Topical cannabis-based medicines – A novel paradigm and treatment for non-uremic calciphylaxis leg ulcers: An open label trial

“Non-Uremic Calciphylaxis (NUC) is a rare condition that often manifests as intractable and painful integumentary wounds, afflicting patients with a high burden of co-morbidity.

The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is a ubiquitous signalling system that is theorised to be dysregulated within wound beds and associated peri-wound tissues.

Preclinical research has shown that the dominant chemical classes derived from the cannabis plant, cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids, interact with the integumentary ECS to promote wound closure and analgesia.

This is a prospective open label cohort study involving two elderly Caucasian females with recalcitrant NUC leg ulcers of greater than 6 months duration.

Topical Cannabis-Based Medicines (TCBM) composed of cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids were applied daily to both the wound bed and peri-wound tissues until complete wound closure was achieved.

Wounds were photographed regularly, and the digital images were subjected to planimetric analysis to objectively quantify the degree of granulation and epithelization. Analgesic utilisation, as a surrogate/proxy for pain scores, was also tracked. The cohort had a mean M3 multimorbidity index score of 3.31. Complete wound closure was achieved in a mean of 76.3 days. Additionally, no analgesics were required after a mean of 63 days.

The treatments were well tolerated with no adverse reactions. The positive results demonstrated in very challenging wounds such as NUC, among highly complex patients, suggest that TCBM may have an even broader role within integumentary and wound management.

This treatment paradigm warrants being trialled in other wound types and classes, and ultimately should be subjected to randomised controlled trials.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32875692/

“Topical Cannabis‐Based Medicines, applied to both wound beds and peri‐wound tissues, represent a promising novel, non‐invasive, and safe treatment option for NUC leg ulcers.”

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/iwj.13484

image

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannflavins – From plant to patient: A scoping review

Fitoterapia Cannflavins are a group of prenylflavonoids derived from Cannabis sativa L.. Cannflavin A (CFL-A), B (CFL-B) and C (CFL-C) have been heralded for their anti-inflammatory properties in pre-clinical evaluations.

This scoping review aims to synthesise the evidence base on cannflavins to provide an overview of the current research landscape to inform research strategies to aid clinical translation.

Results: 26 full text articles were included. CFL-A and CFL-B demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate induced PGE2 release (CFL-A half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50): 0.7 μM; CFL-B IC50: 0.7 μM) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (CFL-A IC50: 1.8 μM; CFL-B IC50: 3.7 μM). Outcomes were also described in preclinical models of anti-oxidation (CFL-A), anti-parasitic activity (CFL-A, CFL-C), neuroprotection (CFL-A) and cancer (Isocannflavin B, a CFL-B isomer). In-silico screening identified that CFL-A has binding affinity with viral proteins that warrant further investigation.

Conclusions: Cannflavins demonstrate a number of promising therapeutic properties, most notably as an anti-inflammatory agent. Low yields of extraction however have previously limited research to small pre-clinical investigations. Identification of cannflavin-rich chemovars, novel extraction techniques and recent identification of a biosynthetic pathway will hopefully allow research to be scaled appropriately. In order to fully evaluate the therapeutic properties of cannflavins focused research now needs to be embedded within institutions with a track-record of clinical translation.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32858172/

“Cannflavins are prenylated flavonoids derived from the Cannabis sativa L. plant with many touted therapeutic properties.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0367326X2030294X?via%3Dihub

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Hemp in Veterinary Medicine: From Feed to Drug

 See the source image“Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is an angiosperm plant belonging to the Cannabaceae family. Its cultivation dates back to centuries. It has always been cultivated due to the possibility of exploiting almost all the parts of the plant: paper, fabrics, ropes, bio-compounds with excellent insulating capacity, fuel, biodegradable plastic, antibacterial detergents, and food products, such as flour, oils, seeds, herbal teas, and beer, are indeed obtained from hemp.

Hemp flowers have also always been used for their curative effects, as well as for recreational purposes due to their psychotropic effects. Cannabis contains almost 500 chemical compounds, such as phytocannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and macro-, and micro-elements, among others.

When utilized as a food source, hemp shows excellent nutritional and health-promoting (nutraceutical) properties, mainly due to the high content in polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially those belonging to the ω-3 series), as well as in phenolic compounds, which seem effective in the prevention of common diseases such as gastrointestinal disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and others.

Moreover, hemp oil and other oils (i.e., olive oil and medium-chain triglyceride-MCT-oil) enriched in CBD, as well as extracts from hemp dried flowers (Cannabis extracts), are authorized in some countries for therapeutic purposes as a second-choice approach (when conventional therapies have failed) for a certain number of clinical conditions such as pain and inflammation, epilepsy, anxiety disorders, nausea, emesis, and anorexia, among others.

The present review will synthetize the beneficial properties of hemp and hemp derivatives in animal nutrition and therapeutics.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32850997/

C. sativa has been an important source of food in the Old World, as hempseeds and seed meal are excellent sources of dietary oil, fiber, and protein. Many of the constituents of C. sativa can be classified as either nutrients, nutraceuticals, or pharmaceutical ingredients.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2020.00387/full

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Flavonoid and cannabinoid impact on the ocular surface

 Media Kit - Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Lippincott  Audience Solutions | Wolters Kluwer“Purpose of review: To evaluate the impact of flavonoids and cannabinoids as anti-inflammatory and antiallergic treatments on the anterior surface of the eye.

Recent findings: Allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye syndrome are common ocular surface diseases that have been treated with traditional pharmacological measures, e.g. corticosteroids, antihistamines. Given the side-effect profiles of these medications and the growing interest in complementary treatment modalities as part of integrative medical interventions, well known flavonoids, such as quercetin and catechin, are under investigation for topical and systemic application methods for relief. As flavonoid derivatives, pycnogenol and epigallocatechin gallate have alleviated dry eye symptoms, including lacrimal gland inflammation, tear secretion, and the stability of the tear film. Research on ocular cannabinoid receptors and response to synthetic cannabinoids are also being considered for therapy of anterior ocular disorders. The expansion of herbal formulations provides a framework for future treatment regimens for ocular surface disorders.

Summary: Flavonoids and cannabinoids show promise as potential complementary treatment for allergic diseases because of their anti-inflammatory and antiallergic properties. Several studies implementing ocular and systemic application of these compounds show potential in becoming adjuvant treatment strategies for improving quality of life while also managing ocular surface disease processes.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32796166/

https://journals.lww.com/co-allergy/Abstract/2020/10000/Flavonoid_and_cannabinoid_impact_on_the_ocular.11.aspx

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Anti-Cancer Potential of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids Present in Cannabis

cancers-logo“In recent years, and even more since its legalization in several jurisdictions, cannabis and the endocannabinoid system have received an increasing amount of interest related to their potential exploitation in clinical settings. Cannabinoids have been suggested and shown to be effective in the treatment of various conditions. In cancer, the endocannabinoid system is altered in numerous types of tumours and can relate to cancer prognosis and disease outcome. Additionally, cannabinoids display anticancer effects in several models by suppressing the proliferation, migration and/or invasion of cancer cells, as well as tumour angiogenesis. However, the therapeutic use of cannabinoids is currently limited to the treatment of symptoms and pain associated with chemotherapy, while their potential use as cytotoxic drugs in chemotherapy still requires validation in patients. Along with cannabinoids, cannabis contains several other compounds that have also been shown to exert anti-tumorigenic actions. The potential anti-cancer effects of cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids, present in cannabis, are explored in this literature review.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32708138/

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/12/7/1985

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabis Phytomolecule ‘Entourage’: From Domestication to Medical Use.

 

Trends in Plant Science: Special issue: Specifi...“Cannabis has been used as a medicine for millennia.

Crude extracts of cannabis inflorescence contain numerous phytomolecules, including phytocannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids. Combinations of phytomolecules have been recently established as superior to the use of single molecules in medical treatment owing to the ‘entourage effect’.

Two types of entourage effects are defined: ‘intra-entourage’, resulting from interactions among phytocannabinoids or terpenes, and ‘inter-entourage’, attributed to interactions between phytocannabinoids and terpenes. It is suggested that the phytomolecule assemblages found in cannabis chemovars today derive from selective breeding during ancient cultivation.

We propose that the current cannabis chemotaxonomy should be redefined according to chemical content and medicinal activity. In parallel, combinations of phytomolecules that exhibit entourage activity should be explored further for future drug development.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32417167

“Cannabis has been used for millennia by humanity for social, ritual, and medical purposes. Humans bred and selected for cannabis strains based on their needs.”

https://www.cell.com/trends/plant-science/pdf/S1360-1385(20)30122-9.pdf?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS1360138520301229%3Fshowall%3Dtrue

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Characterization of bioactive compounds in defatted hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.) by UHPLC-HRMS/MS and anti-inflammatory activity in primary human monocytes.

 “Hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.) has beneficial impact on human health mainly because of its wide variability of bioactive compounds. However, many of them are not fully characterized yet. In this work, hempseed was defatted and through a bio-guided studied, two fractions (F03 and F05) with the highest content of phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity were selected. Fractions were chemically analyzed by UHPLC HRMS/MS. The anti-inflammatory capacities of these compounds were evaluated on human monocytes using flow cytometry, RT-qPCR and Elisa procedures. A high amount of phenolic compounds were identified, with the major compound being: N-trans-caffeoyltyramine (6.36 mg g-1 in F05 and 1.28 mg g-1 in F03). Both, F03 and F05 significantly reduced the inflammatory competence of LPS-treated human primary monocytes, decreasing TNF-α and IL-6 gene expression and secretion. These findings indicate that in the defatted fraction of the hempseed there are a wide number of compounds with beneficial potential to prevent and treat inflammatory disorders, as well as other processes caused by oxidative stress.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32329481

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2020/FO/D0FO00066C#!divAbstract

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of formulated full-spectrum cannabis extract in the treatment of neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis.

 SpringerLink“Cannabis has been used for thousands of years in many cultures for the treatment of several ailments including pain.

The benefits of cannabis are mediated largely by cannabinoids, the most prominent of which are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). As such, THC and/or CBD have been investigated in clinical studies for the treatment of many conditions including neuropathic pain and acute or chronic inflammation.

While a plethora of studies have examined the biochemical effects of purified THC and/or CBD, only a few have focused on the effects of full-spectrum cannabis plant extract. Accordingly, studies using purified THC or CBD may not accurately reflect the potential health benefits of full-spectrum cannabis extracts.

Indeed, the cannabis plant produces a wide range of cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other bioactive molecules which are likely to contribute to the different biological effects. The presence of all these bioactive molecules in cannabis extracts has garnered much attention of late especially with regard to their potential role in the treatment of neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis.:

Herein, the current knowledge about the potential beneficial effects of existing products of full-spectrum cannabis extract in clinical studies involving patients with multiple sclerosis is extensively reviewed. In addition, the possible adverse effects associated with cannabis use is discussed along with how the method of extraction and the delivery mechanisms of different cannabis extracts contribute to the pharmacokinetic and biological effects of full-spectrum cannabis extracts.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32239248

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00011-020-01341-1

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Secondary Metabolites Profiled in Cannabis Inflorescences, Leaves, Stem Barks, and Roots for Medicinal Purposes.

Scientific Reports “Cannabis research has historically focused on the most prevalent cannabinoids. However, extracts with a broad spectrum of secondary metabolites may have increased efficacy and decreased adverse effects compared to cannabinoids in isolation.

Cannabis’s complexity contributes to the length and breadth of its historical usage, including the individual application of the leaves, stem barks, and roots, for which modern research has not fully developed its therapeutic potential. This study is the first attempt to profile secondary metabolites groups in individual plant parts comprehensively.

We profiled 14 cannabinoids, 47 terpenoids (29 monoterpenoids, 15 sesquiterpenoids, and 3 triterpenoids), 3 sterols, and 7 flavonoids in cannabis flowers, leaves, stem barks, and roots in three chemovars available. Cannabis inflorescence was characterized by cannabinoids (15.77-20.37%), terpenoids (1.28-2.14%), and flavonoids (0.07-0.14%); the leaf by cannabinoids (1.10-2.10%), terpenoids (0.13-0.28%), and flavonoids (0.34-0.44%); stem barks by sterols (0.07-0.08%) and triterpenoids (0.05-0.15%); roots by sterols (0.06-0.09%) and triterpenoids (0.13-0.24%).

This comprehensive profile of bioactive compounds can form a baseline of reference values useful for research and clinical studies to understand the “entourage effect” of cannabis as a whole, and also to rediscover therapeutic potential for each part of cannabis from their traditional use by applying modern scientific methodologies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32094454

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-60172-6

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Nose-to-brain Delivery of Natural Compounds for the Treatment of Central Nervous System Disorders.

“Several natural compounds have demonstrated potential for the treatment of central nervous system disorders such as ischemic cerebrovascular disease, glioblastoma, neuropathic pain, neurodegenerative diseases, multiple sclerosis and migraine.

This is due to their well-known antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, anti-tumor, anti-ischemic and analgesic properties. Nevertheless, many of these molecules have poor aqueous solubility, low bioavailability and extensive gastrointestinal and/or hepatic first-pass metabolism, leading to a quick elimination as well as low serum and tissue concentrations.

Thus, the intranasal route emerged as a viable alternative to oral or parenteral administration, by enabling a direct transport into the brain through the olfactory and trigeminal nerves. With this approach, the blood-brain barrier is circumvented and peripheral exposure is reduced, thereby minimizing possible adverse effects.

OBJECTIVE:

Herein, brain-targeting strategies for the nose-to-brain delivery of natural compounds, including flavonoids, cannabinoids, essential oils and terpenes, will be reviewed and discussed. Brain and plasma pharmacokinetics of these molecules will be analyzed and related to their physicochemical characteristics and formulation properties.

CONCLUSION:

Natural compounds constitute relevant alternatives for the treatment of brain diseases but often require loading into nanocarrier systems to reach the central nervous system in sufficient concentrations. Future challenges lie in a deeper characterization of their therapeutic mechanisms and in the development of effective, safe and brain-targeted delivery systems for their intranasal administration.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31939728

http://www.eurekaselect.com/178321/article

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous