Antimicrobial Activity of Cannabis sativa L.

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“The oil of the seeds, petroleum ether and methanol extracts of the whole plant of Cannabis sativa belonging to the family Cannabinaceae were screened for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive organisms (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), two Gram negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two fungi namely Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans using the cup plate agar diffusion method.

The oil of the seeds of Cannabis sativa exerted pronounced antibacterial activity (21 – 28 mm) against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, moderate activity (15 mm) against Escherichia coli and high activity (16 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and inactive against the two fungi tested. The petroleum ether extract of the whole plant exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity (23 – 28 mm) against both Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus organisms, high activity (16 mm) against Escherichia coli and inactive against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and both fungi. The methanol extract of the whole plant showed also pronounced antibacterial activity (29 mm) against Bacillus subtilis, low activity (12 mm) against Staphylococcus aureus and high activity (16 – 18 mm) against both Gram negative organisms, inactive against Aspergillus niger and low activity (13 mm) against Candida albicans.

The minimum inhibitory concentrations of Cannabis sativa methanol extracts of the seeds and the whole plant against the standard organisms were determined using the agar plate dilution method. The standard organisms were tested against reference antibacterial and antifungal drugs and the results were compared with the activity of the extracts.”

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=18123

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Antibacterial Properties of Hemp and Other Natural Fibre Plants: A Review

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“Intervention against pathogenic bacteria using natural plant material has a long history. Plant materials also have been widely used as fillers and/or reinforcers in polymer composites. Some natural fibre plants, such as hemp, are regarded to possess antibacterial activity against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria. Innovative applications can be explored if they are incorporated in polymer composites. This review aims to compile the relevant investigations on antibacterial activity of hemp and other fibre plants such as jute, flax, kenaf, sisal, and bamboo. The antibacterial character might be contributed from cannabinoids, alkaloids, other bioactive compounds, or phenolic compounds of lignin. This review is intended to encourage utilization of hemp and other natural fibre plants in value-added diversified products. Some potential applications are also discussed.” https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270502952_Antibacterial_Properties_of_Hemp_and_Other_Natural_Fibre_Plants_A_Review
“Antibacterial Properties of Hemp and Other Natural Fibre Plants: A Review”  http://ojs.cnr.ncsu.edu/index.php/BioRes/article/view/BioRes_09_2_Khan_Antibacterial_Hemp_Fibre_Review
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Benefits of Cannabis Terpenes: Ocimene, Terpinolene, and Guaiol

Leafly

“Terpenes are a group of fragrant essential oils – secreted alongside cannabinoids like THC and CBD – that contribute to the complex aroma of cannabis. They are also generally responsible for many of the distinguishing characteristics of different strains, and this discovery has led to a sharp increase in interest among researchers, producers, and consumers alike.

Though cannabis contains up to 200 different terpenes, there are about 10 primary terpenes and 20 secondary terpenes that occur in significant concentrations. We’d like to introduce you to the potential health benefits of three of those terpenes: ocimene, terpinolene, and guaiol.

Ocimene is an isomeric hydrocarbon found in a wide variety of fruits and plants. It is recognized by its sweet, fragrant, herbaceous, and woodsy aromas, which feature prominently in several perfumes, and which help plants defend themselves in their natural environment. Ocimene occurs naturally in botanicals as diverse as mint, parsley, pepper, basil, mangoes, orchids, kumquats, and of course cannabis.

Ocimene’s potential medical benefits include:

  • Antiviral
  • Antifungal
  • Antiseptic
  • Decongestant
  • Antibacterial

Cannabis strains that can test high in ocimene include Golden Goat, Strawberry Cough,Chernobyl, and Space Queen. At Tilray, strains currently displaying high concentrations of ocimene include OG Kush, Elwyn, and Lemon Sour Diesel.

Terpinolene is another isomeric hydrocarbon, characterized by a fresh, piney, floral, herbal, and occasionally citrusy aroma and flavor. It is found in a variety of other pleasantly fragrant plants including nutmeg, tea tree, conifers, apples, cumin, and lilacs, and is sometimes used in soaps, perfumes, and lotions.

Terpinolene’s potential medical benefits include:

  • Anticancer
  • Antioxidant
  • Sedative
  • Antibacterial
  • Antifungal

Terpinolene is found most commonly in sativa-dominant strains; a few that frequently exhibit high concentrations of this terpene include Jack Herer and its derivatives, such as Pineapple Jack, J1, and Super Jack. At Tilray, strains currently possessing higher than average concentrations of terpinolene include Lemon Sour Diesel, Afghani, and Jean Guy.

Guaiol is not an oil but a sesquiterpenoid alcohol, and is also found in cypress pine and guaiacum. It has been used for centuries as a treatment for diverse ailments ranging from coughs to constipation to arthritis. It is also an effective insect repellent and insecticide.

Guaiol’s potential medical properties include:

  • Antimicrobial
  • Anti-inflammatory

Strains that can test high in guaiol include Chocolope, Liberty Haze, and Blue Kush. At Tilray, strains currently exhibiting relatively high concentrations of guaiol include Barbara Bud, Jean

https://www.leafly.com/news/cannabis-101/benefits-of-cannabis-terpenes-ocimene-terpinolene-and-guaiol

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Screening of cannabinoids in industrial-grade hemp using two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection.

Journal of Separation Science

“Widely known for its recreational use, the cannabis plant also has the potential to act as an antibacterial agent in the medicinal field.

The analysis of cannabis plants/products in both pharmacological and forensic studies often requires the separation of compounds of interest and/or accurate identification of the whole cannabinoid profile.

In order to provide a complete separation and detection of cannabinoids, a new two-dimensional liquid chromatography method has been developed using acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection, which has been shown to be selective for cannabinoids.

This was carried out using a Luna 100 Å CN column and a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column in the first and second dimension respectively. The method has utilised a large amount of the available separation space with a spreading angle of 48.4° and a correlation of 0.66 allowing the determination of more than 120 constituents and mass spectral identification of ten cannabinoids in a single analytical run.

The method has potential to improve research involved in the characterisation of sensitive, complex matrices. ”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25845561

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jssc.201500088/abstract

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The Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antibacterial, Epstein-Barr inhibiting, Anti-allergy, Anti-osteoporosis, Anti-aging, Anti-HIV, and Anti-cancer effects of Camellia japonica.

“Anti-inflammatory activity of Camellia japonica oil. Camellia japonica oil (CJ oil) has been used traditionally in East Asia to nourish and soothe the skin as well as help restore the elasticity of skin…the anti-inflammatory effects of CJ oil and its mechanisms of action were investigated…Our results indicate that CJ oil exerts anti-inflammatory effects…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22449705

“Triterpene alcohols from camellia and sasanqua oils and their anti-inflammatory effects.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9433772

“Antioxidant Effects of the Ethanol Extract from Flower of Camellia japonica via Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes…  These results suggest that Camellia extract exhibits antioxidant properties by scavenging ROS and enhancing antioxidant enzymes. Camellia extract contained quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercitrin and kaempferol, which are antioxidant compounds.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3127137/

“Camellianoside, a novel antioxidant glycoside from the leaves of Camellia japonica. A novel flavonol glycoside named camellianoside and three known flavonol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Camellia japonica… The antioxidant activities of these glycosides evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging reaction was higher than those of L-cysteine and L-ascorbic acid used as the reference antioxidants.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16926516

“Antibacterial activity in extracts of Camellia japonica L. petals and its application to a model food system. The potential presence of naturally occurring antimicrobials in petals of Camellia japonica L., a member of the tea family, was investigated against foodborne pathogens in microbiological media and food… An aqueous extract from the petals of C. japonica L. had an inhibitory effect on growth of all pathogens…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11510672

“Effect of Camellia japonica oil on human type I procollagen production and skin barrier function. In this study, we investigated the possibility that Camellia japonica oil (CJ oil) may be introduced as an anti-wrinkle agent…  based on these results, we suggest the possibility that CJ oil may be considered as possible wrinkle-reducing candidates for topical application.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17386986

“Inhibitory effects of natural plants of Jeju Island on elastase and MMP-1 expression. In order to search for new active cosmetic ingredients of natural origin, we screened about 60 plants collected from Jeju Island, which is located in the southernmost part of the Republic of Korea… four extracts, including… Camellia japonica (leaf), completely inhibited the expression of MMP-1 in human fibroblast cells. The results showed that four of the 60 plant extracts may hold potential for use as natural active ingredients for anti-aging cosmetics.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17342265

“Melanogenesis inhibitory and fibroblast proliferation accelerating effects of noroleanane- and oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides from the flower buds of Camellia japonica. Camellioside B (2), a major constituent of C. japonica grown in Japan, showed potent inhibition of melanogenesis… Interestingly, camellioside B (2) significantly accelerated fibroblast proliferation. This biological selectivity could make camellioside B useful for treating skin disorders…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22834923

“Inhibitory effects of an ellagic acid glucoside, okicamelliaside, on antigen-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice. Degranulation inhibitors in plants are widely used for prevention and treatment of immediate-type allergy. We previously isolated a new ellagic acid glucoside, okicamelliaside (OCS), from Camellia japonica leaves for use as a potent degranulation inhibitor… These results suggest the potential for OCS to alleviate symptoms of immediate-type allergy.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22330086

“Okicamelliaside, an extraordinarily potent anti-degranulation glucoside isolated from leaves of Camellia japonica… we isolated from leaves of Camellia japonica an ellagic acid glucoside named okicamelliaside… Okicamelliaside was 12,000 times more potent than the antihistaminic drug, ketotifen fumarate…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21150097

“Camellia japonica suppresses immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic response by the inhibition of Syk kinase activation in mast cells… The leaf extract of Camelliajaponica (LECJ) exhibited the most potent effect on degranulation in antigen-stimulated rodent and human mast cells…The present results strongly suggest that the anti-allergic activity of LECJ is mediated through inhibiting degranulation and allergic cytokine secretion by inhibition of Src-family kinase in mast cells and it may be useful for the treatment of mast cell-related immediate and delayed allergic diseases.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18261158

“Hypotriglyceridemic potential of fermented mixed tea made with third-crop green tea leaves and camellia (Camelliajaponica) leaves in Sprague-Dawley rats.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23705670

“3-epicabraleahydroxylactone and other triterpenoids from camellia oil and their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus activation… triterpenoid isolated from the nonsaponifiable lipid of the seed oil of the camellia (Camellia japonica L.; Theaceae)… inhibitory effects on the induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA)… three compounds showed potent inhibitory effects against EBV-EA induction…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14709887

“Inhibitory effects of Korean medicinal plants and camelliatannin H from Camellia japonica on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease… Camelliatannin H from the pericarp of C. japonica, showed a potent inhibitory activity on HIV-1…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12203260

“Camelliin B and nobotanin I, macrocyclic ellagitannin dimers and related dimers, and their antitumor activity. Camelliin B… isolated from Camellia japonica… Camelliin B… exhibited marked host-mediated antitumor activities.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2632067

“Triterpenoids from Camellia japonica and their cytotoxic activity… bark of Camellia japonica, three new triterpenoids… The isolated compounds were tested in vitro for their cytotoxic activities against the A549, LLC, HL-60 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. Among them, compound 8 showed cytotoxicity against LLC and HL-60 cancer cell lines…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20045980

“[Study on the theraputic effect of plants of Camellia genus on osteoporosis]… The results of this study indicated that effects of ethanol extracts of seed from Camellia japonica on anti-osteoporosis with retinoic acid were the strongest… Plants of Camellia genus have different degree anti-osteoporosis effect…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19230411

“Camelliatannin D, a new inhibitor of bone resorption, from Camellia japonica.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8575042

“Stereospecific positional distribution of fatty acids of Camellia (Camellia japonica L.) seed oil… The information of stereospecific positional distribution of fatty acids in the camellia oil can be used for the development of the structured lipids for food, pharmaceutical, and medical purposes.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23009642

 

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Killing bacteria with cannabis

“Pharmacists and chemists have found another use for the multipurpose cannabis as a source of antibacterial chemicals for multidrug resistant bacteria.”

 

“All five cannabinoids (THC, CBD, CBG, CBC, and CBN) were potent against bacteria. Notably, they performed well against bacteria that were known to be multidrug resistant, like the strains of MRSA…

CBD and CBG have the most potential for consumer use because they are nonpsychotropic…”

More: http://arstechnica.com/science/2008/08/killing-bacteria-with-cannabis/

“Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure-activity study.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18681481

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Pot is good for you? Marijuana fights the superbugs

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Fact: Cannabis Kills MRSA, Disrupts Prion Diseases

“Marijuana is a potent antibiotic that can kill methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and disrupt the progression of prion diseases such as Mad Cow disease and Creutzfeld-Jakob disease — just don’t expect the federal government to tell you any of this.”

A MRSA lesion

“Scientists from Italy and the United Kingdom reported in the August 2007 issue of the Journal of Natural Products that the main active ingredient in weed, THC, as well as four other pot molecules “showed potent antibacterial activity against six different strains of MRSA of clinical relevance.”

Pot also stops prions,  a type of protein that can cause neurodegenerative diseases that are invariably fatal. Once prions get into a brain they replicate rapidly and shred brain tissue “resulting in a ‘spongiform’ appearance on post-mortem histological examination of neural tissue.”

In 2007, American and French researchers reported that pot molecule cannabidiol “prevents prion accumulation and protects neurons against prion toxicity” in the Journal of Neuroscience.

Cannabidiol inhibited prion accumulation in mouse and sheep prion disease cell cultures and inhibited prion formation in the brain of infected mice given injections of CBD. “The authors conclude that CBD likely represents a new class of anti-prion drugs.””

More: http://www.eastbayexpress.com/LegalizationNation/archives/2013/07/29/fact-cannabis-kills-mrsa-disrupts-prion-diseases

“Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure-activity study.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18681481

“Nonpsychoactive Cannabidiol Prevents Prion Accumulation and Protects Neurons against Prion Toxicity” http://www.jneurosci.org/content/27/36/9537.full

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Marijuana Ingredients Show Promise In Battling Superbugs

“Substances in marijuana show promise for fighting deadly drug-resistant bacterial infections, including so-called “superbugs,” without causing the drug’s mood-altering effects, scientists in Italy and the United Kingdom are reporting.

Besides serving as infection-fighting drugs, the substances also could provide a more environmentally-friendly alternative to synthetic antibacterial substances now widely used in personal care items, including soaps and cosmetics, they say.

In the new study, Giovanni Appendino and colleagues point out that scientists have known for years that marijuana contains antibacterial substances. However, little research has been done on those ingredients, including studies on their ability to fight antibiotic resistant infections, the scientists say.

To close that gap, researchers tested five major marijuana ingredients termed cannabinoids on different strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a “superbug” increasingly resistant to antibiotics.

All five substances showed potent germ-killing activity against these drug-resistant strains, as did some synthetic non-natural cannabinoids, they say. The scientists also showed that these substances appear to kill bacteria by different mechanisms than conventional antibiotics, making them more likely to avoid bacterial resistance, the scientists note. At least two of the substances have no known mood-altering effects, suggesting that they could be developed into marijuana-based drugs without causing a “high.””

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080908103045.htm

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Biologically active cannabinoids from high-potency Cannabis sativa.

Journal of Natural Products

“Nine new cannabinoids (1-9) were isolated from a high-potency variety of Cannabis sativa. Their structures were identified as (+/-)-4-acetoxycannabichromene (1), (+/-)-3”-hydroxy-Delta((4”,5”))-cannabichromene (2), (-)-7-hydroxycannabichromane (3), (-)-7R-cannabicoumarononic acid A (4), 5-acetyl-4-hydroxycannabigerol (5), 4-acetoxy-2-geranyl-5-hydroxy-3-n-pentylphenol (6), 8-hydroxycannabinol (7), 8-hydroxycannabinolic acid A (8), and 2-geranyl-5-hydroxy-3-n-pentyl-1,4-benzoquinone (9) through 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, GC-MS, and HRESIMS. The known sterol beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-6′-acetate was isolated for the first time from cannabis. Compounds 6 and 7 displayed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities, respectively, while 5 displayed strong antileishmanial activity.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19344127

“Biologically Active Cannabinoids from High-Potency Cannabis sativa”  http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/np900067k

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