Anti-Bacterial Properties of Cannabigerol Toward Streptococcus mutans

Frontiers in Microbiology: Multidrug Resistance in Pasteurellaceae“Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is a gram-positive facultatively anaerobic bacterium and the most common pathogen associated with tooth caries. The organism is acid tolerant and can undergo physiological adaptation to function effectively in acid environments such as carious dental plaque.

Some cannabinoids have been found to have potent anti-microbial activity against gram-positive bacteria. One of these is the non-psychoactive, minor phytocannabinoid Cannabigerol (CBG). Here we show that CBG exhibits anti-bacterial activities against S. mutans.

In summary, we present here data showing the mechanisms by which CBG exerts its anti-bacterial effect against S. mutans.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33967995/

“Cannabigerol (CBG) is a non-psychotropic Cannabis-derived cannabinoid (CB). In summary, the present study demonstrates an anti-bacterial effects of the Cannabis component CBG toward the cariogenic bacteria S. mutans. The interference of CBG with the caries causative S. mutans may provide a novel innovative way to combat dental caries.” https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2021.656471/full

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Chemical and Bioinformatics Analyses of the Anti-Leishmanial and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Hemp Essential Oil

biomolecules-logo“Industrial hemp is a multiuse crop that has been widely cultivated to produce fibers and nutrients. The capability of the essential oil (EO) from inflorescences as antimicrobial agent has been reported. However, literature data are still lacking about the hemp EO antiprotozoal efficacy in vivo.

The present study aims to unravel this concern through the evaluation of the efficacy of hemp EOs (2.5 mL/kg, intraperitoneally) of three different cultivars, namely Futura 75Carmagnola selezionata and Eletta campana, in mice intraperitoneally infected with Leishmania tropica. A detailed description of EO composition and targets-components analysis is reported.

Myrcene, α-pinene and E-caryophyllene were the main components of the EOs, as indicated by the gas-chromatographic analysis. However, a prominent position in the scenario of the theoretical interactions underlying the bio-pharmacological activity was also occupied by selina-3,7(11)-diene, which displayed affinities in the micromolar range (5.4-28.9) towards proliferator-activated receptor α, cannabinoid CB2 receptor and acetylcholinesterase. The content of this compound was higher in Futura 75 and Eletta campana, in accordance with their higher scavenging/reducing properties and efficacy against the tissue wound, induced by L. tropica.

Overall, the present study recommends hemp female inflorescences, as sources of biomolecules with potential pharmacological applications, especially towards infective diseases.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33673274/

https://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/11/2/272

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Comparative Investigation of Composition, Antifungal, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Essential Oil from Three Industrial Hemp Varieties from Italian Cultivation

antibiotics-logo“Industrial hemp is characterized by a huge amount of by-products, such as inflorescences, that may represent high-quality sources of biomolecules with pharmaceutical interest.

In the present study, we have evaluated the phytochemical profile, including terpene and terpenophenolic compounds, of the essential oils (EOs) of Futura 75Carmagnola selezionata and Eletta campana hemp varieties.

The EOs were also tested for antifungal properties toward Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Arthroderma crocatum, Arthroderma quadrifidum, Arthroderma gypseum, Arthroderma curreyi, and Arthroderma insingulare. In parallel, we investigated the inhibitory effects of the EOs against tyrosinase, and the production of prostaglandin E2 in isolated mouse skin exposed to hydrogen peroxide.

In human H1299 lung adenocarcinoma cells, we also evaluated the influence of the EOs on the gene expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), which are involved in SARS-CoV-2 entry in human host. E-caryophyllene and α-pinene were the prominent terpenes in the EOs, whereas the cannabidiolic acid was the terpenophenol present at higher concentration.

The EOs inhibited the growth of all tested dermatophytes species. In isolated skin specimens, EOs prevented the hydrogen-peroxide-induced synthesis of prostaglandin E2, consistent with the intrinsic antityrosinase activity. Finally, in H1299 cells, all tested EOs reduced the gene expression of ACE-2 and TMPRSS2, as well.

Therefore, the present findings highlight the rationale for the use of the present EOs against infectious diseases.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33809983/

https://www.mdpi.com/2079-6382/10/3/334

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Industrial, CBD, and Wild Hemp: How Different Are Their Essential Oil Profile and Antimicrobial Activity?

molecules-logo“Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is currently one of the most controversial and promising crops. This study compared nine wild hemp (C. sativa spp. spontanea V.) accessions with 13 registered cultivars, eight breeding lines, and one cannabidiol (CBD) hemp strain belonging to C. sativa L.

The first three groups had similar main essential oil (EO) constituents, but in different concentrations; the CBD hemp had a different EO profile. The concentration of the four major constituents in the industrial hemp lines and wild hemp accessions varied as follows: β-caryophyllene 11-22% and 15.4-29.6%; α-humulene 4.4-7.6% and 5.3-11.9%; caryophyllene oxide 8.6-13.7% and 0.2-31.2%; and humulene epoxide 2, 2.3-5.6% and 1.2-9.5%, respectively.

The concentration of CBD in the EO of wild hemp varied from 6.9 to 52.4% of the total oil while CBD in the EO of the registered cultivars varied from 7.1 to 25%; CBD in the EO of the breeding lines and in the CBD strain varied from 6.4 to 25% and 7.4 to 8.8%, respectively. The concentrations of δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the EO of the three groups of hemp were significantly different, with the highest concentration being 3.5%.

The EO of wild hemp had greater antimicrobial activity compared with the EO of registered cultivars.

This is the first report to show that significant amounts of CBD could be accumulated in the EO of wild and registered cultivars of hemp following hydro-distillation. The amount of CBD in the EO can be greater than that in the EO of the USA strain used for commercial production of CBD. Furthermore, this is among the first reports that show greater antimicrobial activity of the EO of wild hemp vs. the EO of registered cultivars.

The results suggest that wild hemp may offer an excellent opportunity for future breeding and the selection of cultivars with a desirable composition of the EO and possibly CBD-rich EO production.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33053634/

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/25/20/4631

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of two standardized extracts from a new Chinese accession of non-psychotropic Cannabis sativa L

Phytotherapy Research “The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of two extracts from a new Chinese accession (G-309) of Cannabis sativa L. (Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol <0.2%) with high content of propyl side chain phytocannabinoids.

Dried flowering tops, as such and after hydrodistillation of the essential oil, were extracted with acidic hexane to produce the Cannabis Chinese hexane extract 1 (CChHE1) and 2 (CChHE2), respectively. The phytochemical profile of CChHE1 and CChHE2 was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) analyses. The antioxidant properties were assessed by several in vitro cell-free assays. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans.

Phytochemical analyses highlighted a high content of cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA) and tetraydrocannabivarinic acid (THCVA) in CChHE1, and cannabidivarin (CBDV) and tetraydrocannabivarin (THCV) in CChHE2. Both extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activity and strong antimicrobial properties (MIC 39.06 and MBC 39.06-78.13 μg/ml) against both ATCC and methicillin-resistant clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

In conclusion, standardized extracts of C. sativa Chinese accession could be promising for their possible use as novel antibacterial agents for the treatment of widespread S. aureus infections.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33034400/

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ptr.6891

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Preliminary data on the antimicrobial effect of Cannabis sativa L. variety Futura 75 against food-borne pathogens in vitro as well as against naturally occurring microbial populations on minced meat during storage

 Archive of "Italian Journal of Food Safety".“In the present study, the antimicrobial effect of Cannabis sativa Futura 75 was evaluated both in vitro against foodborne bacterial pathogens, and on food against naturally occurring microbial groups of minced meat stored for 8 days at 4°C.

Ethanol extraction was performed on the grind of the inflorescence. After extraction, ethanol was completely evaporated and substituted by water. Serial dilutions of the extract, the grind and cannabidiol 99% were added to Nutrient Agar and spotted with Listeria monocytogenesSalmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. Regarding the evaluation on food, 50 mL of extract, characterised by CBD at concentration of 322,70 μg/mL, were added to 2.5 kg of minced beef meat. Meat was divided into aliquots and stored for 8 days at 4°C. At 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8 days, aerobic bacteria, enterobacteria, coliforms and E. coli were enumerated.

All tested products were efficient against Gram +. In particular, extract corresponding to CBD concentration of 0.017 and 0.3 mg/mL were effective against L. monocytogenes and Staphylococcus spp. respectively. After 8 days of storage at 4°C, treated minced meat showed a bright red colour in comparison to a brownish control meat. Moreover, Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were significantly reduced of 2.3 log CFU/g and 1.6 log CFU/g respectively in treated meat in comparison to the control.

Although preliminary, the present study suggests the antimicrobial properties of the extract of Cannabis sativa both in vitro and in minced meat.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32913724/

https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ijfs/article/view/8581

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Δ9 Tetrahydrocannabinol attenuates Staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced inflammatory lung injury and prevents mortality in mice by modulation of miR-17-92 cluster and induction of T-regulatory cells

Logo of brjpharm“Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a potent activator of Vβ8+T-cells resulting in the clonal expansion of ∼30% of the T-cell pool. Consequently, this leads to the release of inflammatory cytokines, toxic shock, and eventually death.

In the current study, we investigated if Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a cannabinoid known for its anti-inflammatory properties, could prevent SEB-induced mortality and alleviate symptoms of toxic shock.

Key Results

Exposure to SEB resulted in acute mortality, while THC treatment led to 100% survival of mice. SEB induced the miRNA-17-92 cluster, specifically miRNA-18a, which targeted Pten (phosphatase and tensin homologue), an inhibitor of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway, thereby suppressing T-regulatory cells. In contrast, THC treatment inhibited the individual miRNAs in the cluster, reversing the effects of SEB.

Conclusions and Implications

We report, for the first time a role for the miRNA 17–92 cluster in SEB-mediated inflammation. Furthermore, our results suggest that THC is a potent anti-inflammatory compound that may serve as a novel therapeutic to suppress SEB-induced pulmonary inflammation by modulating critical miRNA involved in SEB-induced toxicity and death.

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is a marijuana plant-derived cannabinoid known for its robust anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. The anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of THC are diverse and function effectively to abrogate a number of inflammatory processes.

Taken together, our data demonstrate that THC is a strong anti-inflammatory agent capable of rescuing mice from SEB-mediated toxicity and death.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4376457/

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Protective Effects of Δ9‐Tetrahydrocannabinol Against Enterotoxin‐induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome is Mediated by Modulation of Microbiota

British Journal of Pharmacology“Staphylococcal enterotoxin‐B (SEB) is one of the most potent bacterial superantigens that exerts profound toxic effects by inducing cytokine storm. When SEB is inhaled, it can cause Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), which is often fatal and currently there are no effective treatment modalities.

Experimental Approach

We used mouse model of SEB‐mediated ARDS to test the efficacy of Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). These mice were monitored for lung inflammation, alterations in gut and lung microbiota and production of short‐chain fatty acids (SCFA). Gene dysregulation of lung epithelial cells was studied by transcriptome arrays. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed to confirm the role of microbiota in suppressing ARDS.

Key results

While SEB triggered ARDS and 100% mortality in mice, THC protected the mice from fatality effects. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that THC caused significant and similar alterations in microbiota in the lungs and gut of mice exposed to SEB. THC significantly increased the abundance of beneficial bacterial species, Ruminococcus gnavus, but decreased pathogenic microbiota, Akkermansia muciniphila. FMT confirmed that THC‐mediated reversal of microbial dysbiosis played crucial role in attenuation of SEB‐mediated ARDS. THC treatment also led to increase in SCFA, of which propionic acid was found to inhibit the inflammatory response. Transcriptome array showed that THC up‐regulated several genes like lysozyme‐1&2, β‐defensin‐2, claudin, zonula‐1, occludin‐1, Mucin2 and Muc5b while downregulating β‐defensin‐1.

Conclusions

Current study demonstrates for the first time that THC attenuates SEB‐mediated ARDS and toxicity by altering the microbiota in the lungs and the gut as well as promoting anti‐microbial and anti‐inflammatory pathways.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7436585/

https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.15226

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Prevents Mortality from Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome through the Induction of Apoptosis in Immune Cells, Leading to Cytokine Storm Suppression

ijms-logo“Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) causes up to 40% mortality in humans and is difficult to treat. ARDS is also one of the major triggers of mortality associated with coronavirus-induced disease (COVID-19). We used a mouse model of ARDS induced by Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), which triggers 100% mortality, to investigate the mechanisms through which Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) attenuates ARDS.

SEB was used to trigger ARDS in C3H mice. These mice were treated with THC and analyzed for survival, ARDS, cytokine storm, and metabolome. Additionally, cells isolated from the lungs were used to perform single-cell RNA sequencing and transcriptome analysis. A database analysis of human COVID-19 patients was also performed to compare the signaling pathways with SEB-mediated ARDS.

The treatment of SEB-mediated ARDS mice with THC led to a 100% survival, decreased lung inflammation, and the suppression of cytokine storm. This was associated with immune cell apoptosis involving the mitochondrial pathway, as suggested by single-cell RNA sequencing. A transcriptomic analysis of immune cells from the lungs revealed an increase in mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes following THC treatment. In addition, metabolomic analysis revealed elevated serum concentrations of amino acids, lysine, n-acetyl methionine, carnitine, and propionyl L-carnitine in THC-treated mice. THC caused the downregulation of miR-185, which correlated with an increase in the pro-apoptotic gene targets. Interestingly, the gene expression datasets from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of human COVID-19 patients showed some similarities between cytokine and apoptotic genes with SEB-induced ARDS.

Collectively, this study suggests that the activation of cannabinoid receptors may serve as a therapeutic modality to treat ARDS associated with COVID-19.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32872332/

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/17/6244

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Cannabis sativa L. cv ‘Futura 75’ essential oil

Publication Cover“In the present work, Cannabis sativa L. cv Futura 75 inflorescences, cultivated in the Abruzzo territory, were characterized for their volatile fraction through SPME-GC-MS. In addition, the essential oil extracted from these inflorescences was investigated for the antioxidant potentialities and for the terpenic profile.

The antibacterial activity of hemp essential oil (HEO) against some pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms isolated from food was also evaluated by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC).

The results showed significant antioxidant capacity (DPPH: 63.38 ± 0.08 mg TE/g HEO; FRAP: 438.52 ± 6.92 mg TE/g HEO) alongside good antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as S. aureus and L. monocytogenes (MIC 1.25-5 µL/mL).

The results obtained suggest that hemp essential oil can inhibit or reduce bacterial growth, also exerting antioxidant activity, and therefore it can find an advantageous application in the food processing field.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32865042/

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14786419.2020.1813139?journalCode=gnpl20

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous