recreational marijuana have less pre-operative pain.

“To determine the baseline clinical characteristics of recreational marijuana users undergoing outpatient orthopaedic surgery.

We hypothesized that patients who report marijuana use would have worse pain, function, and general health status.

The results do not support our hypothesis, as marijuana use was associated with less pain and better lower extremity activity rating scale scores when compared to non-users.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30135987

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00264-018-4101-x

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Patient-Reported Symptom Relief Following Medical Cannabis Consumption

Image result for frontiers in pharmacology

“The Releaf AppTM mobile software application (app) data was used to measure self-reported effectiveness and side effects of medical cannabis used under naturalistic conditions.

Results: Releaf AppTM responders used cannabis to treat myriad health symptoms, the most frequent relating to pain, anxiety, and depressive conditions. Significant symptom severity reductions were reported for all the symptom categories, with mean reductions between 2.8 and 4.6 points (ds ranged from 1.29–2.39, ps < 0.001). On average, higher pre-dosing symptom levels were associated with greater reported symptom relief, and users treating anxiety or depression-related symptoms reported significantly more relief (ps < 0.001) than users with pain symptoms. Of the 42 possible side effects, users were more likely to indicate and showed a stronger correlation between symptom relief and experiences of positive (94% of sessions) or a context-specific side effects (76%), whereas negative side effects (60%) were associated with lessened, yet still significant symptom relief and were more common among patients treating a depressive symptom relative to patients treating anxiety and pain-related conditions.

Conclusion: Patient-managed cannabis use is associated with clinically significant improvements in self-reported symptom relief for treating a wide range of health conditions, along with frequent positive and negative side effects.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30210337

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.00916/full

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Medicinal Properties of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids in Cannabis, and Benefits in Migraine, Headache, and Pain: An Update on Current Evidence and Cannabis Science.

Related image

“Comprehensive literature reviews of historical perspectives and evidence supporting cannabis/cannabinoids in the treatment of pain, including migraine and headache, with associated neurobiological mechanisms of pain modulation have been well described.

Most of the existing literature reports on the cannabinoids Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), or cannabis in general. There are many cannabis strains that vary widely in the composition of cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other compounds. These components work synergistically to produce wide variations in benefits, side effects, and strain characteristics. Knowledge of the individual medicinal properties of the cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids is necessary to cross-breed strains to obtain optimal standardized synergistic compositions. This will enable targeting individual symptoms and/or diseases, including migraine, headache, and pain.

OBJECTIVE:

Review the medical literature for the use of cannabis/cannabinoids in the treatment of migraine, headache, facial pain, and other chronic pain syndromes, and for supporting evidence of a potential role in combatting the opioid epidemic. Review the medical literature involving major and minor cannabinoids, primary and secondary terpenes, and flavonoids that underlie the synergistic entourage effects of cannabis. Summarize the individual medicinal benefits of these substances, including analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.

CONCLUSION:

There is accumulating evidence for various therapeutic benefits of cannabis/cannabinoids, especially in the treatment of pain, which may also apply to the treatment of migraine and headache. There is also supporting evidence that cannabis may assist in opioid detoxification and weaning, thus making it a potential weapon in battling the opioid epidemic. Cannabis science is a rapidly evolving medical sector and industry with increasingly regulated production standards. Further research is anticipated to optimize breeding of strain-specific synergistic ratios of cannabinoids, terpenes, and other phytochemicals for predictable user effects, characteristics, and improved symptom and disease-targeted therapies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30152161

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabidiol (CBD) Is a Novel Inhibitor for Exosome and Microvesicle (EMV) Release in Cancer.

Image result for frontiers in pharmacology

“Exosomes and microvesicles (EMV) are lipid bilayer-enclosed structures, released by cells and involved in intercellular communication through transfer of proteins and genetic material. EMV release is also associated with various pathologies, including cancer, where increased EMV release is amongst other associated with chemo-resistance and active transfer of pro-oncogenic factors.

Recent studies show that EMV-inhibiting agents can sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents and reduce cancer growth in vivo.

Cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid derived from Cannabis sativa, has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, and displays anti-proliferative activity.

Here we report a novel role for CBD as a potent inhibitor of EMV release from three cancer cell lines: prostate cancer (PC3), hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2) and breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231).

CBD significantly reduced exosome release in all three cancer cell lines, and also significantly, albeit more variably, inhibited microvesicle release.

The EMV modulating effects of CBD were found to be dose dependent (1 and 5 μM) and cancer cell type specific. Moreover, we provide evidence that this may be associated with changes in mitochondrial function, including modulation of STAT3 and prohibitin expression, and that CBD can be used to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy.

We suggest that the known anti-cancer effects of CBD may partly be due to the regulatory effects on EMV biogenesis, and thus CBD poses as a novel and safe modulator of EMV-mediated pathological events.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30150937

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.00889/full

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabidiol for Epilepsy: New Hope on the Horizon?

 Clinical Therapeutics Home

“Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder; it is estimated that ∼50 million people are affected worldwide. About one third of those patients are drug resistant, defined as failure to stop all seizures despite adequate trials of at least 2 appropriate medications. There has been an enormous interest in developing antiepileptic drugs with novel mechanisms of action. This review discusses the evidence supporting the anticonvulsant properties of cannabis in humans, focusing on cannabidiol. We begin by exploring the early and somewhat anecdotal evidence that was recently replaced by high-quality data from randomized controlled studies, which subsequently led to the US Food and Drug Administration approval of a purified cannabidiol extract for the treatment of 2 highly refractory pediatric epilepsy syndromes (Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut).”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30150078

https://www.clinicaltherapeutics.com/article/S0149-2918(18)30325-4/fulltext

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous