Orally consumed cannabinoids provide long-lasting relief of allodynia in a mouse model of chronic neuropathic pain.

 

Image result for neuropsychopharmacology“Chronic pain affects a significant percentage of the United States population, and available pain medications like opioids have drawbacks that make long-term use untenable.

Cannabinoids show promise in the management of pain, but long-term treatment of pain with cannabinoids has been challenging to implement in preclinical models. We developed a voluntary, gelatin oral self-administration paradigm that allowed male and female mice to consume ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, or morphine ad libitum.

Mice stably consumed these gelatins over 3 weeks, with detectable serum levels. Using a real-time gelatin measurement system, we observed that mice consumed gelatin throughout the light and dark cycles, with animals consuming less THC-gelatin than the other gelatin groups.

Consumption of all three gelatins reduced measures of allodynia in a chronic, neuropathic sciatic nerve injury model, but tolerance to morphine developed after 1 week while THC or CBD reduced allodynia over three weeks. Hyperalgesia gradually developed after sciatic nerve injury, and by the last day of testing, THC significantly reduced hyperalgesia, with a trend effect of CBD, and no effect of morphine. Mouse vocalizations were recorded throughout the experiment, and mice showed a large increase in ultrasonic, broadband clicks after sciatic nerve injury, which was reversed by THC, CBD, and morphine.

This study demonstrates that mice voluntarily consume both cannabinoids and opioids via gelatin, and that cannabinoids provide long-term relief of chronic pain states. In addition, ultrasonic clicks may objectively represent mouse pain status and could be integrated into future pain models.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31812152

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41386-019-0585-3

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The Interplay between the Endocannabinoid System, Epilepsy and Cannabinoids.

ijms-logo“Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that affects approximately 50 million people worldwide.

There is currently no definitive epilepsy cure. However, in recent years, medicinal cannabis has been successfully trialed as an effective treatment for managing epileptic symptoms, but whose mechanisms of action are largely unknown.

Lately, there has been a focus on neuroinflammation as an important factor in the pathology of many epileptic disorders. In this literature review, we consider the links that have been identified between epilepsy, neuroinflammation, the endocannabinoid system (ECS), and how cannabinoids may be potent alternatives to more conventional pharmacological therapies.

We review the research that demonstrates how the ECS can contribute to neuroinflammation, and could therefore be modulated by cannabinoids to potentially reduce the incidence and severity of seizures. In particular, the cannabinoid cannabidiol has been reported to have anti-convulsant and anti-inflammatory properties, and it shows promise for epilepsy treatment.

There are a multitude of signaling pathways that involve endocannabinoids, eicosanoids, and associated receptors by which cannabinoids could potentially exert their therapeutic effects. Further research is needed to better characterize these pathways, and consequently improve the application and regulation of medicinal cannabis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31810321

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/23/6079

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Cannabinoids and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain-Axis: Emerging Effects of Cannabidiol and Potential Applications to Alcohol Use Disorders.

Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research banner“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has emerged in recent years as a potential treatment target for alcohol use disorders (AUD).

In particular, the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) has shown preclinical promise in ameliorating numerous clinical symptoms of AUD.

There are several proposed mechanism(s) through which cannabinoids (and CBD in particular) may confer beneficial effects in the context of AUD. First, CBD may directly impact specific brain mechanisms underlying AUD to influence alcohol consumption and the clinical features of AUD. Second, CBD may influence AUD symptoms through its actions across the digestive, immune, and central nervous systems, collectively known as the microbiota-gut-brain-axis (MGBA).

Notably, emerging work suggests that alcohol and cannabinoids exert opposing effects on the MGBA.

Alcohol is linked to immune dysfunction (e.g., chronic systemic inflammation in the brain and periphery) as well as disturbances in gut microbial species (microbiota) and increased intestinal permeability. These MGBA disruptions have been associated with AUD symptoms such as craving and impaired cognitive control.

