Cannabidiolic acid in Hemp Seed Oil Table Spoon and Beyond


“Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) is the main precannabinoid in industrial hemp. It represents a common constituent of hemp seed oil, but mainly abundant in the aerial parts of the plant (including their processing waste). Thus, the optimization of fast and low-cost purification strategies is mandatory, as well as a deep investigation on its nutraceutical and cosmeceutical properties. To this purpose, CBDA content in hemp seed oil is evaluated, and its recovery from wasted leaves is favorably achieved. The cytotoxicity screening towards HaCaT cells, by means of MTT, SRB and LDH release assays, suggested it was not able to decrease cell viability or perturb cell integrity up to 10 μM concentration. Thus, the ability of CBDA to differentially modulate the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines mediators has been evaluated, finding that CBDA decreased IFN-γ, CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL2, CCL4 and CCL5, mostly in a dose-dependent manner, with 10 μM tested concentration exerting the highest activity. These data, together with those from assessing antimicrobial activity against Gram(+) and Gram(-) bacteria and the antibiofilm formation, suggest that CBDA is able to counteract the inflammatory response, also preventing bacteria colonization.”

α-Pinene: A never-ending story

Phytochemistry“α-Pinene represents a member of the monoterpene class and is highly distributed in higher plants like conifers, Juniper ssp. and Cannabis ssp.

α-Pinene has been used to treat respiratory tract infections for centuries. Furthermore, it plays a crucial role in the fragrance and flavor industry. In vitro assays have shown an enantioselective profile of (+)- and (-)-α-pinene for antibacterial and insecticidal activity, respectively.”

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“α-Pinene Enhances the Anticancer Activity of Natural Killer Cells via ERK/AKT Pathway. Our findings demonstrate that α-pinene activates NK cells and increases NK cell cytotoxicity, suggesting it is a potential compound for cancer immunotherapy.”

“α-Pinene inhibits tumor invasion through downregulation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB-regulated matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene expression in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. These results suggest that α-pinene has a significant effect on the inhibition of tumor invasion and may potentially be developed into an anti-metastatic drug.”

Myrcene-What Are the Potential Health Benefits of This Flavouring and Aroma Agent?

Neuroenergetics, Nutrition and Brain Health | Authors“Myrcene (β-myrcene) is an abundant monoterpene which occurs as a major constituent in many plant species, including hops and cannabis. It is a popular flavouring and aroma agent (food additive) used in the manufacture of food and beverages. This review aims to report on the occurrence, biological and toxicological profile of β-myrcene. The main reported biological properties of β-myrcene-anxiolytic, antioxidant, anti-ageing, anti-inflammatory, analgesic properties-are discussed, with the mechanisms of activity. Here we also discuss recent data regarding the safety of β-myrcene. Overall, β-myrcene has shown promising health benefits in many animal studies. However, studies conducted in humans is lacking. In the future, there is potential for the formulation and production of non-alcoholic beers, functional foods and drinks, and cannabis extracts (low in THC) rich in β-myrcene.”

“β-Myrcene characteristically gives cannabis strains a mildly sweet flavour profile and provides scent notes that are spicy, earthy and musky. Cannabis strains which contain high concentrations of myrcene (>0.5% myrcene), are likely to induce sedative qualities (“couch-lock effect”), which are classically attributed to Cannabis indica Lam (a synonym of C. sativa L.) strains. On the other hand, strains low in β-myrcene (<0.5%) are likely to induce a more energic “high”.β-Myrcene reported biological activities include analgesic, sedative, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and anticancer effects.”

Anti-Bacterial Properties of Cannabigerol Toward Streptococcus mutans

Frontiers in Microbiology: Multidrug Resistance in Pasteurellaceae“Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is a gram-positive facultatively anaerobic bacterium and the most common pathogen associated with tooth caries. The organism is acid tolerant and can undergo physiological adaptation to function effectively in acid environments such as carious dental plaque.

Some cannabinoids have been found to have potent anti-microbial activity against gram-positive bacteria. One of these is the non-psychoactive, minor phytocannabinoid Cannabigerol (CBG). Here we show that CBG exhibits anti-bacterial activities against S. mutans.

In summary, we present here data showing the mechanisms by which CBG exerts its anti-bacterial effect against S. mutans.”

“Cannabigerol (CBG) is a non-psychotropic Cannabis-derived cannabinoid (CB). In summary, the present study demonstrates an anti-bacterial effects of the Cannabis component CBG toward the cariogenic bacteria S. mutans. The interference of CBG with the caries causative S. mutans may provide a novel innovative way to combat dental caries.”

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of two standardized extracts from a new Chinese accession of non-psychotropic Cannabis sativa L

Phytotherapy Research “The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of two extracts from a new Chinese accession (G-309) of Cannabis sativa L. (Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol <0.2%) with high content of propyl side chain phytocannabinoids.

Dried flowering tops, as such and after hydrodistillation of the essential oil, were extracted with acidic hexane to produce the Cannabis Chinese hexane extract 1 (CChHE1) and 2 (CChHE2), respectively. The phytochemical profile of CChHE1 and CChHE2 was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) analyses. The antioxidant properties were assessed by several in vitro cell-free assays. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans.

Phytochemical analyses highlighted a high content of cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA) and tetraydrocannabivarinic acid (THCVA) in CChHE1, and cannabidivarin (CBDV) and tetraydrocannabivarin (THCV) in CChHE2. Both extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activity and strong antimicrobial properties (MIC 39.06 and MBC 39.06-78.13 μg/ml) against both ATCC and methicillin-resistant clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

In conclusion, standardized extracts of C. sativa Chinese accession could be promising for their possible use as novel antibacterial agents for the treatment of widespread S. aureus infections.”

Hemp in Veterinary Medicine: From Feed to Drug

 See the source image“Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is an angiosperm plant belonging to the Cannabaceae family. Its cultivation dates back to centuries. It has always been cultivated due to the possibility of exploiting almost all the parts of the plant: paper, fabrics, ropes, bio-compounds with excellent insulating capacity, fuel, biodegradable plastic, antibacterial detergents, and food products, such as flour, oils, seeds, herbal teas, and beer, are indeed obtained from hemp.

Hemp flowers have also always been used for their curative effects, as well as for recreational purposes due to their psychotropic effects. Cannabis contains almost 500 chemical compounds, such as phytocannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and macro-, and micro-elements, among others.

When utilized as a food source, hemp shows excellent nutritional and health-promoting (nutraceutical) properties, mainly due to the high content in polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially those belonging to the ω-3 series), as well as in phenolic compounds, which seem effective in the prevention of common diseases such as gastrointestinal disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and others.

Moreover, hemp oil and other oils (i.e., olive oil and medium-chain triglyceride-MCT-oil) enriched in CBD, as well as extracts from hemp dried flowers (Cannabis extracts), are authorized in some countries for therapeutic purposes as a second-choice approach (when conventional therapies have failed) for a certain number of clinical conditions such as pain and inflammation, epilepsy, anxiety disorders, nausea, emesis, and anorexia, among others.

The present review will synthetize the beneficial properties of hemp and hemp derivatives in animal nutrition and therapeutics.”

C. sativa has been an important source of food in the Old World, as hempseeds and seed meal are excellent sources of dietary oil, fiber, and protein. Many of the constituents of C. sativa can be classified as either nutrients, nutraceuticals, or pharmaceutical ingredients.”

In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Cannabis sativa L. cv ‘Futura 75’ essential oil

Publication Cover“In the present work, Cannabis sativa L. cv Futura 75 inflorescences, cultivated in the Abruzzo territory, were characterized for their volatile fraction through SPME-GC-MS. In addition, the essential oil extracted from these inflorescences was investigated for the antioxidant potentialities and for the terpenic profile.

The antibacterial activity of hemp essential oil (HEO) against some pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms isolated from food was also evaluated by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC).

