Efficacy of Cannabinoids in a Pre-Clinical Drug-Screening Platform for Alzheimer’s Disease.

“Finding a therapy for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is perhaps the greatest challenge for modern medicine. The chemical scaffolds of many drugs in the clinic today are based upon natural products from plants, yet Cannabis has not been extensively examined as a source of potential AD drug candidates.

Here, we determine if a number of non-psychoactive cannabinoids are neuroprotective in a novel pre-clinical AD and neurodegeneration drug-screening platform that is based upon toxicities associated with the aging brain.

This drug discovery paradigm has yielded several compounds in or approaching clinical trials for AD. Eleven cannabinoids were assayed for neuroprotection in assays that recapitulate proteotoxicity, loss of trophic support, oxidative stress, energy loss, and inflammation. These compounds were also assayed for their ability to remove intraneuronal amyloid and subjected to a structure-activity relationship analysis. Pairwise combinations were assayed for their ability to synergize to produce neuroprotective effects that were greater than additive.

Nine of the 11 cannabinoids have the ability to protect cells in four distinct phenotypic neurodegeneration screening assays, including those using neurons that lack CB1 and CB2 receptors. They are able to remove intraneuronal Aβ, reduce oxidative damage, and protect from the loss of energy or trophic support. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) data show that functional antioxidant groups such as aromatic hydroxyls are necessary but not sufficient for neuroprotection. Therefore, there is a need to focus upon CB1 agonists that have these functionalities if neuroprotection is the goal.

Pairwise combinations of THC and CBN lead to a synergistic neuroprotective interaction.

Together, these results significantly extend the published data by showing that non-psychoactive cannabinoids are potential lead drug candidates for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31104297

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12035-019-1637-8

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CBD: A New Hope?

 ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters“The nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid, CBD, was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of children with drug-resistant epilepsy. This milestone opens new avenues for cannabinoid research. In this Viewpoint, we provide an overview of recent progress in the field highlighting molecular insights into CBD’s mechanism of action, as well as its therapeutic potential.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31097982

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.9b00127

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CB2 receptor deletion on myeloid cells enhanced mechanical allodynia in a mouse model of neuropathic pain.

 Scientific Reports“Neuropathic pain can develop after nerve injury, leading to a chronic condition with spontaneous pain and hyperalgesia.

Pain is typically restricted to the side of the injured nerve, but may occasionally spread to the contralateral side, a condition that is often referred to as mirror-image pain.

Mechanisms leading to mirror-image pain are not completely understood, but cannabinoid CB2 receptors have been implicated.

In this study, we use genetic mouse models to address the question if CB2 receptors on neurons or on microglia/macrophages are involved.

We conclude that CB2 receptors on microglia and macrophages, but not on neurons, modulate neuropathic pain responses.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31097758

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-43858-4

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Cannabinoid-induced relief of hypermotility in a rat model of the irritable bowel syndrome.

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“Cannabinoid-2 receptor agonists may be useful in treating intestinal motility disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31094052

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/nmo.13613

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Diverse TRPV1 responses to cannabinoids.

 Publication Cover“Cannabinoid compounds are potential analgesics. Users of medicinal Cannabis report efficacy for pain control, clinical studies show that cannabis can be effective and opioid sparing in chronic pain, and some constituent cannabinoids have been shown to target nociceptive ion channels. Here, we explore and compare a suite of cannabinoids for their impact upon the physiology of TRPV1. The cannabinoids tested evoke differential responses in terms of kinetics of activation and inactivation. Cannabinoid activation of TRPV1 displays significant dependence on internal and external calcium levels. Cannabinoid activation of TRPV1 does not appear to induce the highly permeant, pore-dilated channel state seen with Capsaicin, even at high current amplitudes. Finally, we analyzed cannabinoid responses at nocioceptive channels other than TRPV1 (TRPV2, TRPM8 and TRPA1), and report that cannabinoids differentially activate these channels. On the basis of response activation and kinetics, state-selectivity and receptor selectivity, it may be possible to rationally design approaches to pain using single or multiple cannabinoids.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31096838

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19336950.2019.1619436

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Cannabidivarin completely rescues cognitive deficits and delays neurological and motor defects in male Mecp2 mutant mice.

SAGE Journals“Recent evidence suggests that 2-week treatment with the non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid cannabidivarin (CBDV) could be beneficial towards neurological and social deficits in early symptomatic Mecp2 mutant mice, a model of Rett syndrome (RTT). The aim of this study was to provide further insights into the efficacy of CBDV in Mecp2-null mice using a lifelong treatment schedule to evaluate its effect on recognition memory and neurological defects in both early and advanced stages of the phenotype progression. CBDV rescues recognition memory deficits in Mecp2 mutant mice and delays the appearance of neurological defects. CBDV administration exerts an enduring rescue of memory deficits in Mecp2 mutant mice. CBDV delays neurological defects but this effect is only transient.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31084246

“Chronic treatment with the phytocannabinoid Cannabidivarin (CBDV) rescues behavioural alterations and brain atrophy in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30056123

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Terpenes in Cannabis sativa – From plant genome to humans.

Plant Science“Cannabis sativa (cannabis) produces a resin that is valued for its psychoactive and medicinal properties. Despite being the foundation of a multi-billion dollar global industry, scientific knowledge and research on cannabis is lagging behind compared to other high-value crops. This is largely due to legal restrictions that have prevented many researchers from studying cannabis, its products, and their effects in humans. Cannabis resin contains hundreds of different terpene and cannabinoid metabolites. Our understanding of the genomic and biosynthetic systems of these metabolites in cannabis, and the factors that affect their variability, is rudimentary. As a consequence, there is concern about lack of consistency with regard to the terpene and cannabinoid composition of different cannabis ‘strains’. Likewise, claims of some of the medicinal properties attributed to cannabis metabolites would benefit from thorough scientific validation.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31084880 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168945219301190?via%3Dihub

“Medicinal properties of terpenes found in Cannabis sativa”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30096653

“Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28355238

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Emerging Class of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Endocannabinoids & Their Derivatives.

Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators

“Cannabinoid receptor activation is involved in homeostatic regulation of the body. These receptors are activated by cannabinoids, that include the active constituents of Cannabis sativa as well as endocannabinoids (eCBs). The eCBs are endogenously synthesized from the omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In summary, we outline the novel findings regarding a growing class of signaling molecules, omega-3 eCBs, that can control the physiological and pathophysiological processes in the body.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31085370

“Anti-inflammatory ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxides.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28687674

“Antitumorigenic Properties of Omega-3 Endocannabinoid Epoxides.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29856219

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Cannabinoid interactions with ion channels and receptors.

Publication Cover

“Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa, acts on a diverse selection of membrane proteins with promising therapeutic potential in epilepsy and chronic pain. In this review, we will outline the studies that report reproducible results of CBD and other cannabinoids changing membrane channel function, with particular interest on Nav. Nav are implicated in fatal forms of epilepsy and are also associated with chronic pain. This makes Nav potential targets for CBD interaction since it has been reported to reduce pain and seizures. This discovery will not only prompt further research towards CBD’s characterization, but also promotes the application of cannabinoids as potentially therapeutic compounds for diseases like epilepsy and pain.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31088312
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19336950.2019.1615824

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Tetrahydrocannabinol Reduces Hapten-Driven Mast Cell Accumulation and Persistent Tactile Sensitivity in Mouse Model of Allergen-Provoked Localized Vulvodynia.

ijms-logo

“Vulvodynia is a remarkably prevalent chronic pain condition of unknown etiology.

Therapeutic intra-vaginal administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reduced mast cell accumulation and tactile sensitivity.

Mast cell-targeted therapeutic strategies may therefore provide new ways to manage and treat vulvar pain potentially instigated by repeated allergenic exposures.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31052404

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/9/2163

“Marijuana Relieves Chronic Pain, Research Shows”  https://www.webmd.com/pain-management/news/20100830/marijuana-relieves-chronic-pain-research-show#1

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