Conversely, existing preclinical data suggest that cannabinoids may confer beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal and immune system, such as reducing intestinal permeability, regulating gut bacteria and reducing inflammation. Thus, cannabinoids may exert AUD harm-reduction effects, at least in part, through their beneficial actions across the MGBA.

This review will provide a brief introduction to the ECS and the MGBA, discuss the effects of cannabinoids (particularly CBD) and alcohol in the brain, gut, and immune system (i.e., across the MGBA), and put forth a theoretical framework to inform future research questions.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31803950

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/acer.14256

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Transcriptomic Analysis of Stem Cells Treated with Moringin or Cannabidiol: Analogies and Differences in Inflammation Pathways.

ijms-logo“Inflammation is a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases.

The treatment of stem cells as a therapeutic approach to repair damage in the central nervous system represents a valid alternative.

In this study, using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology, we analyzed the transcriptomic profile of human Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hGMSCs) treated with Moringin [4-(α-l-ramanosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate] (hGMSCs-MOR) or with Cannabidiol (hGMSCs-CBD) at dose of 0.5 or 5 µM, respectively. Moreover, we compared their transcriptomic profiles in order to evaluate analogies and differences in pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways.

The hGMSCs-MOR selectively downregulate TNF-α signaling from the beginning, reducing the expression of TNF-α receptor while hGMSCs-CBD limit its activity after the process started.

The treatment with CBD downregulates the pro-inflammatory pathway mediated by the IL-1 family, including its receptor while MOR is less efficient.

Furthermore, both the treatments are efficient in the IL-6 signaling. In particular, CBD reduces the effect of the pro-inflammatory JAK/STAT pathway while MOR enhances the pro-survival PI3K/AKT/mTOR.

In addition, both hGMSCs-MOR and hGMSCs-CBD improve the anti-inflammatory activity enhancing the TGF-β pathway.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31801206

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/23/6039

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Long-term benefit from immune modulation and anti-inflammatory treatment in metastatic mesothelioma.

Respiratory Medicine Case Reports“A 64 year old male heating engineer was investigated for a persistent cough and found to have epithelioid mesothelioma with pleural effusion, lung nodules and increased thoracic lymph nodes. He declined standard of care treatment following his own research and he was enrolled in a named patient programme of IMM-101. He was advised to correct his low vitamin D3 level and to start using anti-inflammatories such as aspirin, bromelain and low dose Naltrexone. At review one year later a CT scan showed no change and he continued on the regimen. Four years after the diagnosis a CT scan showed that there was a modest but definite progression of the left malignant pleural thickening, and a new right-sided effusion, enlargement of several intrathoracic nodes which had been noted on the early scans. The chest wall lump eventually broke down and required local radiotherapy. He then developed abdominal pain and found to have peritoneal disease. Last year he obtained the cannabinoids CBD and THC which slowed down the disease and a CT scan after he had been on this for six months, showed that his disease was fairly stable with marginal progression.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31788420

“The patient gave his full written consent for this report and is keen that others can benefit from this treatment.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213007119303168?via%3Dihub

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Cannabinoids: A Guide for Use in the World of Gastrointestinal Disease.

Image result for ovid journal“Cannabinoids have been known as the primary component of cannabis for decades, but the characterization of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the 1990s opened the doors for cannabis’ use in modern medicine.

The 2 main receptors of this system, cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, are found on cells of various tissues, with significant expression in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The characterization of the ECS also heralded the understanding of endocannabinoids, naturally occurring compounds synthesized in the human body.

Although research on the effects of both endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids has been slow due to the complicated legal history of cannabis, discoveries of cannabinoids‘ treatment potential have been found in various fields of medicine, including the GI world.

Medical cannabis has since been offered as a treatment for a myriad of conditions and malignancies, including cancer, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, nausea, posttraumatic stress disorder, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cachexia, glaucoma, and epilepsy.

This article hopes to create an overview of current research on cannabinoids and the ECS, detail the potential advantages and pitfalls of their use in GI diseases, and explore possible future developments in this field.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31789770

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004836-900000000-97668

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The Effectiveness of Topical Cannabidiol Oil in Symptomatic Relief of Peripheral Neuropathy of the Lower Extremities.

