Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of two standardized extracts from a new Chinese accession of non-psychotropic Cannabis sativa L

Phytotherapy Research “The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of two extracts from a new Chinese accession (G-309) of Cannabis sativa L. (Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol <0.2%) with high content of propyl side chain phytocannabinoids.

Dried flowering tops, as such and after hydrodistillation of the essential oil, were extracted with acidic hexane to produce the Cannabis Chinese hexane extract 1 (CChHE1) and 2 (CChHE2), respectively. The phytochemical profile of CChHE1 and CChHE2 was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) analyses. The antioxidant properties were assessed by several in vitro cell-free assays. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans.

Phytochemical analyses highlighted a high content of cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA) and tetraydrocannabivarinic acid (THCVA) in CChHE1, and cannabidivarin (CBDV) and tetraydrocannabivarin (THCV) in CChHE2. Both extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activity and strong antimicrobial properties (MIC 39.06 and MBC 39.06-78.13 μg/ml) against both ATCC and methicillin-resistant clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

In conclusion, standardized extracts of C. sativa Chinese accession could be promising for their possible use as novel antibacterial agents for the treatment of widespread S. aureus infections.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33034400/

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ptr.6891

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Hemp in Veterinary Medicine: From Feed to Drug

 See the source image“Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is an angiosperm plant belonging to the Cannabaceae family. Its cultivation dates back to centuries. It has always been cultivated due to the possibility of exploiting almost all the parts of the plant: paper, fabrics, ropes, bio-compounds with excellent insulating capacity, fuel, biodegradable plastic, antibacterial detergents, and food products, such as flour, oils, seeds, herbal teas, and beer, are indeed obtained from hemp.

Hemp flowers have also always been used for their curative effects, as well as for recreational purposes due to their psychotropic effects. Cannabis contains almost 500 chemical compounds, such as phytocannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and macro-, and micro-elements, among others.

When utilized as a food source, hemp shows excellent nutritional and health-promoting (nutraceutical) properties, mainly due to the high content in polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially those belonging to the ω-3 series), as well as in phenolic compounds, which seem effective in the prevention of common diseases such as gastrointestinal disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and others.

Moreover, hemp oil and other oils (i.e., olive oil and medium-chain triglyceride-MCT-oil) enriched in CBD, as well as extracts from hemp dried flowers (Cannabis extracts), are authorized in some countries for therapeutic purposes as a second-choice approach (when conventional therapies have failed) for a certain number of clinical conditions such as pain and inflammation, epilepsy, anxiety disorders, nausea, emesis, and anorexia, among others.

The present review will synthetize the beneficial properties of hemp and hemp derivatives in animal nutrition and therapeutics.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32850997/

C. sativa has been an important source of food in the Old World, as hempseeds and seed meal are excellent sources of dietary oil, fiber, and protein. Many of the constituents of C. sativa can be classified as either nutrients, nutraceuticals, or pharmaceutical ingredients.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2020.00387/full

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In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Cannabis sativa L. cv ‘Futura 75’ essential oil

Publication Cover“In the present work, Cannabis sativa L. cv Futura 75 inflorescences, cultivated in the Abruzzo territory, were characterized for their volatile fraction through SPME-GC-MS. In addition, the essential oil extracted from these inflorescences was investigated for the antioxidant potentialities and for the terpenic profile.

The antibacterial activity of hemp essential oil (HEO) against some pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms isolated from food was also evaluated by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC).

The results showed significant antioxidant capacity (DPPH: 63.38 ± 0.08 mg TE/g HEO; FRAP: 438.52 ± 6.92 mg TE/g HEO) alongside good antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as S. aureus and L. monocytogenes (MIC 1.25-5 µL/mL).

The results obtained suggest that hemp essential oil can inhibit or reduce bacterial growth, also exerting antioxidant activity, and therefore it can find an advantageous application in the food processing field.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32865042/

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14786419.2020.1813139?journalCode=gnpl20

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Rapid Antibacterial Activity of Cannabichromenic Acid against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

antibiotics-logo “Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has proven to be an imminent threat to public health, intensifying the need for novel therapeutics.

Previous evidence suggests that cannabinoids harbour potent antibacterial activity.

In this study, a group of previously inaccessible phytocannabinoids and synthetic analogues were examined for potential antibacterial activity.

The minimum inhibitory concentrations and dynamics of bacterial inhibition, determined through resazurin reduction and time-kill assays, revealed the potent antibacterial activity of the phytocannabinoids against gram-positive antibiotic-resistant bacterial species, including MRSA.

One phytocannabinoid, cannabichromenic acid (CBCA), demonstrated faster and more potent bactericidal activity than vancomycin, the currently recommended antibiotic for the treatment of MRSA infections. Such bactericidal activity was sustained against low-and high-dose inoculums as well as exponential- and stationary-phase MRSA cells. Further, mammalian cell viability was maintained in the presence of CBCA. Finally, microscopic evaluation suggests that CBCA may function through the degradation of the bacterial lipid membrane and alteration of the bacterial nucleoid.

The results of the current study provide encouraging evidence that cannabinoids may serve as a previously unrecognised resource for the generation of novel antibiotics active against MRSA.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32824356/

https://www.mdpi.com/2079-6382/9/8/523

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Isolation, Purification, and Antimicrobial Characterization of Cannabidiolic Acid and Cannabidiol From Cannabis sativa L

biomolecules-logo“The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes a major threat to public health due to its limited therapeutic options.

There is an urgent need for the development of new effective antimicrobial agents and alternative strategies that are effective against resistant bacteria.

The parallel legalization of cannabis and its products has fueled research into its many therapeutic avenues in many countries around the world.

This study aimed at the development of a reliable method for the extraction, purification, characterization, and quantification of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and its decarboxylated form cannabidiol (CBD) present in the fiber type Cannabis sativa L.

Overall, CBD exhibited a strong antimicrobial effect against Gram-positive strains and could serve as an alternative drug for tackling MRSA.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32545687/

https://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/10/6/900

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Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of Cannabis sativa L. seeds extract against Staphylococcus aureus and growth effects on probiotic Lactobacillus spp.

LWT“The growing concern on the antibiotic resistance spreading among bacteria has stimulated the search for valuable alternatives from plant sources.

This study dealt with the potential use of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds extract to inhibit the growth of selected pathogenic enterobacteria and the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, representing severe risks of food-borne illnesses. Effects on probiotic bacteria were also examined. A double-staining viability/mortality assay was used to examine potential S. aureus membrane damage.

Our results highlighted a selective antimicrobial activity of C. sativa extract against pathogenic strains and no inhibitory effects on the growth of probiotic strains belonging to the Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera. This selective inhibition is of outmost importance for the maintenance of healthy gut microbiota.

The double-staining assay showed that the C. sativa extract was capable of inhibiting the biofilm producer S. aureus ATCC 35556 strain; this antibacterial action was only partially linked to membrane damage. Biofilm formation was inhibited as well; inhibition occurs at lower concentration with respect to planktonic cells (0.5 mg/ml vs 1 mg/ml, respectively).

Therefore, hemp seeds extracts represent a new exploitable and valuable antimicrobial and antibiofilm agent for the food and nutraceutical industry as a possible alternative to antibiotics/antibacterial compounds.

Cannabis sativa L. seeds showed antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity.

C. sativa L. seeds selectively inhibit the growth of potentially pathogenic strains.

C. sativa L. seeds did not exert antimicrobial activity against probiotic bacteria.

C. sativa L. seeds inhibit the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0023643820301377

Image 1

“Antimicrobial Activity of Cannabis sativa L.”  https://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=18123

“Antimicrobial studies of the leaf of cannabis sativa L.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16414764

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Cannabidiol is an effective helper compound in combination with bacitracin to kill Gram-positive bacteria.

Scientific Reports “The cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) is characterised in this study as a helper compound against resistant bacteria. CBD potentiates the effect of bacitracin (BAC) against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus species, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis) but appears ineffective against Gram-negative bacteria. CBD reduced the MIC value of BAC by at least 64-fold and the combination yielded an FIC index of 0.5 or below in most Gram-positive bacteria tested. Morphological changes in S. aureus as a result of the combination of CBD and BAC included several septa formations during cell division along with membrane irregularities. Analysis of the muropeptide composition of treated S. aureus indicated no changes in the cell wall composition. However, CBD and BAC treated bacteria did show a decreased rate of autolysis. The bacteria further showed a decreased membrane potential upon treatment with CBD; yet, they did not show any further decrease upon combination treatment. Noticeably, expression of a major cell division regulator gene, ezrA, was reduced two-fold upon combination treatment emphasising the impact of the combination on cell division. Based on these observations, the combination of CBD and BAC is suggested to be a putative novel treatment in clinical settings for treatment of infections with antibiotic resistant Gram-positive bacteria.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32139776

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-60952-0

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Cannabinoids and Terpenes as an Antibacterial and Antibiofouling Promotor for PES Water Filtration Membranes.

molecules-logo“Plant phytochemicals have potential decontaminating properties, however, their role in the amelioration of hydrophobic water filtration membranes have not been elucidated yet.

In this work, phytochemicals (i.e., cannabinoids (C) and terpenes (T) from C. sativa) were revealed for their antibacterial activity against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

The results of this study established cannabinoids and terpenes as an inexpensive solution for polyethersulfone (PES) membrane surface modification.

These hybrid membranes can be easily deployed at an industrial scale for water filtration purposes.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32041149

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/25/3/691

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Comparison of Efficacy of Cannabinoids versus Commercial Oral Care Products in Reducing Bacterial Content from Dental Plaque: A Preliminary Observation.

Image result for cureus journal“Dental plaque is a complex biofilm that gets formed on the teeth and acts as a reservoir of different microbes. It is the root cause for the occurrence of several dental problems and diseases, including cavities, bad breath, bleeding gums, tooth decay, and tooth loss. Therefore, it should be regularly removed using suitable oral care aids.

The present study compared the efficacy of oral care products and cannabinoids in reducing the bacterial content of dental plaques.

Sixty adults aged 18 to 45 years were categorized into six groups based on the Dutch periodontal screening index. Dental plaques of the adults were collected using paro-toothpick sticks and spread on two Petri dishes, each with four divisions. On Petri dish-A, cannabidiol (CBD), cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabigerol (CBG) were used, and on Petri dish-B, cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), Oral B, Colgate, and Cannabite F (a toothpaste formulation of pomegranate and algae) were used. The Petri dishes were sealed and incubated, followed by counting the number of colonies.

Results: By evaluating the colony count of the dental bacteria isolated from six groups, it was found that cannabinoids were more effective in reducing the bacterial colony count in dental plaques as compared to the well-established synthetic oral care products such as Oral B and Colgate.

Conclusion: Cannabinoids have the potential to be used as an effective antibacterial agent against dental plaque-associated bacteria. Moreover, it provides a safer alternative for synthetic antibiotics to reduce the development of drug resistance.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32038896

“To the best of our knowledge, no such study has been published that compares the efficiency of cannabinoids with that of oral care products against dental bacteria. Our study is the first of its kind conducted to compare the efficacy of well-established commercial oral care products and cannabinoids in reducing the bacterial content of the dental plaque. Reducing the bacterial content could significantly decrease and prevent gum diseases that have become a huge global burden owing to their direct relation with systemic diseases. Here we report a preliminary observatory study on effect of cannabinoids on reducing the bacterial content of dental plaque.”

https://www.cureus.com/articles/25300-comparison-of-efficacy-of-cannabinoids-versus-commercial-oral-care-products-in-reducing-bacterial-content-from-dental-plaque-a-preliminary-observation

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Uncovering the hidden antibiotic potential of Cannabis.

 Go to Volume 0, Issue ja“The spread of antimicrobial resistance continues to be a priority health concern worldwide, necessitating exploration of alternative therapies.

Cannabis sativa has long been known to contain antibacterial cannabinoids, but their potential to address antibiotic resistance has only been superficially investigated.

Here, we show that cannabinoids exhibit antibacterial activity against MRSA, inhibit its ability to form biofilms and eradicate pre-formed biofilms and stationary phase cells persistent to antibiotics.

We show that the mechanism of action of cannabigerol is through targeting the cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-positive bacteria and demonstrate in vivo efficacy of cannabigerol in a murine systemic infection model caused by MRSA.

We also show that cannabinoids are effective against Gram-negative organisms whose outer membrane is permeabilized, where cannabigerol acts on the inner membrane.

Finally, we demonstrate that cannabinoids work in combination with polymyxin B against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative pathogens, revealing the broad-spectrum therapeutic potential for cannabinoids.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32017534

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsinfecdis.9b00419

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