Chemical Characterization and Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils from Fibre-Type Cannabis sativa L. (Hemp).

molecules-logo“Volatile terpenes represent the largest group of Cannabis sativa L. components and they are responsible for its aromatic properties. Even if many studies on C. sativa have been focused on cannabinoids, which are terpenophenolics, little research has been carried out on its volatile terpenic compounds.

In the light of all the above, the present work was aimed at the chemical characterization of seventeen essential oils from different fibre-type varieties of C. sativa (industrial hemp or hemp) by means of GC-MS and GC-FID techniques.

In total, 71 compounds were identified, and the semi-quantitative analysis revealed that α- and β-pinene, β-myrcene and β-caryophyllene are the major components in all the essential oils analysed. In addition, a GC-MS method was developed here for the first time, and it was applied to quantify cannabinoids in the essential oils.

The antibacterial activity of hemp essential oils against some pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms isolated from food and food processing environment was also determined. The inhibitory effects of the essential oils were evaluated by both the agar well diffusion assay and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) evaluation. By using the agar diffusion method and considering the zone of inhibition, it was possible to preliminarily verify the inhibitory activity on most of the examined strains.

The results showed a good antibacterial activity of six hemp essential oils against the Gram-positive bacteria, thus suggesting that hemp essential oil can inhibit or reduce bacterial proliferation and it can be a valid support to reduce microorganism contamination, especially in the food processing field.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31234360

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/12/2302

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“Cannabis Found Effective in Fighting Drug-Resistant Bacteria”

1957: “[Hemp (Cannabis sativa); antibiotic drug. I. Hemp in the old & popular medicine].” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13484424
1958: “[Hemp (Cannabis sativa)–antibiotic drugs. II. Method & results of bacteriological experiments & preliminary clinical experience].” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13553773
1959: “[Hemp (Cannabis sativa)-an antibiotic drug. 3. Isolation and constitution of two acids from Cannabis sativa].” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14411912
1962: “Antibiotic activity of various types of cannabis resin.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14489783
2008: “Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure-activity study.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18681481
“Cannabis plant extracts can effectively fight drug-resistant bacteria.” http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=5787866
“According to research, the five most common cannabinoid compounds in weed—tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabinol and cannabichromene—can kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria.” https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/news-blog/whoa-the-stuff-in-pot-kills-germs-2008-08-27/
“All five cannabinoids (THC, CBD, CBG, CBC, and CBN) were potent against bacteria. Notably, they performed well against bacteria that were known to be multidrug resistant, like the strains of MRSA” http://arstechnica.com/science/2008/08/killing-bacteria-with-cannabis/
2014: “Better than antibiotics, cannabinoids kill antibiotic-resistant MRSA bacteria” http://usahealthresource.blogspot.com/2014/02/marijuana-extracts-and-compounds-kill.html
2019: “Cannabis Found Effective in Fighting Drug-Resistant Bacteria” https://www.courthousenews.com/cannabis-found-effective-in-fighting-drug-resistant-bacteria/
“Cannabis oil kills bacteria better than established antibiotics… providing a possible new weapon in the war on superbugs, according to new research. It offers hope of curing killer infections – including MRSA and pneumonia, say scientists.” https://www.thelondoneconomic.com/lifestyle/cannabis-oil-kills-bacteria-better-than-established-antibiotics/24/06/ 
“CANNABIS COMPOUND COULD BE LATEST WEAPON IN WAR AGAINST SUPERBUGS”
“Marijuana skin cream kills superbugs, says Botanix” https://stockhead.com.au/health/marijuana-skin-cream-kills-superbugs-says-botanix/
“Botanix’s CBD-based product destroys superbug skin infections in another ‘world first’” https://smallcaps.com.au/botanix-cbd-based-product-destroys-skin-superbug-infections/
“Compound in cannabis found to be ‘promising’ new antibiotic that does not lose its effectiveness with use” https://www.kelownanow.com/watercooler/news/news/Cannabis/Compound_in_cannabis_found_to_be_promising_new_antibiotic_that_does_not_lose_its_effectiveness_with_use/
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Chromatographic Analyses, In Vitro Biological Activities, and Cytotoxicity of Cannabis sativa L. Essential Oil: A Multidisciplinary Study.

