Optimization Of A Preclinical Therapy Of Cannabinoids In Combination With Temozolomide Against Glioma.

 Biochemical Pharmacology “Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent and aggressive form of brain cancer. These features are explained at least in part by the high resistance exhibited by these tumors to current anticancer therapies. Thus, the development of novel therapeutic approaches is urgently needed to improve the survival of the patients suffering this devastating disease.

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the major active ingredient of marijuana), and other cannabinoids have been shown to exert antitumoral actions in animal models of cancer, including glioma. The mechanism of these anticancer actions relies, at least in part, on the ability of these compounds to stimulate autophagy-mediated apoptosis in tumor cells.

Previous observations from our group demonstrated that local administration of THC (or of THC + CBD at a 1:1 ratio, a mixture that resembles the composition of the cannabinoid-based medicine Sativex®) in combination with Temozolomide, the benchmark agent for the treatment of GBM, synergistically reduces the growth of glioma xenografts.

With the aim of optimizing the possible clinical utilization of cannabinoids in anti-GBM therapies, in this work we explored the anticancer efficacy of the systemic administration of cannabinoids in combination with TMZ in preclinical models of glioma.

Our results show that oral administration of THC+CBD (Sativex-like extracts) in combination with TMZ produces a strong antitumoral effect in both subcutaneous and intracranial glioma cell-derived tumor xenografts. In contrast, combined administration of Sativex-like and BCNU (another alkylating agent used for the treatment of GBM which share structural similarities with the TMZ) did not show a stronger effect than individual treatments.

Altogether, our findings support the notion that the combined administration of TMZ and oral cannabinoids could be therapeutically exploited for the management of GBM.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30125556

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006295218303496

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Novel mechanism of cannabidiol-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines.

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“Studies have emphasized an antineoplastic effect of the non-psychoactive, phyto-cannabinoid, Cannabidiol (CBD). However, the molecular mechanism underlying its antitumor activity is not fully elucidated.

Herein, we have examined the effect of CBD on two different human breast cancer cell lines: the ER-positive, well differentiated, T-47D and the triple negative, poor differentiated, MDA-MB-231 cells.

In both cell lines, CBD inhibited cell survival and induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner as observed by MTT assay, morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and ELISA apoptosis assay. CBD-induced apoptosis was accompanied by down-regulation of mTOR, cyclin D1 and up-regulation and localization of PPARγ protein expression in the nuclei and cytoplasmic of the tested cells.

The results suggest that CBD treatment induces an interplay among PPARγ, mTOR and cyclin D1 in favor of apoptosis induction in both ER-positive and triple negative breast cancer cells, proposing CBD as a useful treatment for different breast cancer subtypes.”

“Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis)” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26873/
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Identification of Synergistic Interaction Between Cannabis-Derived Compounds for Cytotoxic Activity in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines and Colon Polyps That Induces Apoptosis-Related Cell Death and Distinct Gene Expression.

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“Colorectal cancer remains the third most common cancer diagnosis and fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Purified cannabinoids have been reported to prevent proliferation, metastasis, and induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cell types. However, the active compounds from Cannabis sativa flowers and their interactions remain elusive.

Research Aim: This study was aimed to specify the cytotoxic effect of C. sativa-derived extracts on colon cancer cells and adenomatous polyps by identification of active compound(s) and characterization of their interaction.

Conclusions:C. sativa compounds interact synergistically for cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells and induce cell cycle arrest, apoptotic cell death, and distinct gene expression. F3, F7, and F7+F3 are also active on adenomatous polyps, suggesting possible future therapeutic value.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29992185

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/can.2018.0010

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Anti-Proliferative Properties and Proapoptotic Function of New CB2 Selective Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist in Jurkat Leukemia Cells.

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“Several studies demonstrated that cannabinoids reduce tumor growth, inhibit angiogenesis, and decrease cancer cell migration. As these molecules are well tolerated, it would be interesting to investigate the potential benefit of newly synthesized compounds, binding cannabinoid receptors (CBRs).

