Nose-to-brain Delivery of Natural Compounds for the Treatment of Central Nervous System Disorders.

“Several natural compounds have demonstrated potential for the treatment of central nervous system disorders such as ischemic cerebrovascular disease, glioblastoma, neuropathic pain, neurodegenerative diseases, multiple sclerosis and migraine.

This is due to their well-known antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, anti-tumor, anti-ischemic and analgesic properties. Nevertheless, many of these molecules have poor aqueous solubility, low bioavailability and extensive gastrointestinal and/or hepatic first-pass metabolism, leading to a quick elimination as well as low serum and tissue concentrations.

Thus, the intranasal route emerged as a viable alternative to oral or parenteral administration, by enabling a direct transport into the brain through the olfactory and trigeminal nerves. With this approach, the blood-brain barrier is circumvented and peripheral exposure is reduced, thereby minimizing possible adverse effects.

OBJECTIVE:

Herein, brain-targeting strategies for the nose-to-brain delivery of natural compounds, including flavonoids, cannabinoids, essential oils and terpenes, will be reviewed and discussed. Brain and plasma pharmacokinetics of these molecules will be analyzed and related to their physicochemical characteristics and formulation properties.

CONCLUSION:

Natural compounds constitute relevant alternatives for the treatment of brain diseases but often require loading into nanocarrier systems to reach the central nervous system in sufficient concentrations. Future challenges lie in a deeper characterization of their therapeutic mechanisms and in the development of effective, safe and brain-targeted delivery systems for their intranasal administration.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31939728

http://www.eurekaselect.com/178321/article

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Cell Suspensions of Cannabis sativa (var. Futura): Effect of Elicitation on Metabolite Content and Antioxidant Activity.

molecules-logo“Cannabis sativa L. is one of the most-studied species for its phytochemistry due to the abundance of secondary metabolites, including cannabinoids, terpenes and phenolic compounds. In the last decade, fiber-type hemp varieties have received interest for the production of many specialized secondary metabolites derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. The interest in these molecules is due to their antioxidant activity.

Since secondary metabolite synthesis occurs at a very low level in plants, the aim of this study was to develop a strategy to increase the production of such compounds and to elucidate the biochemical pathways involved. Therefore, cell suspensions of industrial hemp (C. sativa L. var. Futura) were produced, and an advantageous elicitation strategy (methyl jasmonate, MeJA) in combination with precursor feeding (tyrosine, Tyr) was developed.

The activity and expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) increased upon treatment. Through 1H-NMR analyses, some aromatic compounds were identified, including, for the first time, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (4-HPP) in addition to tyrosol. The 4-day MeJA+Tyr elicited samples showed a 51% increase in the in vitro assay (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH) radical scavenging activity relative to the control and a 80% increase in the cellular antioxidant activity estimated on an ex vivo model of human erythrocytes.

Our results outline the active metabolic pathways and the antioxidant properties of hemp cell extracts under the effect of specific elicitors.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31717508

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/22/4056

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Role of Cannabinoids and Terpenes in Cannabis-Mediated Analgesia in Rats.

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“Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries in treating pain. However, the analgesic role of many of its constituents including terpenes is unknown. This research examined the contributions of terpenes (volatile oil) and cannabinoids in cannabis-mediated analgesia in rats.

Methods: Animals received intraperitoneal administration of either vehicle, 10.0 or 18.0 mg/kg morphine, or various doses of the extract without terpenes, isolated terpenes, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), or the full extract. Thirty minutes later animals were tested on hotplate and tail-flick tests of thermal nociception. One week later, rats received a second administration of test articles and were tested 30 min later in the abdominal writhing test of inflammatory nociception.

Results: In the thermal assays, hotplate and tail-flick latencies for morphine-treated rats were dose dependent and significantly higher than vehicle-treated animals. All the cannabinoid compounds except for the isolated terpenes produced dose-dependent increases in hotplate and tail-flick latencies. In the inflammatory nociceptive assay, animals treated with vehicle and isolated terpenes demonstrated increased abdominal writhing, whereas all the cannabinoid compounds significantly decreased abdominal writhing responses.

Conclusions: Overall, THC alone produced robust analgesia equivalent to the full cannabis extract, whereas terpenes alone did not produce analgesia. These data suggest the analgesic activity of cannabis is largely mediated by THC, whereas terpenes alone do not cause alterations in cannabis-mediated analgesia.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31579834

“The work herein demonstrates that cannabis extracts can not only produce robust analgesia without the terpene-containing volatile oils, but isolated THC appears to be all that is required to produce such effects.”

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/can.2018.0054

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The “entourage effect”: Terpenes coupled with cannabinoids for the treatment of mood disorders and anxiety disorders.

“Mood disorders are the most prevalent mental conditions encountered in psychiatric practice. Numerous patients suffering from mood disorders present with treatment-resistant forms of depression, co-morbid anxiety, other psychiatric disorders and bipolar disorders.

Standardized essential oils (such as that of Lavender officinalis) have been shown to exert clinical efficacy in treating anxiety disorders. As endocannabinoids are suggested to play an important role in major depression, generalized anxiety and bipolar disorders, Cannabis sativa, was suggested for their treatment.

The endocannabinoid system is widely distributed throughout the body including the brain, modulating many functions. It is involved in mood and related disorders, and its activity may be modified by exogenous cannabinoids.

CB1 and CB2 receptors primarily serve as the binding sites for endocannabinoids as well as for phytocannabinoids, produced by cannabis inflorescences. However, ‘cannabis’ is not a single compound product but is known for its complicated molecular profile, producing a plethora of phytocannabinoids alongside a vast array of terpenes.

Thus, the “entourage effect” is the suggested positive contribution derived from the addition of terpenes to cannabinoids. Here we review the literature on the effects of cannabinoids and discuss the possibility of enhancing cannabinoid activity on psychiatric symptoms by the addition of terpenes and terpenoids.

Possible underlying mechanisms for the anti-depressant and anxiolytic effects are reviewed. These natural products may be an important potential source for new medications for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31481004

http://www.eurekaselect.com/174648/article

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Cannabidiol and the Remainder of the Plant Extract Modulate the Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Fear Memory Reconsolidation.

Image result for frontiers in behavioral neuroscience “Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, a CB1 receptor agonist) and Cannabidiol (CBD, a non-competitive antagonist of endogenous CB1 and CB2 ligands) are two primary components of Cannabis species, and may modulate fear learning in mammals.

The CB1 receptor is widely distributed throughout the cortex and some limbic regions typically associated with fear learning. Humans with posttraumatic disorder (PTSD) have widespread upregulation of CB1 receptor density and reduced availability of endogenous cannabinoid anandamide, suggesting a role for the endocannabinoid system in PTSD.

Pharmacological blockade of memory reconsolidation following recall of a conditioned response modulates the expression of learned fear and may represent a viable target for the development of new treatments for PTSD.

In this study, we focused on assessing the impact of the key compounds of the marijuana plant both singly and, more importantly, in concert on attenuation of learned fear. Specifically, we assessed the impact of THC, CBD, and/or the remaining plant materials (post-extraction; background material), on reconsolidation of learned fear.

Results: CBD alone, but not THC alone, significantly attenuated fear memory reconsolidation when administered immediately after recall. The effect persisted for at least 7 days. A combination of CBD and THC also attenuated the fear response. Plant BM also significantly attenuated reconsolidation of learned fear both on its own and in combination with THC and CBD. Finally, THC attenuated reconsolidation of learned fear only when co-administered with CBD or plant BM.

Conclusion: CBD may provide a novel treatment strategy for targeting fear-memories. Furthermore, plant BM also significantly attenuated the fear response. However, whereas THC alone had no significant effects, its effects were modulated by the addition of other compounds. Future research should investigate some of the other components present in the plant BM (such as terpenes) for their effects alone, or in combination with isolated pure cannabinoids, on fear learning.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31417379

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnbeh.2019.00174/full

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Terpenes in Cannabis sativa – From plant genome to humans.

Plant Science“Cannabis sativa (cannabis) produces a resin that is valued for its psychoactive and medicinal properties.

Despite being the foundation of a multi-billion dollar global industry, scientific knowledge and research on cannabis is lagging behind compared to other high-value crops. This is largely due to legal restrictions that have prevented many researchers from studying cannabis, its products, and their effects in humans.

Cannabis resin contains hundreds of different terpene and cannabinoid metabolites.

Our understanding of the genomic and biosynthetic systems of these metabolites in cannabis, and the factors that affect their variability, is rudimentary. As a consequence, there is concern about lack of consistency with regard to the terpene and cannabinoid composition of different cannabis ‘strains’.

Likewise, claims of some of the medicinal properties attributed to cannabis metabolites would benefit from thorough scientific validation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31084880

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168945219301190?via%3Dihub

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Analysis of Terpenes in Cannabis sativa L. Using GC/MS: Method Development, Validation, and Application.

“Terpenes are the major components of the essential oils present in various Cannabis sativa L. varieties.

These compounds are responsible for the distinctive aromas and flavors. Besides the quantification of the cannabinoids, determination of the terpenes in C. sativa strains could be of importance for the plant selection process.

At the University of Mississippi, a GC-MS method has been developed and validated for the quantification of terpenes in cannabis plant material, viz., α-pinene, β-pinene, β-myrcene, limonene, terpinolene, linalool, α-terpineol, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and caryophyllene oxide.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30646402

https://www.thieme-connect.de/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/a-0828-8387

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Terpenes in Cannabis sativa – From plant genome to humans.

Plant Science“Cannabis sativa (cannabis) produces a resin that is valued for its psychoactive and medicinal properties. Despite being the foundation of a multi-billion dollar global industry, scientific knowledge and research on cannabis is lagging behind compared to other high-value crops. This is largely due to legal restrictions that have prevented many researchers from studying cannabis, its products, and their effects in humans. Cannabis resin contains hundreds of different terpene and cannabinoid metabolites. Our understanding of the genomic and biosynthetic systems of these metabolites in cannabis, and the factors that affect their variability, is rudimentary. As a consequence, there is concern about lack of consistency with regard to the terpene and cannabinoid composition of different cannabis ‘strains’. Likewise, claims of some of the medicinal properties attributed to cannabis metabolites would benefit from thorough scientific validation.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31084880 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168945219301190?via%3Dihub

“Medicinal properties of terpenes found in Cannabis sativa”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30096653

“Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28355238

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Using Cannabis to Treat Cancer-Related Pain.

Seminars in Oncology Nursing

“OBJECTIVE: To describe which cannabinoids and terpenes are effective for treating pain.

CONCLUSION: Cannabis and cannabinoid medicines, as modulators of the endocannabinoid system, offer novel therapeutic options for the treatment of cancer-related pain, not only for patients who do not respond to conventional therapies, but also for patients who prefer to try cannabis as a first treatment option.

IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Understanding the endocannabinoid system, cannabinoids, terpenes, routes of administration, potential drug interactions, clinical implications, and potential side effects ensures nurses can better assist patients who use cannabis for the treatment of cancer pain.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31053395

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749208119300609?via%3Dihub

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New Methods for the Comprehensive Analysis of Bioactive Compounds in Cannabis sativa L. (hemp).

 molecules-logo

“Cannabis sativa L. is a dioecious plant belonging to the Cannabaceae family. The main phytochemicals that are found in this plant are represented by cannabinoids, flavones, and terpenes. Some biological activities of cannabinoids are known to be enhanced by the presence of terpenes and flavonoids in the extracts, due to a synergistic action.

In the light of all the above, the present study was aimed at the multi-component analysis of the bioactive compounds present in fibre-type C. sativa (hemp) inflorescences of different varieties by means of innovative HPLC and GC methods. In particular, the profiling of non-psychoactive cannabinoids was carried out by means of HPLC-UV/DAD, ESI-MS, and MS². The content of prenylated flavones in hemp extracts, including cannflavins A and B, was also evaluated by HPLC.

The study on Cannabis volatile compounds was performed by developing a new method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with GC-MS and GC-FID. Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and cannabidiol(CBD) were found to be the most abundant cannabinoids in the hemp samples analysed, while β-myrcene and β-caryophyllene were the major terpenes. As regards flavonoids, cannflavin A was observed to be the main compound in almost all the samples.

The methods developed in this work are suitable for the comprehensive chemical analysis of both hemp plant material and related pharmaceutical or nutraceutical products in order to ensure their quality, efficacy, and safety.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30322208

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/23/10/2639

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