“Peripheral neuropathy can significantly impact the quality of life for those who are affected, as therapies from the current treatment algorithm often fail to deliver adequate symptom relief. There has, however, been an increasing body of evidence for the use of cannabinoids in the treatment of chronic, noncancer pain. The efficacy of a topically delivered cannabidiol (CBD) oil in the management of neuropathic pain was examined in this four-week, randomized and placebo-controlled trial.

RESULTS:

The study population included 62.1% males and 37.9% females with a mean age of 68 years. There was a statistically significant reduction in intense pain, sharp pain, cold and itchy sensations in the CBD group when compared to the placebo group. No adverse events were reported in this study.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings demonstrate that the transdermal application of CBD oil can achieve significant improvement in pain and other disturbing sensations in patients with peripheral neuropathy. The treatment product was well tolerated and may provide a more effective alternative compared to other current therapies in the treatment of peripheral neuropathy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31793418

http://www.eurekaselect.com/177080/article

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Anxiolytic Effects of Repeated Cannabidiol Treatment in Teenagers With Social Anxiety Disorders.

Image result for frontiers in psychology“Accumulated evidence indicates that cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychotomimetic and nonaddictive main component of the Cannabis sativa plant, reverses anxiety-like behavior. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of CBD treatment for Japanese late teenagers with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Thirty-seven 18-19-year-old Japanese teenagers with SAD and avoidant personality disorder received, in a double-blind study, cannabis oil (n = 17) containing 300 mg CBD or placebo (n = 20) daily for 4 weeks. SAD symptoms were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period using the Fear of Negative Evaluation Questionnaire and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. CBD significantly decreased anxiety measured by both scales. The results indicate that CBD could be a useful option to treat social anxiety.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31787910

“In all, the results of the current study provide evidence for anxiolytic effects of repeated CBD administration in teenagers with SAD.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02466/full

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Investigation of the Involvement of the Endocannabinoid System in TENS-induced Antinociception.

“Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) promotes antinociception by activating the descending pain modulation pathway and consequently releasing endogenous analgesic substances.

In addition, recent studies have shown that the endocannabinoid system controls pain. Thus, the present study investigated the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in TENS-induced antinociception of cancer pain using a cancer pain model induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) injections of Ehrlich tumor cells in male Swiss mice.

These results suggest that low- and high-frequency TENS is effective in controlling cancer pain, and the endocannabinoid system is involved in this effect at both the peripheral and central levels.

Perspective: TENS is a non-pharmacological strategy that may be used to control cancer pain. Identification of a new mechanism involved in its analgesic effect could lead to the development of clinical studies as well as an increase in its application, lessening the need for pharmacological treatments.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31785404

https://www.jpain.org/article/S1526-5900(19)30868-5/fulltext

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The ameliorating effect of cannabinoid type 2 receptor activation on brain, lung, liver and heart damage in cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis model in rats.

International Immunopharmacology“Uncontrolled infection and increased inflammatory mediators might cause systemic inflammatory response. It is already known that Cannabinoid Type 2 (CB2) receptors, which are commonly expressed in immune cells and in many other tissues, have an effect on the regulation of immune response.

In the present study of ours, the effects of CB2 receptor agonist JWH-133 was investigated on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced polymicrobial sepsis model in rats.

The JWH-133 treatment decreased the histopathological damage in brain, heart, lung, and liver and reduced the caspase-3, p-NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 levels in these tissues. In addition to this, JWH-133 treatment also decreased the serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 levels, which were increased due to CLP, and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 levels.

In the present study, it was determined that the CB2 receptor agonist JWH-133 decreases the CLP-induced inflammation, and reduces the damage in brain, lung, liver and heart.

Our findings show the therapeutic potential of the activation of CB2 receptors with JWH-133 in sepsis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31767546

“CB2 receptors are expressed in many tissues including immune cells. Activation of CB2 receptors has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effect.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1567576919318351?via%3Dihub

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