The results showed significant antioxidant capacity (DPPH: 63.38 ± 0.08 mg TE/g HEO; FRAP: 438.52 ± 6.92 mg TE/g HEO) alongside good antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as S. aureus and L. monocytogenes (MIC 1.25-5 µL/mL).

The results obtained suggest that hemp essential oil can inhibit or reduce bacterial growth, also exerting antioxidant activity, and therefore it can find an advantageous application in the food processing field.”

Rapid Antibacterial Activity of Cannabichromenic Acid against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

antibiotics-logo “Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has proven to be an imminent threat to public health, intensifying the need for novel therapeutics.

Previous evidence suggests that cannabinoids harbour potent antibacterial activity.

In this study, a group of previously inaccessible phytocannabinoids and synthetic analogues were examined for potential antibacterial activity.

The minimum inhibitory concentrations and dynamics of bacterial inhibition, determined through resazurin reduction and time-kill assays, revealed the potent antibacterial activity of the phytocannabinoids against gram-positive antibiotic-resistant bacterial species, including MRSA.

One phytocannabinoid, cannabichromenic acid (CBCA), demonstrated faster and more potent bactericidal activity than vancomycin, the currently recommended antibiotic for the treatment of MRSA infections. Such bactericidal activity was sustained against low-and high-dose inoculums as well as exponential- and stationary-phase MRSA cells. Further, mammalian cell viability was maintained in the presence of CBCA. Finally, microscopic evaluation suggests that CBCA may function through the degradation of the bacterial lipid membrane and alteration of the bacterial nucleoid.

The results of the current study provide encouraging evidence that cannabinoids may serve as a previously unrecognised resource for the generation of novel antibiotics active against MRSA.”

Isolation, Purification, and Antimicrobial Characterization of Cannabidiolic Acid and Cannabidiol From Cannabis sativa L

biomolecules-logo“The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes a major threat to public health due to its limited therapeutic options.

There is an urgent need for the development of new effective antimicrobial agents and alternative strategies that are effective against resistant bacteria.

The parallel legalization of cannabis and its products has fueled research into its many therapeutic avenues in many countries around the world.

This study aimed at the development of a reliable method for the extraction, purification, characterization, and quantification of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and its decarboxylated form cannabidiol (CBD) present in the fiber type Cannabis sativa L.

Overall, CBD exhibited a strong antimicrobial effect against Gram-positive strains and could serve as an alternative drug for tackling MRSA.”

Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of Cannabis sativa L. seeds extract against Staphylococcus aureus and growth effects on probiotic Lactobacillus spp.

LWT“The growing concern on the antibiotic resistance spreading among bacteria has stimulated the search for valuable alternatives from plant sources.

This study dealt with the potential use of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds extract to inhibit the growth of selected pathogenic enterobacteria and the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, representing severe risks of food-borne illnesses. Effects on probiotic bacteria were also examined. A double-staining viability/mortality assay was used to examine potential S. aureus membrane damage.

Our results highlighted a selective antimicrobial activity of C. sativa extract against pathogenic strains and no inhibitory effects on the growth of probiotic strains belonging to the Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera. This selective inhibition is of outmost importance for the maintenance of healthy gut microbiota.

The double-staining assay showed that the C. sativa extract was capable of inhibiting the biofilm producer S. aureus ATCC 35556 strain; this antibacterial action was only partially linked to membrane damage. Biofilm formation was inhibited as well; inhibition occurs at lower concentration with respect to planktonic cells (0.5 mg/ml vs 1 mg/ml, respectively).

Therefore, hemp seeds extracts represent a new exploitable and valuable antimicrobial and antibiofilm agent for the food and nutraceutical industry as a possible alternative to antibiotics/antibacterial compounds.

Cannabis sativa L. seeds showed antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity.

C. sativa L. seeds selectively inhibit the growth of potentially pathogenic strains.

C. sativa L. seeds did not exert antimicrobial activity against probiotic bacteria.

C. sativa L. seeds inhibit the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus.”

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“Antimicrobial Activity of Cannabis sativa L.”

“Antimicrobial studies of the leaf of cannabis sativa L.”