Antimicrobial Activity of Cannabis sativa L.

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“The oil of the seeds, petroleum ether and methanol extracts of the whole plant of Cannabis sativa belonging to the family Cannabinaceae were screened for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive organisms (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), two Gram negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two fungi namely Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans using the cup plate agar diffusion method.

The oil of the seeds of Cannabis sativa exerted pronounced antibacterial activity (21 – 28 mm) against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, moderate activity (15 mm) against Escherichia coli and high activity (16 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and inactive against the two fungi tested. The petroleum ether extract of the whole plant exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity (23 – 28 mm) against both Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus organisms, high activity (16 mm) against Escherichia coli and inactive against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and both fungi. The methanol extract of the whole plant showed also pronounced antibacterial activity (29 mm) against Bacillus subtilis, low activity (12 mm) against Staphylococcus aureus and high activity (16 – 18 mm) against both Gram negative organisms, inactive against Aspergillus niger and low activity (13 mm) against Candida albicans.

The minimum inhibitory concentrations of Cannabis sativa methanol extracts of the seeds and the whole plant against the standard organisms were determined using the agar plate dilution method. The standard organisms were tested against reference antibacterial and antifungal drugs and the results were compared with the activity of the extracts.”

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=18123

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Antibacterial Properties of Hemp and Other Natural Fibre Plants: A Review

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“Intervention against pathogenic bacteria using natural plant material has a long history. Plant materials also have been widely used as fillers and/or reinforcers in polymer composites. Some natural fibre plants, such as hemp, are regarded to possess antibacterial activity against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria. Innovative applications can be explored if they are incorporated in polymer composites. This review aims to compile the relevant investigations on antibacterial activity of hemp and other fibre plants such as jute, flax, kenaf, sisal, and bamboo. The antibacterial character might be contributed from cannabinoids, alkaloids, other bioactive compounds, or phenolic compounds of lignin. This review is intended to encourage utilization of hemp and other natural fibre plants in value-added diversified products. Some potential applications are also discussed.” https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270502952_Antibacterial_Properties_of_Hemp_and_Other_Natural_Fibre_Plants_A_Review
“Antibacterial Properties of Hemp and Other Natural Fibre Plants: A Review”  http://ojs.cnr.ncsu.edu/index.php/BioRes/article/view/BioRes_09_2_Khan_Antibacterial_Hemp_Fibre_Review
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In vitro Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Six Chemotypes of Medicinal Cannabis

“Nowadays, medicinal cannabis (Cannabis sativa L) is in the focus of the researches not only for its high content of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), but for other cannabinoids as well.

It has been reported that some of the identified substances (e.g. cannabidiol, cannabinochromene) possess anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, which corresponds to its traditional use as wound healing agent at Pakistan.

The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant ability of extracts from high potent Cannabis sativa chemotypes.

The six ethanolic extracts prepared from dried inflorescence of five medicinal cannabis chemotypes (Nurse Jackie, Jilly Bean, Nordle, Jack Cleaner, Conspiracy Kush) were tested by standard microdilution method against Staphylococcus aureus (three strains), Streptococcus pyogenes and the yeast Candida albicans.

Those microbial strains are present on skin and can cause complication during wound healing process.

The antioxidative activity, which plays an important role in wound healing process, was tested by oxygen radical absorbance capacity test (ORAC).

All tested extracts demonstrated high antimicrobial activity against two strains of S. aureus and S. pyogenes (MIC ranged from 4 – 16 µg·mL-1), moreover high antioxidant capacity was observed (ORAC ranged from 800 – 1300 µg TE/mg of extract).

The results indicate that cannabis has high potential to be used in ointments and other material for wound healing.

However, further research on the identification of the active components is needed.”

https://www.thieme-connect.com/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0036-1596302

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ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM: A multi-facet therapeutic target.

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“Cannabis sativa is also popularly known as marijuana. It is being cultivated and used by man for recreational and medicinal purposes from many centuries.

Study of cannabinoids was at bay for very long time and its therapeutic value could not be adequately harnessed due to its legal status as proscribed drug in most of the countries.

The research of drugs acting on endocannabinoid system has seen many ups and down in recent past. Presently, it is known that endocannabinoids has role in pathology of many disorders and they also serve “protective role” in many medical conditions.

Several diseases like emesis, pain, inflammation, multiple sclerosis, anorexia, epilepsy, glaucoma, schizophrenia, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, obesity, metabolic syndrome related diseases, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and Tourette’s syndrome could possibly be treated by drugs modulating endocannabinoid system.

Presently, cannabinoid receptor agonists like nabilone and dronabinol are used for reducing the chemotherapy induced vomiting. Sativex (cannabidiol and THC combination) is approved in the UK, Spain and New Zealand to treat spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. In US it is under investigation for cancer pain, another drug Epidiolex (cannabidiol) is also under investigation in US for childhood seizures. Rimonabant, CB1 receptor antagonist appeared as a promising anti-obesity drug during clinical trials but it also exhibited remarkable psychiatric side effect profile. Due to which the US Food and Drug Administration did not approve Rimonabant in US. It sale was also suspended across the EU in 2008.

Recent discontinuation of clinical trial related to FAAH inhibitor due to occurrence of serious adverse events in the participating subjects could be discouraging for the research fraternity. Despite of some mishaps in clinical trials related to drugs acting on endocannabinoid system, still lot of research is being carried out to explore and establish the therapeutic targets for both cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists.

One challenge is to develop drugs that target only cannabinoid receptors in a particular tissue and another is to invent drugs that acts selectively on cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood brain barrier. Besides this, development of the suitable dosage forms with maximum efficacy and minimum adverse effects is also warranted.

Another angle to be introspected for therapeutic abilities of this group of drugs is non-CB1 and non-CB2 receptor targets for cannabinoids.