In this study, we describe the synthesis and biological effect of 2-oxo-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxamide derivative LV50, a new compound with high CB2 receptor (CB2R) affinity. We demonstrated that it decreases viability of Jurkat leukemia cells, evaluated by Trypan Blue and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), but mainly induces a proapoptotic effect. We observed an increase of a hypodiploid peak by propidium iodide staining and changes in nuclear morphology by Hoechst 33258. These data were confirmed by a significant increase of Annexin V staining, cleavage of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP), and caspases activation. In addition, in order to exclude that LV50 non-specifically triggers death of all normal leukocytes, we tested the new compound on normal peripheral blood lymphocytes, excluding the idea of general cytotoxicity. To characterize the involvement of CB2R in the anti-proliferative and proapoptotic effect of LV50, cells were pretreated with a specific CB2R antagonist and the obtained data showed reverse results.

Thus, we suggest a link between inhibition of cell survival and proapoptotic activity of the new compound that elicits this effect as selective CB2R agonist.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29973514

http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/7/1958

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Cannabis: A Prehistoric Remedy for the Deficits of Existing and Emerging Anticancer Therapies

“Cannabis has been used medicinally for centuries and numerous species of this genus are undoubtedly amongst the primeval plant remedies known to humans.

Cannabis sativa in particular is the most reported species, due to its substantial therapeutic implications that are owed to the presence of chemically and pharmacologically diverse cannabinoids.

These compounds have long been used for the palliative treatment of cancer.

Recent advancements in receptor pharmacology research have led to the identification of cannabinoids as effective antitumor agents.

This property is accredited for their ability to induce apoptosis, suppress proliferative cell signalling pathways and promote cell growth inhibition.

Evolving lines of evidence suggest that cannabinoid analogues, as well as their receptor agonists, may offer a novel strategy to treat various forms of cancer.

This review summarizes the historical perspective of C. sativa, its potential mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of cannabinoids, with special emphasis on their anticancer potentials.”

http://www.xiahepublishing.com/ArticleFullText.aspx?sid=2&jid=3&id=10.14218%2FJERP.2017.00012

Cannabis products.

“Cannabis products. First row, left to right: Indian, Lebanese, Turkish and Pakistani hashish. Second row, left to right: Swiss hashish, Zairean marijuana, Swiss marijuana, Moroccan hash oil.”

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Novel therapeutic applications of cannabinoids in cancer disease

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“The present review shows that cannabinoids exert their anti-cancer effects in a number of ways and in a variety of tissues.

The endocannabinoid system is an almost ubiquitous signalling system involved in the control of cell fate. Recent studies have investigated the possibility that drugs targeting the endocannabinoid system might be used to retard or block cancer growth.

The endocannabinoids have been shown to inhibit the growth of tumour cells in culture and animal models by modulating key cell signalling pathways. Therefore, the present review indicated that cannabinoids exert their anti-cancer effects in a number of ways and in a variety of tissues.

  • Triggering cell death, through a mechanism called apoptosis
  • Stopping cells from dividing
  • Preventing new blood vessels from growing into tumours
  • Reducing the chances of cancer cells spreading through the body, by stopping cells from moving or invading neighbouring tissue
  • Speeding up the cell’s internal ‘waste disposal machine’ – a process known as autophagy – which can lead to cell death

Furthermore, the novel therapeutic application of cannabinoids in cancer disease, described here, strongly support the idea that cannabinoids may induce benefical effect in cancer treatment.”

http://www.oatext.com/novel-therapeutic-applications-of-cannabinoids-in-cancer-disease.php

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Targeting cannabinoid receptors in gastrointestinal cancers for therapeutic uses: current status and future perspectives

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“A number of studies have consistently shown that cannabinoids are able to prevent or reduce carcinogenesis in different animal models of colon cancer.

Cannabinoids, via CB1 and possibly CB2 receptors, suppress proliferation and migration and stimulate apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells.

Convincing scientific evidence suggests that cannabinoids, in addition to their well-known use in palliative care in oncology (e.g. improvement of appetite, attenuation of nausea associated to antitumoral medicines, alleviation of moderate neuropathic pain) can reduce, via antiproliferative and proapoptotic as well as by inhibiting angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis or by attenuating inflammation, the growth of cancer cells and hinder the development of experimental colon carcinogenesis in vivo.”

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17474124.2017.1367663?src=recsys

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Cannabinoids as a Promising Therapeutic Approach for the Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Literature Review

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“Gliobalstoma multiforme (GBM) or grade 4 astrocytoma is the most malignant form of primary brain tumor. Treatment of glioblastoma is difficult despite of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Patients with glioblastoma survive for less than 12 months.

Considering to biology function of glioblastoma, researchers have recently offered new therapeutic approaches such as cannabinoid therapy for glioblastoma.

Cannabinoids are active compounds of Cannabis sativa that operate in the body similar to endogenous canabinoids –the endocannabinoids- through cell surface receptors.

It is interesting that cannabinoids could exert a wide spectrum from antiproliferative effects in condition of the cell culture, animal models of glioblastoma and clinical trials.

As a result, Cannabinoids seem to modulate intracellular signaling pathways and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response in glioma cells.

Those play antitumoral effects through apoptosis induction and inhibition of glioblastoma angiogenesis.

The goal of this study was to discuss cannabinoid therapy and also what cellular mechanisms are involved in the tumoricidal effect of the cannabinoids.

In this review article, we will focus on cannabinoids, their receptor dependent functional roles against glioblastoma acccording to growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and future purposes in exploring new possible therapeutic opportunities.”

http://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/Neuroscience/article/view/13655

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Cannabinoids in Glioblastoma Therapy: New Applications for Old Drugs

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“Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor and one of the deadliest types of solid cancer overall. Despite aggressive therapeutic approaches consisting of maximum safe surgical resection and radio-chemotherapy, more than 95% of GBM patients die within 5 years after diagnosis. Thus, there is still an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic strategies against this disease.

Accumulating evidence indicates that cannabinoids have potent anti-tumor functions and might be used successfully in the treatment of GBM.

This review article summarizes the latest findings on the molecular effects of cannabinoids on GBM, both in vitro and in (pre-) clinical studies in animal models and patients.

The therapeutic effect of cannabinoids is based on reduction of tumor growth via inhibition of tumor proliferation and angiogenesis but also via induction of tumor cell death. Additionally, cannabinoids were shown to inhibit the invasiveness and the stem cell-like properties of GBM tumors. Recent phase II clinical trials indicated positive results regarding the survival of GBM patients upon cannabinoid treatment.

Apart from a direct killing effect on tumor cells, cannabinoids can also induce cell cycle arrest thereby inhibiting tumor cell proliferation.

In conclusion, cannabinoids show promising anti-neoplastic functions in GBM by targeting multiple cancer hallmarks such as resistance to programmed cell death, neoangiogenesis, tissue invasion or stem cell-induced replicative immortality.

The effects of cannabinoids can be potentially enhanced by combination of different cannabinoids with each other or with chemotherapeutic agents. This requires, however, a detailed understanding of cannabinoid-induced molecular mechanisms and pharmacological effects.

Ultimately, these findings might foster the development of improved therapeutic strategies against GBM and, perhaps, other diseases of the nervous system as well.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnmol.2018.00159/full

“Accumulating evidence indicates that cannabinoids have potent anti-tumor functions and might be used successfully in the treatment of GBM.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29867351

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Endocannabinoid system and anticancer properties of cannabinoids

Folia Biologica et Oecologica

“Cannabinoids impact human body by binding to cannabinoids receptors (CB1 and CB2).

The two main phytocannabinoids are Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).

THC interacts with CB1 receptors occurring in central nervous system and is responsible for psychoactive properties of marijuana. CBD has low affinity to CB1 receptor, has no psychoactive characteristics and its medical applications can be wider.

CB receptors are part of a complex machinery involved in regulation of many physiological processes – endocannabinoid system.

Cannabinoids have found some applications in palliative medicine, but there are many reports concerning their anticancer affects.

Agonists of CB1 receptors stimulate accumulation of ceramides in cancer cells, stress of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress) and, in turn, apoptosis. Effects of cannabinoids showing low affinity to CB receptors is mediated probably by induction of reactive oxygen species production.

Knowledge of antitumor activity of cannabinoids is still based only on preclinical studies and there is a necessity to conduct more experiments to assess the real potential of these compounds.”

https://content.sciendo.com/view/journals/fobio/12/1/article-p11.xml

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