The importance of 15-lipoxygenase inhibitors in cancer treatment.

Cancer and Metastasis Reviews

“Cancer-targeted therapy is an expanding and successful approach in treatment of many types of cancers. One of the main categories of targeted therapy is use of small molecule inhibitors. 15-Lipoxygenase (15-LOX) is an enzyme which reacts with polyunsaturated fatty acids and produces metabolites that are implicated in many important human diseases, such as cancer.

Considering the role of 15-LOX (mainly 15-LOX-1) in the progression of some cancers, the discovery of 15-LOX inhibitors could potentially lead to development of novel cancer therapeutics and it can be claimed that 15-LOX inhibitors might be suitable as chemotherapy agents in the near future.

This article reviews relevant publications on 15-LOX inhibitors with focus on their anticancer activities in vitro and in vivo. Many 15-LOX inhibitors have been reported for which separate studies have shown their anticancer activities. This review paves the way to further explore the mechanism of their antiproliferative effects via 15-LOX inhibition.”

“Cannabidiol-2′,6′-Dimethyl Ether, a Cannabidiol Derivative, Is a Highly Potent and Selective 15-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor”  http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/37/8/1733.long

“Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its major metabolite Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-11-oic acid as 15-lipoxygenase inhibitors.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20891010

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The effect of hemp seed and linseed addition on the quality of liver pâtés.

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“Liver pâtés are popular all over the world, but they usually contain high amounts of animal fats. It may be beneficial to improve their dietetic value by decreasing the saturated fatty acid content, while maintaining their sensory quality. One way to do this is to add ingredients which are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as hemp seed or linseed. Hemp seeds are valuable because of their fat and protein content and linseed is known for its high α-linolenic fatty acid (ALA) content. Both are good sources of fiber.

RESULTS:

The addition of hemp and linseed increased the fat content. The fatty acid profile improved signifi- cantly. There were more polyunsaturated fatty acids and the n-6 to n-3 ratio was reduced in both products containing oil seeds compared to the control sample, which is important from the health point of view. The color parameters were not changed. The hardness, chewiness and adhesiveness increased in products contain- ing oil seeds. Those products received higher scores in sensory analysis.

CONCLUSIONS:

The quality of the pâtés with added oil seed is comparable to or better than the traditional ones. The products with both hemp and linseed can be treated as a good source of n-3 fatty acids. The amount of ALA is high enough to label the product as a source of n-3 fatty acids.”

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Cholesterol-induced stimulation of platelet aggregation is prevented by a hempseed-enriched diet.

Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

“Hypercholesterolemia indirectly increases the risk for myocardial infarction by enhancing the ability of platelets to aggregate.

Diets enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to reduce the detrimental effects of cholesterol on platelet aggregation.

This study investigated whether dietary hempseed, a rich source of PUFAs, inhibits platelet aggregation under normal and hypercholesterolemic conditions.

The results of this study demonstrate that when hempseed is added to a cholesterol-enriched diet, cholesterol-induced platelet aggregation returns to control levels.”

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Analysis of cannabinoids in commercial hemp seed oil and decarboxylation kinetics studies of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA).

Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis

“Hemp seed oil from Cannabis sativa L. is a very rich natural source of important nutrients, not only polyunsaturated fatty acids and proteins, but also terpenes and cannabinoids, which contribute to the overall beneficial effects of the oil.

Hence, it is important to have an analytical method for the determination of these components in commercial samples. At the same time, it is also important to assess the safety of the product in terms of amount of any psychoactive cannabinoid present therein.

This work presents the development and validation of a highly sensitive, selective and rapid HPLC-UV method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the main cannabinoids, namely cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabidivarin (CBDV), present in 13 commercial hemp seed oils.

Moreover, since decomposition of cannabinoid acids generally occurs with light, air and heat, decarboxylation studies of the most abundant acid (CBDA) were carried out in both open and closed reactor and the kinetics parameters were evaluated at different temperatures in order to evaluate the stability of hemp seed oil in different storage conditions.”