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“Due to renewed interest in the cultivation and production of Italian Cannabis sativa L., we proposed a multi-methodological approach to explore chemically and biologically both the essential oil and the aromatic water of this plant. We reported the chemical composition in terms of cannabinoid content, volatile component, phenolic and flavonoid pattern, and color characteristics. Then, we demonstrated the ethnopharmacological relevance of this plant cultivated in Italy as a source of antioxidant compounds toward a large panel of enzymes (pancreatic lipase, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and cholinesterases) and selected clinically relevant, multidrug-sensible, and multidrug-resistant microbial strains (Staphylococcus aureusHelicobacter pyloriCandida, and Malassezia spp.), evaluating the cytotoxic effects against normal and malignant cell lines. Preliminary in vivo cytotoxicity was also performed on Galleria mellonella larvae. The results corroborate the use of this natural product as a rich source of important biologically active molecules with particular emphasis on the role exerted by naringenin, one of the most important secondary metabolites.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30544765

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/23/12/3266

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Attenuation of Listeria monocytogenes Virulence by Cannabis sativa L. Essential Oil.

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“Anti-virulence strategies are being explored as a novel approach to combat pathogens. Such strategies include inhibition of surface adhesion, tissue invasion, toxin production, and/or interference with the gene regulation of other virulence traits.

Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis, is a facultative intracellular food pathogen characterized by a wide distribution in the environment. Its ability to persist within biofilms and to develop resistance to sanitizers is the cause of significant problems in food processing plants and of steep costs for the food industry.

In humans, the treatment of listeriosis is hampered by the intracellular location of listeriae and the poor intracellular penetration of some antibiotics. Eleven L. monocytogenes isolates from patients who were diagnosed with invasive listeriosis in Italy in 2014-2016 were studied.

This in vitro and in vivo study explored the antibacterial and anti-virulence properties of a steam-distilled essential oil of Cannabis sativa L., which is being intensively investigated for its high content in powerful bioactive phytochemicals.

Susceptibility experiments demonstrated a moderate bactericidal activity of the essential oil (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration > 2048 μg/mL).

Food contamination with L. monocytogenes is a major concern for the food industry, particularly for plants making ready-to-eat and processed food.

The present work provides a baseline in the study of the anti-virulence properties of the C. sativa essential oil against L. monocytogenes. Further studies are needed to understand if it could be used as an alternative agent for the control of L. monocytogenes in food processing plants.”

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Antimicrobial activity of Cannabis sativa, Thuja orientalis and Psidium guajava leaf extracts against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal of Integrative Medicine

“This study examined the antimicrobial activity of Cannabis sativa, Thuja orientalis and Psidium guajava against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and used a standardized purification protocol to determine the presence and abundance of bioactive compounds in the leaf extracts.

RESULTS:

Resistance to methicillin, penicillin, oxacillin and cefoxitin was observed in each of the clinical and nonclinical MRSA isolates. However, they were still vulnerable to vancomycin. Used individually, the 50% extract of each plant leaf inhibited MRSA growth. A profound synergism was observed when C. sativa was used in combination with T. orientalis (1:1) and when P. guajava was used in combination with T. orientalis (1:1). This was shown by larger zones of inhibition. This synergism was probably due to the combined inhibitory effect of phenolics present in the leaf extracts (i.e., quercetin and gallic acid) and catechin, as detected by HPTLC.

CONCLUSION:

The leaf extracts of C. sativa, T. orientalis and P. guajava had potential for the control of both hospital- and community-acquired MRSA. Moreover, the inhibitory effect was enhanced when extracts were used in combination.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30120078

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2095496418300815?via%3Dihub

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Antimicrobial Activity of Cannabis sativa L.

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“The oil of the seeds, petroleum ether and methanol extracts of the whole plant of Cannabis sativa belonging to the family Cannabinaceae were screened for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive organisms (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), two Gram negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two fungi namely Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans using the cup plate agar diffusion method.

The oil of the seeds of Cannabis sativa exerted pronounced antibacterial activity (21 – 28 mm) against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, moderate activity (15 mm) against Escherichia coli and high activity (16 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and inactive against the two fungi tested. The petroleum ether extract of the whole plant exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity (23 – 28 mm) against both Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus organisms, high activity (16 mm) against Escherichia coli and inactive against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and both fungi. The methanol extract of the whole plant showed also pronounced antibacterial activity (29 mm) against Bacillus subtilis, low activity (12 mm) against Staphylococcus aureus and high activity (16 – 18 mm) against both Gram negative organisms, inactive against Aspergillus niger and low activity (13 mm) against Candida albicans.

The minimum inhibitory concentrations of Cannabis sativa methanol extracts of the seeds and the whole plant against the standard organisms were determined using the agar plate dilution method. The standard organisms were tested against reference antibacterial and antifungal drugs and the results were compared with the activity of the extracts.”

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=18123

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Antibacterial Properties of Hemp and Other Natural Fibre Plants: A Review

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“Intervention against pathogenic bacteria using natural plant material has a long history. Plant materials also have been widely used as fillers and/or reinforcers in polymer composites. Some natural fibre plants, such as hemp, are regarded to possess antibacterial activity against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria. Innovative applications can be explored if they are incorporated in polymer composites. This review aims to compile the relevant investigations on antibacterial activity of hemp and other fibre plants such as jute, flax, kenaf, sisal, and bamboo. The antibacterial character might be contributed from cannabinoids, alkaloids, other bioactive compounds, or phenolic compounds of lignin. This review is intended to encourage utilization of hemp and other natural fibre plants in value-added diversified products. Some potential applications are also discussed.” https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270502952_Antibacterial_Properties_of_Hemp_and_Other_Natural_Fibre_Plants_A_Review
“Antibacterial Properties of Hemp and Other Natural Fibre Plants: A Review”  http://ojs.cnr.ncsu.edu/index.php/BioRes/article/view/BioRes_09_2_Khan_Antibacterial_Hemp_Fibre_Review
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Benefits of Cannabis Terpenes: Ocimene, Terpinolene, and Guaiol

Leafly

“Terpenes are a group of fragrant essential oils – secreted alongside cannabinoids like THC and CBD – that contribute to the complex aroma of cannabis. They are also generally responsible for many of the distinguishing characteristics of different strains, and this discovery has led to a sharp increase in interest among researchers, producers, and consumers alike.

Though cannabis contains up to 200 different terpenes, there are about 10 primary terpenes and 20 secondary terpenes that occur in significant concentrations. We’d like to introduce you to the potential health benefits of three of those terpenes: ocimene, terpinolene, and guaiol.

Ocimene is an isomeric hydrocarbon found in a wide variety of fruits and plants. It is recognized by its sweet, fragrant, herbaceous, and woodsy aromas, which feature prominently in several perfumes, and which help plants defend themselves in their natural environment. Ocimene occurs naturally in botanicals as diverse as mint, parsley, pepper, basil, mangoes, orchids, kumquats, and of course cannabis.

Ocimene’s potential medical benefits include:

  • Antiviral
  • Antifungal
  • Antiseptic
  • Decongestant
  • Antibacterial

Cannabis strains that can test high in ocimene include Golden Goat, Strawberry Cough,Chernobyl, and Space Queen. At Tilray, strains currently displaying high concentrations of ocimene include OG Kush, Elwyn, and Lemon Sour Diesel.

Terpinolene is another isomeric hydrocarbon, characterized by a fresh, piney, floral, herbal, and occasionally citrusy aroma and flavor. It is found in a variety of other pleasantly fragrant plants including nutmeg, tea tree, conifers, apples, cumin, and lilacs, and is sometimes used in soaps, perfumes, and lotions.

Terpinolene’s potential medical benefits include:

  • Anticancer
  • Antioxidant
  • Sedative
  • Antibacterial
  • Antifungal

Terpinolene is found most commonly in sativa-dominant strains; a few that frequently exhibit high concentrations of this terpene include Jack Herer and its derivatives, such as Pineapple Jack, J1, and Super Jack. At Tilray, strains currently possessing higher than average concentrations of terpinolene include Lemon Sour Diesel, Afghani, and Jean Guy.

Guaiol is not an oil but a sesquiterpenoid alcohol, and is also found in cypress pine and guaiacum. It has been used for centuries as a treatment for diverse ailments ranging from coughs to constipation to arthritis. It is also an effective insect repellent and insecticide.

Guaiol’s potential medical properties include:

  • Antimicrobial
  • Anti-inflammatory

Strains that can test high in guaiol include Chocolope, Liberty Haze, and Blue Kush. At Tilray, strains currently exhibiting relatively high concentrations of guaiol include Barbara Bud, Jean

https://www.leafly.com/news/cannabis-101/benefits-of-cannabis-terpenes-ocimene-terpinolene-and-guaiol

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Screening of cannabinoids in industrial-grade hemp using two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection.

Journal of Separation Science

“Widely known for its recreational use, the cannabis plant also has the potential to act as an antibacterial agent in the medicinal field.

The analysis of cannabis plants/products in both pharmacological and forensic studies often requires the separation of compounds of interest and/or accurate identification of the whole cannabinoid profile.

In order to provide a complete separation and detection of cannabinoids, a new two-dimensional liquid chromatography method has been developed using acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection, which has been shown to be selective for cannabinoids.

This was carried out using a Luna 100 Å CN column and a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column in the first and second dimension respectively. The method has utilised a large amount of the available separation space with a spreading angle of 48.4° and a correlation of 0.66 allowing the determination of more than 120 constituents and mass spectral identification of ten cannabinoids in a single analytical run.

The method has potential to improve research involved in the characterisation of sensitive, complex matrices. ”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25845561

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jssc.201500088/abstract

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The Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antibacterial, Epstein-Barr inhibiting, Anti-allergy, Anti-osteoporosis, Anti-aging, Anti-HIV, and Anti-cancer effects of Camellia japonica.

“Anti-inflammatory activity of Camellia japonica oil. Camellia japonica oil (CJ oil) has been used traditionally in East Asia to nourish and soothe the skin as well as help restore the elasticity of skin…the anti-inflammatory effects of CJ oil and its mechanisms of action were investigated…Our results indicate that CJ oil exerts anti-inflammatory effects…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22449705

“Triterpene alcohols from camellia and sasanqua oils and their anti-inflammatory effects.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9433772

“Antioxidant Effects of the Ethanol Extract from Flower of Camellia japonica via Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes…  These results suggest that Camellia extract exhibits antioxidant properties by scavenging ROS and enhancing antioxidant enzymes. Camellia extract contained quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercitrin and kaempferol, which are antioxidant compounds.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3127137/

“Camellianoside, a novel antioxidant glycoside from the leaves of Camellia japonica. A novel flavonol glycoside named camellianoside and three known flavonol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Camellia japonica… The antioxidant activities of these glycosides evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging reaction was higher than those of L-cysteine and L-ascorbic acid used as the reference antioxidants.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16926516

“Antibacterial activity in extracts of Camellia japonica L. petals and its application to a model food system. The potential presence of naturally occurring antimicrobials in petals of Camellia japonica L., a member of the tea family, was investigated against foodborne pathogens in microbiological media and food… An aqueous extract from the petals of C. japonica L. had an inhibitory effect on growth of all pathogens…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11510672

“Effect of Camellia japonica oil on human type I procollagen production and skin barrier function. In this study, we investigated the possibility that Camellia japonica oil (CJ oil) may be introduced as an anti-wrinkle agent…  based on these results, we suggest the possibility that CJ oil may be considered as possible wrinkle-reducing candidates for topical application.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17386986

