Reprint of: survey of medicinal cannabis use among childbearing women: patterns of its use in pregnancy and retroactive self-assessment of its efficacy against ‘morning sickness’.

Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice

“A majority of women experience some nausea and/or vomiting during pregnancy. This condition can range from mild nausea to extreme nausea and vomiting, with 1-2% of women suffering from the life-threatening condition hyperemesis gravidarum.

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) may be used therapeutically to mitigate pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting.

This paper presents the results of a survey of 84 female users of medicinal cannabis, recruited through two compassion societies in British Columbia, Canada. Of the seventy-nine respondents who had experienced pregnancy, 51 (65%) reported using cannabis during their pregnancies. While 59 (77%) of the respondents who had been pregnant had experienced nausea and/or vomiting of pregnancy, 40 (68%) had used cannabis to treat the condition, and of these respondents, 37 (over 92%) rated cannabis as ‘extremely effective’ or ‘effective.’

Our findings support the need for further investigations into cannabis therapy for severe nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19880090

“Marijuana use is common in pregnancy but may not be an independent risk factor for poor neonatal outcomes in term pregnancies.”  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000293781500527X

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Cannabis for the Treatment of Chronic Pain in the Era of an Opioid Epidemic: A Symposium-Based Review of Sociomedical Science.

Pain Medicine

“This manuscript reviews medical literature published pertaining to the management of chronic pain with medical marijuana therapy (MMJ), with an emphasis on the social, medical, and legal aspects of therapy.

CONCLUSIONS:

Increasing interest in MMJ for chronic pain underscores a need for primary care and pain physicians to better understand the indications and evidence for its use free from cultural bias. Given a lack of full conclusive clinical utility, continued research is needed to better understand how to best utilize MMJ therapy for the treatment of chronic pain.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29016917

https://academic.oup.com/painmedicine/article-abstract/doi/10.1093/pm/pnx143/3964518/Cannabis-for-the-Treatment-of-Chronic-Pain-in-the?redirectedFrom=fulltext

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The Current Landscape of Marijuana and Pharmacogenetics.

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“The treatment of medical conditions with cannabis and cannabinoid compounds is advancing.

Although there are numerous reports related to the genetic variations of the cannabinoid receptor, a lack of studies that examine the relationship between other pharmacogenetic markers and health outcomes currently exists.

Herein, we advocate for the legalization of marijuana in the United States in order to perform more randomized controlled trials to help elucidate the role of other pharmacogenetic targets and cannabis for use in clinical practice.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28975060

https://www.cureus.com/articles/8321-the-current-landscape-of-marijuana-and-pharmacogenetics

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Is cannabis an effective treatment for joint pain?

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“Cannabis has been used to treat pain for thousands of years.

However, since the early part of the 20th century, laws restricting cannabis use have limited its evaluation using modern scientific criteria. Over the last decade, the situation has started to change because of the increased availability of cannabis in the United States for either medical or recreational purposes, making it important to provide the public with accurate information as to the effectiveness of the drug for joint pain among other indications.

The major psychotropic component of cannabis is Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), one of some 120 naturally occurring phytocannabinoids. Cannabidiol (CBD) is another molecule found in herbal cannabis in large amounts. Although CBD does not produce psychotropic effects, it has been shown to produce a variety of pharmacological effects. Hence, the overall effects of herbal cannabis represent the collective activity of THC, CBD and a number of minor components.

The action of THC is mediated by two major G-protein coupled receptors, cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and CB2, and recent work has suggested that other targets may also exist. Arachidonic acid derived endocannabinoids are the normal physiological activators of the two cannabinoid receptors.

Natural phytocannabinoids and synthetic derivatives have produced clear activity in a variety of models of joint pain in animals. These effects are the result of both inhibition of pain pathway signalling (mostly CB1) and anti-inflammatory effects (mostly CB2). There are also numerous anecdotal reports of the effectiveness of smoking cannabis for joint pain.

Indeed, it is the largest medical request for the use of the drug. However, these reports generally do not extend to regulated clinical trials for rheumatic diseases. Nevertheless, the preclinical and human data that do exist indicate that the use of cannabis should be taken seriously as a potential treatment of joint pain.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28967368

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Can Cannabis be Considered a Substitute Medication for Alcohol?

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“Substituting cannabis for alcohol may reduce drinking and related problems among alcohol-dependent individuals. Some even recommend prescribing medical cannabis to individuals attempting to reduce drinking.

While more research and improved study designs are needed to better identify the extent and impact of cannabis substitution on those affected by AUD, cannabis does appear to be a potential substitute for alcohol. Perhaps more importantly, cannabis is both safer and potentially less addictive than benzodiazepines and other pharmaceuticals that have been evaluated as substitutes for alcohol.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3992908/

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Preferences for Medical Marijuana over Prescription Medications Among Persons Living with Chronic Conditions: Alternative, Complementary, and Tapering Uses.

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers

“Despite expanded legalization and utilization of medical cannabis (MC) internationally, there is a lack of patient-centered data on how MC is used by persons living with chronic conditions in tandem with or instead of prescription medications. This study describes approaches to use of MC vis-à-vis prescription medications in the treatment of selected chronic conditions.

RESULTS:

Participants described a range of approaches to using MC, including (1) as alternatives to using prescription or over-the-counter medications; (2) complementary use with prescription medications; and (3) as a means for tapering off prescription medications. Motives reported for reducing or eliminating prescription medications included concerns regarding toxicity, dependence, and tolerance, and perceptions that MC improves management of certain symptoms and has quicker action and longer lasting effects.

CONCLUSIONS:

MC appears to serve as both a complementary method for symptom management and treatment of medication side-effects associated with certain chronic conditions, and as an alternative method for treatment of pain, seizures, and inflammation in this population. Additional patient-centered research is needed to identify specific dosing patterns of MC products associated with symptom alleviation and produce longitudinal data assessing chronic disease outcomes with MC use.”

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Olivia Newton-John champions the use of ‘magical, miracle’ medicinal cannabis

Cannabis is a "magical miracle plant" says singer Olivia Newton-John.

“Let’s get medicinal, says Olivia Newton-John, who has spoken out about the use of medicinal cannabis on a recent visit to Australia. “I will do what I can to encourage it. It’s an important part of treatment and it should be available,” the singer, who announced a second battle with breast cancer in May, told News Corp Australia. The Australian entertainer said the drug – which is legal in her home state of California – had helped her during her second fight against cancer.” https://www.stuff.co.nz/entertainment/celebrities/96702731/olivia-newtonjohn-champions-the-use-of-magical-miracle-medicinal-cannabis

“OLIVIA NEWTON-JOHN TELLS HOW MARIJUANA IS HELPING HER BEAT CANCER”.“I use medicinal cannabis, which is really important for pain and healing,” “It’s a plant that has been maligned for so long, and has so many abilities to heal.”“I will do what I can to encourage it,” “It’s an important part of treatment, and it should be available. I use it for the pain and it’s also a medicinal thing to do — the research shows it’s really helpful.”” http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/nsw/olivia-newtonjohn-tells-how-marijuana-is-helping-her-beat-cancer/news-story/12705dfadc0579a1139472271aa03bf8

 “It’s a magical miracle plant:’ Olivia Newton-John reveals husband John Easterling grows marijuana to aid her breast cancer battle… as star recalls her struggle to tell daughter Chloe about heartbreaking diagnosis. In an emotional interview with Karl Stefanovic on 60 Minutes, Olivia revealed that the controversial plant has helped her immeasurably in her cancer battle. ”It’s been a maligned plant all these years and it really is a magical miracle plant.”” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-4869940/Olivia-Newton-John-benefits-medical-marijuana.html

“OLIVIA NEWTON-JOHN TELLS ALL ON HER CANCER BATTLE & WHY WEED IS HER ‘HEALING PLANT'” http://okmagazine.com/photos/olivia-newton-john-cancer-weed-today-show/

“Olivia Newton-John on Being a Cancer ‘Thriver’ and Using Weed to Cope with Her Relapse: It’s a ‘Healing Plant’” http://people.com/music/olivia-newton-john-cancer-relapse-weed/

Olivia Newton-John credits weed for helping cancer battle http://pagesix.com/2017/09/21/olivia-newton-john-credits-weed-for-helping-cancer-battle/

“Olivia Newton-John’s cancer battle is going well… Thanks to cannabis oil!” http://lifestyle.one/closer/celebrity/news/olivia-newton-john-daughter-chloe-lattanzi-cannabis-oil-cancer/

“Olivia Newton-John is Using Cannabis Oil for her Breast Cancer—Here’s How It Could Help” http://www.health.com/breast-cancer/cannabis-cancer-treatment-olivia-newton-john

“Cannabis Oil Will Help Olivia Newton-John Battle Breast Cancer”  https://thefreshtoast.com/celebrity/olivia-newton-john-will-use-cannabis-oil-in-battling-second-breast-cancer-diagnosis/

“Olivia Newton-John Is Using Cannabis Oil To Treat Her Cancer”  https://www.inverse.com/article/32780-cannabis-oil-cancer-treatment-cannabinoid-chemotherapy

“OLIVIA NEWTON-JOHN USES MEDICINAL CANNABIS IN CANCER FIGHT”  http://www.wsfm.com.au/entertainment/the-feed/olivia-newton-john-uses-medicinal-cannabis-in-cancer-fight

Olivia Newton-John is using medical marijuana during her battle with breast cancer” http://www.kansascity.com/entertainment/article171116417.html
“Olivia Newton-John reveals marijuana helping her beat cancer” http://www.9news.com.au/national/2017/09/03/08/58/olivia-newton-john-backs-medicinal-cannabis

“‘I use cannabis’: Olivia Newton-John talks cancer treatment”  https://startsat60.com/health/big-issues/cancer/i-use-cannabis-olivia-newton-john-opens-up-on-cancer-treatment

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 “”I use medicinal cannabis, which is really important for pain and healing. It’s a plant that has been maligned for so long and has so many abilities to heal,” Newton-John told the Daily Telegraph in a recent interview. Newton-John does not have a problem with her supplies of cannabis oil as her daughter, Chloe Lattanzi, owns a cannabis farm in Oregon, and can be easily obtained in her home state of California, where the use of medical marijuana is legal. However, as many parts of the world are still pessimistic about the medical use of marijuana, Newton-John has declared that she will advocate for its use, including in her home country Australia, where obtaining permits to use it still requires a long process even after it was legalized earlier this year. “I will do what I can to encourage it. It’s an important part of treatment, and it should be available. I use it for the pain and it’s also a medicinal thing to do — the research shows it’s really helpful,” Newton John said.” http://www.christianpost.com/news/olivia-newton-john-news-70s-icon-reveals-advocates-use-of-cannabis-oil-to-deal-with-cancer-pain-197915/
 “Olivia Newton-John champions use of medicinal cannabis in breast cancer battle” http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/olivia-newton-john-champions-use-medicinal-cannabis-breast-cancer-battle-1637729
“Newton-John champions medicinal cannabis use after it helped her cancer battle” https://thewest.com.au/news/health/newton-john-champions-medicinal-cannabis-use-after-it-helped-her-cancer-battle-ng-b88588000z
‘It’s really important and should be available’: Olivia Newton-John speaks for the first time about how ‘medical cannabis’ is helping her beat breast cancer” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-4846664/Olivia-Newton-John-talks-cannabis-use-time.html
“Grammy-winning singer/songwriter and actor Olivia Newton-John has opened up about her use of marijuana. “I use medicinal cannabis, which is really important for pain and healing,”“I will do what I can to encourage it. It’s an important part of treatment, and it should be available.”” https://www.civilized.life/articles/medicinal-cannabis-olivia-newton-john/
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“Olivia Newton-John Admits to Using Home-Grown Medical Marijuana to Battle Cancer” http://popculture.com/2017/09/11/olivia-newton-john-medical-marijuana-breast-cancer/

 “Grassed Lightning: Olivia Newton-John is using cannabis instead of popping pills for breast cancer pain relief” http://www.mirror.co.uk/3am/celebrity-news/grassed-lightning-olivia-newton-john-11158137

“WEED ALL ABOUT IT.  Olivia Newton-John reveals she is drinking cannabis extract to ease her back pain as she battles cancer”  https://www.thesun.co.uk/fabulous/4454398/olivia-newton-john-reveals-she-is-drinking-cannabis-extract-to-ease-her-back-pain-as-she-battles-cancer/

“Olivia Newton-John Reveals She Was Unable to Walk After Cancer Relapse – and She’s Using Marijuana to Ease Pain” http://people.com/music/olivia-newton-john-cancer-update-couldnt-walk-australian-60-minutes/

“Olivia Newton-John uses medical marijuana to treat cancer”  https://www.buzz.ie/celebs/olivia-newton-john-drinks-cannabis-extract-numb-pain-cancer-253796

“Olivia Newton-John Talks Using Medical Marijuana In Cancer Treatment. “I use medical cannabis, which is really important to pain and healing. It’s an important part of treatment, and it should be available.”” https://www.thefix.com/olivia-newton-john-talks-using-medical-marijuana-cancer-treatment

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“I’m really hoping that you will have it accessible to people. Particularly for people who are in pain. It’s not just cancer, it’s many, many illnesses. In children with epilepsy, parents are going to jail for trying to help their children, by giving them medicinal cannabis. That has to change, and I think it will. I think people are realizing this has been a maligned plant but it’s a healing plant with lots of wonderful properties. It can help alot of people. And they’re doing alot of research into the healing properties of cannabis, it’s not just for pain but to cure things. So it’s a very exciting time in the research as well.” –Olivia Newton-John http://www.dailymail.co.uk/video/tvshowbiz/video-1537789/Olivia-Newton-John-wants-medical-cannabis-legal-Australia.html

 “A picture of health! Olivia Newton-John beams at the ONJ Wellness Walk and Research Run in Melbourne as she battles cancer for the second time” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-4892342/Olivia-Newton-John-cancer-fun-run.html

 “‘It’s a magical miracle plant:’ Olivia Newton-John reveals husband John Easterling grows marijuana to aid her breast cancer battle” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-4869940/Olivia-Newton-John-benefits-medical-marijuana.html
 “Actress and singer Olivia Newton-John believes in the ‘healing properties’ of medical cannabis and hopes it will become legal, including for children.” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/video/tvshowbiz/video-1537789/Olivia-Newton-John-wants-medical-cannabis-legal-Australia.html
Bright: Dressed in a lime-coloured ONJ Cancer wellness and Research Centre track suit top over a matching T-shirt in a lighter shade of green, she seemed fit and happy
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Physicians-in-training are not prepared to prescribe medical marijuana.

Drug and Alcohol Dependence Home

“While medical marijuana use is legal in more than half of U.S. states, evidence is limited about the preparation of physicians-in-training to prescribe medical marijuana. We asked whether current medical school and graduate medical educational training prepare physicians to prescribe medical marijuana.

Our study highlights a fundamental mismatch between the state-level legalization of medical marijuana and the lack of preparation of physicians-in-training to prescribe it. With even more states on the cusp of legalizing medical marijuana, physician training should adapt to encompass this new reality of medical practice.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28892720

http://www.drugandalcoholdependence.com/article/S0376-8716(17)30441-6/fulltext

 

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Clinical and Pre-Clinical Evidence for Functional Interactions of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol.

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“The plant Cannabis sativa, commonly called cannabis or marijuana, has been used for its psychotropic and mind-altering side effects for millennia. There has been growing attention in recent years on its potential therapeutic efficacy as municipalities and legislative bodies in the United States, Canada, and other countries grapple with enacting policy to facilitate the use of cannabis or its constituents for medical purposes. There are over 550 chemical compounds and over 100 phytocannabinoids isolated from cannabis, including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD). THC is thought to produce the main psychoactive effects of cannabis, while CBD does not appear to have similar effects. Studies conflict as to whether CBD attenuates or exacerbates the behavioral and cognitive effects of THC. This includes effects of CBD on THC induced anxiety, psychosis and cognitive deficits. In this article, we review the available evidence on the pharmacology and behavioral interactions of THC and CBD from pre-clinical and human studies particularly with reference to anxiety and psychosis like symptoms. Both THC and CBD, as well as other cannabinoid molecules, are currently being evaluated for medicinal purposes, separately and in combination. Future cannabis-related policy decisions should include consideration of scientific findings including the individual and interactive effects of CBD and THC.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28875990

https://www.nature.com/npp/journal/vaop/naam/abs/npp2017209a.html

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A selective review of medical cannabis in cancer pain management.

“Insufficient management of cancer-associated chronic and neuropathic pain adversely affects patient quality of life. Patients who do not respond well to opioid analgesics, or have severe side effects from the use of traditional analgesics are in need of alternative therapeutic op-tions.

Anecdotal evidence suggests that medical cannabis has potential to effectively manage pain in this patient population.

This review presents a selection of representative clinical studies, from small pilot studies conducted in 1975, to double-blind placebo-controlled trials conducted in 2014 that evaluated the efficacy of cannabinoid-based therapies containing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) for reducing cancer-associated pain. A review of literature published on Medline between 1975 and 2017 identified five clinical studies that evaluated the effect of THC or CBD on controlling cancer pain, which have been reviewed and summarised.

Five studies that evaluated THC oil capsules, THC:CBD oromucosal spray (nabiximols), or THC oromucosal sprays found some evidence of cancer pain reduction associated with these therapies. A variety of doses ranging from 2.7-43.2 mg/day THC and 0-40 mg/day CBD were administered. Higher doses of THC were correlated with increased pain relief in some studies. One study found that significant pain relief was achieved in doses as low as 2.7-10.8 mg THC in combination with 2.5-10.0 mg CBD, but there was conflicting evidence on whether higher doses provide superior pain relief. Some reported side effects include drowsiness, hypotension, mental clouding, and nausea and vomiting.

There is evidence suggesting that medical cannabis reduces chronic or neu-ropathic pain in advanced cancer patients.

However, the results of many studies lacked statistical power, in some cases due to limited number of study subjects. Therefore, there is a need for the conduct of further double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials with large sample sizes in order to establish the optimal dosage and efficacy of different cannabis-based therapies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28866904

http://apm.amegroups.com/article/view/16199

 

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