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Interplay Between n-3 and n-6 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Endocannabinoid System in Brain Protection and Repair.

 Lipids

“The brain is enriched in arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) of the n-6 and n-3 series, respectively. Both are essential for optimal brain development and function. Dietary enrichment with DHA and other long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), has shown beneficial effects on learning and memory, neuroinflammatory processes, and synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. ARA, DHA and EPA are precursors to a diverse repertoire of bioactive lipid mediators, including endocannabinoids.

The endocannabinoid system comprises cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, and their biosynthetic and degradation enzymes. Anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are the most widely studied endocannabinoids and are both derived from phospholipid-bound ARA. The endocannabinoid system also has well-established roles in neuroinflammation, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis, suggesting an overlap in the neuroprotective effects observed with these different classes of lipids.

Indeed, growing evidence suggests a complex interplay between n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA and the endocannabinoid system. For example, long-term DHA and EPA supplementation reduces AEA and 2-AG levels, with reciprocal increases in levels of the analogous endocannabinoid-like DHA and EPA-derived molecules. This review summarises current evidence of this interplay and discusses the therapeutic potential for brain protection and repair.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28875399

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11745-017-4292-8

“The seed of Cannabis sativa L. has been an important source of nutrition for thousands of years in Old World cultures. Technically a nut, hempseed typically contains over 30% oil and about 25% protein, with considerable amounts of dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. Hempseed oil is over 80% in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and is an exceptionally rich source of the two essential fatty acids (EFAs) linoleic acid (18:2 omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 omega-3). The omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (n6/n3) in hempseed oil is normally between 2:1 and 3:1, which is considered to be optimal for human health. Hempseed has been used to treat various disorders for thousands of years in traditional oriental medicine.”  http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10681-004-4811-6

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Anti-inflammatory ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxides.

 Current Issue

“Clinical studies suggest that diets rich in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) provide beneficial anti-inflammatory effects, in part through their conversion to bioactive metabolites. Here we report on the endogenous production of a previously unknown class of ω-3 PUFA-derived lipid metabolites that originate from the crosstalk between endocannabinoid and cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase metabolic pathways. The ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxides are derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to form epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid-ethanolamide (EEQ-EA) and epoxydocosapentaenoic acid-ethanolamide (EDP-EA), respectively. Both EEQ-EAs and EDP-EAs are endogenously present in rat brain and peripheral organs as determined via targeted lipidomics methods. These metabolites were directly produced by direct epoxygenation of the ω-3 endocannabinoids, docosahexanoyl ethanolamide (DHEA) and eicosapentaenoyl ethanolamide (EPEA) by activated BV-2 microglial cells, and by human CYP2J2. Neuroinflammation studies revealed that the terminal epoxides 17,18-EEQ-EA and 19,20-EDP-EA dose-dependently abated proinflammatory IL-6 cytokines while increasing anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokines, in part through cannabinoid receptor-2 activation. Furthermore the ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxides 17,18-EEQ-EA and 19,20-EDP-EA exerted antiangiogenic effects in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) and vasodilatory actions on bovine coronary arteries and reciprocally regulated platelet aggregation in washed human platelets. Taken together, the ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxides’ physiological effects are mediated through both endocannabinoid and epoxyeicosanoid signaling pathways. In summary, the ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxides are found at concentrations comparable to those of other endocannabinoids and are expected to play critical roles during inflammation in vivo; thus their identification may aid in the development of therapeutics for neuroinflammatory and cerebrovascular diseases.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28687674

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/07/06/1610325114

“Omega-3 fatty acids fight inflammation via cannabinoids”  https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/07/170718142909.htm

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Polyunsaturated fatty acids and endocannabinoids in health and disease.

Publication Cover

“Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are lipid derivatives of omega-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, and eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA) or of omega-6 (arachidonic acid, ARA) synthesized from membrane phospholipids and used as a precursor for endocannabinoids (ECs). They mediate significant effects in the fine-tune adjustment of body homeostasis. Phyto- and synthetic cannabinoids also rule the daily life of billions worldwide, as they are involved in obesity, depression and drug addiction. Consequently, there is growing interest to reveal novel active compounds in this field. Cloning of cannabinoid receptors in the 90s and the identification of the endogenous mediators arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA) and 2-arachidonyglycerol (2-AG), led to the characterization of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), together with their metabolizing enzymes and membrane transporters. Today, the ECS is known to be involved in diverse functions such as appetite control, food intake, energy balance, neuroprotection, neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, mood disorders, emesis, modulation of pain, inflammatory responses, as well as in cancer therapy. Western diet as well as restriction of micronutrients and fatty acids, such as DHA, could be related to altered production of pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g. eicosanoids) and ECs, contributing to the progression of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, depression or impairing conditions, such as Alzheimer’ s disease. Here we review how diets based in PUFAs might be linked to ECS and to the maintenance of central and peripheral metabolism, brain plasticity, memory and learning, blood flow, and genesis of neural cells.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28686542

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1028415X.2017.1347373?journalCode=ynns20

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Dietary ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Inhibit Tumor Growth in Transgenic ApcMin/+ Mice, Correlating with CB1 Receptor Up-Regulation.

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“Mediterranean diet components, such as olive oil and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), can arrest cell growth and promote cell apoptosis.

Recently, olive oil has been demonstrated to modulate type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor gene expression in both human colon cancer cells and rat colon. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible link between olive oil and ω-3 PUFAs effects and CB1 receptor expression in both intestinal and adipose tissue of ApcMin/+ mice.

To confirm the role for the CB1 receptor as a negative modulator of cell proliferation in human colon cancer, CB1 receptor gene expression was also detected in tumor tissue and in surrounding normal mucosa of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).

Dietary ω-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited intestinal polyp growth in mice, correlating with CB1 receptor gene and protein expression induction. CB1 receptor gene up-regulation was also detected in adipose tissue, suggesting a close communication between cancer cells and the surrounding environment. Tissue CB1 receptor induction was associated with a concurrent inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

Moreover, there was a significant reduction in CB1 receptor gene expression levels in cancer tissue compared to normal surrounding mucosa of patients with CRC, confirming that in cancer the “protective” action of the CB1 receptor is lost.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28245562

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Dietary olive oil induces cannabinoid CB2 receptor expression in adipose tissue of ApcMin/+ transgenic mice.

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“Cannabinoid– 2 (CB2) receptor is known for its anti-obesity effects silencing the activated immune cells that are key drivers of metabolic syndrome and inflammation.

Nutritional interventions in experimental models of carcinogenesis have been demonstrated to modulate tissue inflammation state and proliferation.

OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to test, in ApcMin/+ mice, whether a diet enriched with olive oil, omega- 3 and omega-6- PUFAs affects the adipose tissue inflammation status.

RESULTS: The diet enriched with olive oil significantly induced CB2 receptor expression and it was able to control inflammatory and proliferative activity of mice adipose tissue.

CONCLUSIONS: The present findings open opportunities for developing novel nutritional strategies considering olive oil a key ingredient of a healthy dietary pattern.”

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Modulation of Long-Term Potentiation of Cortico-Amygdala Synaptic Responses and Auditory Fear Memory by Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid.

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“Converging evidence suggests that an imbalance of ω3 to ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the brain is involved in mental illnesses such as anxiety disorders.

We previously reported that the dietary ratio of ω3 to ω6 PUFA alters this ratio in the brain, and influences contextual fear memory.

In addition to behavioral change, enhancement of cannabinoid CB1 receptor-mediated short-term synaptic plasticity and facilitation of the agonist sensitivity of CB1 receptors have been observed in excitatory synaptic responses in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA).

These results suggest that the balance of ω3 to ω6 PUFA has an impact on fear memory and cortico-amygdala synaptic plasticity, both in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner.”

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