“Inhibitory effects of natural plants of Jeju Island on elastase and MMP-1 expression. In order to search for new active cosmetic ingredients of natural origin, we screened about 60 plants collected from Jeju Island, which is located in the southernmost part of the Republic of Korea… four extracts, including… Camellia japonica (leaf), completely inhibited the expression of MMP-1 in human fibroblast cells. The results showed that four of the 60 plant extracts may hold potential for use as natural active ingredients for anti-aging cosmetics.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17342265

“Melanogenesis inhibitory and fibroblast proliferation accelerating effects of noroleanane- and oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides from the flower buds of Camellia japonica. Camellioside B (2), a major constituent of C. japonica grown in Japan, showed potent inhibition of melanogenesis… Interestingly, camellioside B (2) significantly accelerated fibroblast proliferation. This biological selectivity could make camellioside B useful for treating skin disorders…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22834923

“Inhibitory effects of an ellagic acid glucoside, okicamelliaside, on antigen-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice. Degranulation inhibitors in plants are widely used for prevention and treatment of immediate-type allergy. We previously isolated a new ellagic acid glucoside, okicamelliaside (OCS), from Camellia japonica leaves for use as a potent degranulation inhibitor… These results suggest the potential for OCS to alleviate symptoms of immediate-type allergy.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22330086

“Okicamelliaside, an extraordinarily potent anti-degranulation glucoside isolated from leaves of Camellia japonica… we isolated from leaves of Camellia japonica an ellagic acid glucoside named okicamelliaside… Okicamelliaside was 12,000 times more potent than the antihistaminic drug, ketotifen fumarate…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21150097

“Camellia japonica suppresses immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic response by the inhibition of Syk kinase activation in mast cells… The leaf extract of Camelliajaponica (LECJ) exhibited the most potent effect on degranulation in antigen-stimulated rodent and human mast cells…The present results strongly suggest that the anti-allergic activity of LECJ is mediated through inhibiting degranulation and allergic cytokine secretion by inhibition of Src-family kinase in mast cells and it may be useful for the treatment of mast cell-related immediate and delayed allergic diseases.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18261158

“Hypotriglyceridemic potential of fermented mixed tea made with third-crop green tea leaves and camellia (Camelliajaponica) leaves in Sprague-Dawley rats.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23705670

“3-epicabraleahydroxylactone and other triterpenoids from camellia oil and their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus activation… triterpenoid isolated from the nonsaponifiable lipid of the seed oil of the camellia (Camellia japonica L.; Theaceae)… inhibitory effects on the induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA)… three compounds showed potent inhibitory effects against EBV-EA induction…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14709887

“Inhibitory effects of Korean medicinal plants and camelliatannin H from Camellia japonica on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease… Camelliatannin H from the pericarp of C. japonica, showed a potent inhibitory activity on HIV-1…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12203260

“Camelliin B and nobotanin I, macrocyclic ellagitannin dimers and related dimers, and their antitumor activity. Camelliin B… isolated from Camellia japonica… Camelliin B… exhibited marked host-mediated antitumor activities.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2632067

“Triterpenoids from Camellia japonica and their cytotoxic activity… bark of Camellia japonica, three new triterpenoids… The isolated compounds were tested in vitro for their cytotoxic activities against the A549, LLC, HL-60 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. Among them, compound 8 showed cytotoxicity against LLC and HL-60 cancer cell lines…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20045980

“[Study on the theraputic effect of plants of Camellia genus on osteoporosis]… The results of this study indicated that effects of ethanol extracts of seed from Camellia japonica on anti-osteoporosis with retinoic acid were the strongest… Plants of Camellia genus have different degree anti-osteoporosis effect…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19230411

“Camelliatannin D, a new inhibitor of bone resorption, from Camellia japonica.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8575042

“Stereospecific positional distribution of fatty acids of Camellia (Camellia japonica L.) seed oil… The information of stereospecific positional distribution of fatty acids in the camellia oil can be used for the development of the structured lipids for food, pharmaceutical, and medical purposes.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23009642

 

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