Potential of plant-sourced phenols for inflammatory bowel disease.

“Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an uncontrolled chronic inflammatory intestinal disorder, which requires medications for long-term therapy. Facing the challenges of severe side effects and drug resistance of conventional medications, to develop the strategies meet the stringent safety and effectiveness in the long-term treatment are urgent in the clinics.

In this regard, a growing body of evidence confirms plant-sourced phenols, such as flavonoids, catechins, stilbenes, coumarins, quinones, lignans, phenylethanoids, cannabinoid phenols, tannins, phenolic acids and hydroxyphenols, exert potent protective benefits with fewer undesirable effects in conditions of acute or chronic intestinal inflammation through improvement of colonic oxidative and pro-inflammatory status, preservation of the epithelial barrier function and modulation of gut microbiota.

In this review, the great potential of plant-sourced phenols and their action mechanisms for the treatment or prevention of IBD in recent research are summarized, which may help the further development of new preventive/adjuvant regimens for IBD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28990509

http://www.eurekaselect.com/156267/article

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Cannabis phenolics and their bioactivities.

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“Although Cannabis sativa L. is one of the most versatile plant species with multipurpose use both as medical, alimentary source and as psychoactive abuse, its biomedical relevance focused the attention on major cannabinoids. Phytochemical characterization of cannabis highlights the presence of various non-cannabinoids constituents including flavonoids, spiroindans, dihyrostilbenes, dihydrophenanthrenes, lignanamides, steroids and alkaloids. Cannabis is a plant with high pharmacological and nutrition values, its potentialities and applications are not only circumscribed to cannabinoids biological activities, but also defined by non-cannabinoid compounds. This review deals with polyphenols present in this plant, their biosynthesis, their bioactivities and their synthesis, when this occurred.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28799497

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Cannabis for Pain and Headaches: Primer.

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“Marijuana has been used both medicinally and recreationally since ancient times and interest in its compounds for pain relief has increased in recent years. The identification of our own intrinsic, endocannabinoid system has laid the foundation for further research.

Synthetic cannabinoids are being developed and synthesized from the marijuana plant such as dronabinol and nabilone. The US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of dronabinol and nabilone for chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting and HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) wasting. Nabiximols is a cannabis extract that is approved for the treatment of spasticity and intractable pain in Canada and the UK. Further clinical trials are studying the effect of marijuana extracts for seizure disorders.

Phytocannabinoids have been identified as key compounds involved in analgesia and anti-inflammatory effects.  Other compounds found in cannabis such as flavonoids and terpenes are also being investigated as to their individual or synergistic effects.

This article will review relevant literature regarding medical use of marijuana and cannabinoid pharmaceuticals with an emphasis on pain and headaches.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28281107

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Polyphenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Cold-Pressed Seed Oil from Finola Cultivar of Cannabis sativa L.

“The aim of this study was to characterize the polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cold-pressed seed oil from Finola cultivar of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

Several methodologies have been employed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Finola hempseed oil (FHSO) and both lipophilic (LF) and hydrophilic fractions (HF). The qualitative and quantitative composition of the phenolic fraction of FHSO was performed by HPLC analyses.

From the results is evident that FHSO has high antioxidative activity, as measured by DPPH radical (146.76 mmol of TE/100 g oil), inhibited β-carotene bleaching, quenched a chemically generated peroxyl radical in vitro and showed high ferrous ion chelating activity. Reactivity towards 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation and ferric-reducing antioxidant power values were 695.2 µmol of TE/100g oil and 3690.6 µmol of TE/100 g oil respectively.

FHSO contains a significant amount of phenolic compounds of which 2780.4 mg of quercetin equivalent/100 g of total flavonoids.

The whole oil showed higher antioxidant activity compared with LF and HF.

Our findings indicate that the significant antioxidant properties shown from Finola seed oil might generally depend on the phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, such as flavanones, flavonols, flavanols and isoflavones.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27076277

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A pharmacological basis of herbal medicines for epilepsy.

“Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disease, affecting about 1% of the world’s population during their lifetime. Most people with epilepsy can attain a seizure-free life upon treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs).

Unfortunately, seizures in up to 30% do not respond to treatment. It is estimated that 90% of people with epilepsy live in developing countries, and most of them receive no drug treatment for the disease. This treatment gap has motivated investigations into the effects of plants that have been used by traditional healers all over the world to treat seizures.

Extracts of hundreds of plants have been shown to exhibit anticonvulsant activity in phenotypic screens performed in experimental animals.

Some of those extracts appear to exhibit anticonvulsant efficacy similar to that of synthetic AEDs.

Dozens of plant-derived chemical compounds have similarly been shown to act as anticonvulsants in various in vivo and in vitro assays.

To a significant degree, anticonvulsant effects of plant extracts can be attributed to widely distributed flavonoids, (furano)coumarins, phenylpropanoids, and terpenoids.

Flavonoids and coumarins have been shown to interact with the benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor and various voltage-gated ion channels, which are targets of synthetic AEDs.

Modulation of the activity of ligand-gated and voltage-gated ion channels provides an explanatory basis of the anticonvulsant effects of plant secondary metabolites.

Many complex extracts and single plant-derived compounds exhibit antiinflammatory, neuroprotective, and cognition-enhancing activities that may be beneficial in the treatment of epilepsy.

Thus, botanicals provide a base for target-oriented antiepileptic drug discovery and development.

In the future, preclinical work should focus on the characterization of the effects of plant extracts and plant-derived compounds on well-defined targets rather than on phenotypic screening using in vivo animal models of acute seizures. At the same time, available data provide ample justification for clinical studies with selected standardized botanical extracts and plant-derived compounds.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26074183

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/epilepsy-2/

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Antihyperalgesic effect of a Cannabis sativa extract in a rat model of neuropathic pain: mechanisms involved.

Abstract

“This study aimed to give a rationale for the employment of phytocannabinoid formulations to treat neuropathic pain. It was found that a controlled cannabis extract, containing multiple cannabinoids, in a defined ratio, and other non-cannabinoid fractions (terpenes and flavonoids) provided better antinociceptive efficacy than the single cannabinoid given alone, when tested in a rat model of neuropathic pain. The results also demonstrated that such an antihyperalgesic effect did not involve the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, whereas it was mediated by vanilloid receptors TRPV1. The non-psychoactive compound, cannabidiol, is the only component present at a high level in the extract able to bind to this receptor: thus cannabidiol was the drug responsible for the antinociceptive behaviour observed. In addition, the results showed that after chronic oral treatment with cannabis extract the hepatic total content of cytochrome P450 was strongly inhibited as well as the intestinal P-glycoprotein activity. It is suggested that the inhibition of hepatic metabolism determined an increased bioavailability of cannabidiol resulting in a greater effect. However, in the light of the well known antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of terpenes and flavonoids which could significantly contribute to the therapeutic effects, it cannot be excluded that the synergism observed might be achieved also in the absence of the cytochrome P450 inhibition.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18618522

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Regulation of neuroinflammation by herbal medicine and its implications for neurodegenerative diseases. A focus on traditional medicines and flavonoids.

Abstract

“Herbal medicine has long been used to treat neural symptoms. Although the precise mechanisms of action of herbal drugs have yet to be determined, some of them have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and/or anti-oxidant effects in a variety of peripheral systems. Now, as increasing evidence indicates that neuroglia-derived chronic inflammatory responses play a pathological role in the central nervous system, anti-inflammatory herbal medicine and its constituents are being proved to be a potent neuroprotector against various brain pathologies. Structural diversity of medicinal herbs makes them valuable source of novel lead compounds against therapeutic targets that are newly discovered by genomics, proteomics, and high-throughput screening.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15956812

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Cannabinoids, Endocannabinoids, and Related Analogs in Inflammation.

“This review covers reports published in the last 5 years on the anti-inflammatory activities of all classes of cannabinoids, including phytocannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, synthetic analogs such as ajulemic acid and nabilone, the endogenous cannabinoids anandamide and related compounds, namely, the elmiric acids, and finally, noncannabinoid components of Cannabis that show anti-inflammatory action. It is intended to be an update on the topic of the involvement of cannabinoids in the process of inflammation. A possible mechanism for these actions is suggested involving increased production of eicosanoids that promote the resolution of inflammation. This differentiates these cannabinoids from cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors that suppress the synthesis of eicosanoids that promote the induction of the inflammatory process.”

 

“INTRODUCTION

This review is intended to be an update on the topic of the involvement of cannabinoids in the process of inflammation. Other reviews cover certain aspects of this subject and the reader is referred to them for a discussion of earlier reports. In this review are reports published in the last 5 years on the activities of all classes of cannabinoids, including the endogenous cannabinoids such as anandamide, related compounds such as the elmiric acids (EMAs), and noncannabinoid components of Cannabis that show anti-inflammatory action. An interesting recently published example of the latter one is caryophyllene, an abundant component of Cannabis oil that shows anti-inflammatory activity and has high affinity for cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2; 5).”

 

“Phytocannabinoids: Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol”

 

“PLANT PREPARATIONS AND NONCANNABINOID CONSTITUENTS OF CANNABIS”

“Cannabis sativa is a complex botanical, and it is not unlikely that the therapeutic benefits of marijuana are due to some of the more than 60 cannabinoids and 200–250 noncannabinoid constituents of the plant. One noncannabinoid, the geranylated flavone cannflavin A (Fig. 5), is 30 times more potent than aspirin as an inhibitor of prostaglandin E2 . These potentially important findings have been overlooked, as most attention in marijuana research has been directed to the analgesic effects of the plant and to mechanisms of psychoactivity. A further example that this line of inquiry has remained dormant is a series of overlooked observations, which demonstrate potent anti-inflammatory actions of a crude marijuana extract and of the nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituents, CBD, cannabinol, and cannabichromene in the carrageenan paw edema model of acute inflammation in rats. Volatile oil products of the plant also have biological activity. Thus, pyrolysis products may add to the therapeutic properties of smoked marijuana. Several of the most abundant cannabinoid and noncannabinoid constituents of C. sativa are nonpsychoactive.”

“Flavonoids are ubiquitous plant phenolic compounds that consist of two aromatic rings linked by a three carbon bridge. They are attracting interest because of their antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The flavone luteolin, a constituent of C. sativa, is also found in spices and in vegetables such as celery and green pepper. When added to peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro, luteolin suppresses production of the inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1b, and IL-6, actions that relate to a selective reduction in numbers of monocytes. Perhaps more importantly, luteolin inhibits growth of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and protects against induction of colon cancer in mice.”

“CONCLUSIONS

Possibly the very earliest literature reference on Cannabis describes its use as an anti-inflammatory agent. The Chinese emperor Shen-nung (ca. 2000 B.C.), in a work called Pen-ts’ao Ching, noted many of the effects of Cannabis in humans. Among other properties, it was claimed that cannabis “undoes rheumatism”, suggesting possible anti-inflammatory effects. The reports described in this review of the current literature provide support for the claims made by the ancient Chinese healers. These more recent publications include relief from chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, and postoperative pain. In addition, a large body of preclinical data on all classes of cannabinoids, including the endogenous examples, point to a variety of therapeutic targets for cannabinoids and important roles for the endocannabinoids in the physiology of inflammation.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2664885/

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