In order to successfully exploit the therapeutic potential of endocannabinoid system, it is imperative to further characterize the endocannabinoid system in terms of identification of the exact cellular location of cannabinoid receptors and their role as “protective” and “disease inducing substance”, time-dependent changes in the expression of cannabinoid receptors.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27086601

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Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid medicines.

Drug Testing and Analysis

“Cannabis was extensively used as a medicine throughout the developed world in the nineteenth century but went into decline early in the twentieth century ahead of its emergence as the most widely used illicit recreational drug later that century. Recent advances in cannabinoid pharmacology alongside the discovery of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) have re-ignited interest in cannabis-based medicines.

The ECS has emerged as an important physiological system and plausible target for new medicines. Its receptors and endogenous ligands play a vital modulatory role in diverse functions including immune response, food intake, cognition, emotion, perception, behavioural reinforcement, motor co-ordination, body temperature, wake/sleep cycle, bone formation and resorption, and various aspects of hormonal control. In disease it may act as part of the physiological response or as a component of the underlying pathology.

In the forefront of clinical research are the cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, and their contrasting pharmacology will be briefly outlined. The therapeutic potential and possible risks of drugs that inhibit the ECS will also be considered. This paper will then go on to review clinical research exploring the potential of cannabinoid medicines in the following indications: symptomatic relief in multiple sclerosis, chronic neuropathic pain, intractable nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite and weight in the context of cancer or AIDS, psychosis, epilepsy, addiction, and metabolic disorders.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24006213

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/dta.1529/abstract

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Killing bacteria with cannabis

“Pharmacists and chemists have found another use for the multipurpose cannabis as a source of antibacterial chemicals for multidrug resistant bacteria.”

 

“All five cannabinoids (THC, CBD, CBG, CBC, and CBN) were potent against bacteria. Notably, they performed well against bacteria that were known to be multidrug resistant, like the strains of MRSA…

CBD and CBG have the most potential for consumer use because they are nonpsychotropic…”

More: http://arstechnica.com/science/2008/08/killing-bacteria-with-cannabis/

“Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure-activity study.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18681481

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Pot is good for you? Marijuana fights the superbugs

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Fact: Cannabis Kills MRSA, Disrupts Prion Diseases

“Marijuana is a potent antibiotic that can kill methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and disrupt the progression of prion diseases such as Mad Cow disease and Creutzfeld-Jakob disease — just don’t expect the federal government to tell you any of this.”

A MRSA lesion

“Scientists from Italy and the United Kingdom reported in the August 2007 issue of the Journal of Natural Products that the main active ingredient in weed, THC, as well as four other pot molecules “showed potent antibacterial activity against six different strains of MRSA of clinical relevance.”

Pot also stops prions,  a type of protein that can cause neurodegenerative diseases that are invariably fatal. Once prions get into a brain they replicate rapidly and shred brain tissue “resulting in a ‘spongiform’ appearance on post-mortem histological examination of neural tissue.”

In 2007, American and French researchers reported that pot molecule cannabidiol “prevents prion accumulation and protects neurons against prion toxicity” in the Journal of Neuroscience.

Cannabidiol inhibited prion accumulation in mouse and sheep prion disease cell cultures and inhibited prion formation in the brain of infected mice given injections of CBD. “The authors conclude that CBD likely represents a new class of anti-prion drugs.””

More: http://www.eastbayexpress.com/LegalizationNation/archives/2013/07/29/fact-cannabis-kills-mrsa-disrupts-prion-diseases

“Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure-activity study.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18681481

“Nonpsychoactive Cannabidiol Prevents Prion Accumulation and Protects Neurons against Prion Toxicity” http://www.jneurosci.org/content/27/36/9537.full

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Marijuana Kills MRSA and Inhibits Prions That Cause Neurodegenerative Disease; Still Recognized by Feds As a Dangerous Drug

“Research indicates that marijuana could effectively fight off MRSA, as well as prions — the proteins that cause mad cow disease and Creutzfeld-Jakob disease.”

(Photo : Flickr, "it was 3 a.m.") Pot's constituent molecules kill bacteria and inhibit the formation of prions, a protein that can cause neurodegenerative diseases.

“New research reveals that several marijuana ingredients exhibit a potent antibiotic capacity in cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections as well as the ability to fight off proteins called prions that can lead to Mad Cow disease and Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (CDJ).”

More: http://www.medicaldaily.com/articles/17941/20130730/marijuana-mrsa-prions-mad-cow-disease.htm

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Cannabis Compounds Reduce Multi-Drug Resistant Infections

“Cannabis Science, Inc. Dr. Robert Melamede, PhD., Director and Chief Science Officer, reported to the Board on the current state of research into the use of natural plant cannabinoids to reduce the spread of drug-resistant bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA), and the prospects for development of topical whole-cannabis treatments.

According to studies published in the Journal of the American Medical Association and by the Center for Disease Control in 2007, MRSA is responsible for more than 18,500 hospital-stay related deaths each year, and increased direct healthcare costs of as much as $9.7 billion.

Dr. Melamede stated, “Research into use of whole cannabis extracts and multi-cannabinoid compounds has provided the scientific rationale for medical marijuana’s efficacy in treating some of the most troubling diseases mankind now faces, including infectious diseases such as the flu and HIV, autoimmune diseases such as ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease), multiple sclerosis, arthritis, and diabetes, neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s, stroke and brain injury, as well as numerous forms of cancer. One common element of these diseases is that patients often suffer extended hospital stays, risking development of various Staphyloccus infections including MRSA. A topical, whole-cannabis treatment for these infections is a functional complement to our cannabis extract-based lozenge.””

More: http://www.drugs.com/clinical_trials/cannabis-compounds-reduce-multi-resistant-infections-7080.html

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