Alleviative effects of Cannabis flower on migraine and headache

 Journal of Integrative Medicine“Few studies to date have measured the real-time effects of consumption of common and commercially available Cannabis products for the treatment of headache and migraine under naturalistic conditions. This study examines, for the first time, the effectiveness of using dried Cannabis flower, the most widely used type of Cannabis product in the United States, in actual time for treatment of headache- and migraine-related pain and the associations between different product characteristics and changes in symptom intensity following Cannabis use.

Results

Ninety-four percent of users experienced symptom relief within a two-hour observation window. The average symptom intensity reduction was 3.3 points on a 0−10 scale (standard deviation = 2.28, Cohen’s d = 1.58), with males experiencing greater relief than females (P < 0.001) and a trend that younger users (< 35 years) experience greater relief than older users (P = 0.08). Mixed effects regression models showed that, among the known (i.e., labeled) product characteristics, tetrahydrocannabinol levels 10% and higher are the strongest independent predictors of symptom relief, and this effect is particularly prominent in headache rather than migraine sufferers (P < 0.05), females (P < 0.05) and younger users (P < 0.001). Females and younger users also appear to gain greater symptom relief from flower labeled as “C. indica” rather than “C. sativa” or other hybrid strains.

Conclusion

These results suggest that whole dried Cannabis flower may be an effective medication for treatment of migraine- and headache-related pain, but the effectiveness differs according to characteristics of the Cannabis plant, the combustion methods, and the age and gender of the patient.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2095496420300741

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Receptor Mechanisms Mediating the Anti-Neuroinflammatory Effects of Endocannabinoid System Modulation in a Rat Model of Migraine

European Jnl of Neuroscience – Applications sur Google Play

“Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance-P and dural mast cells are main contributors in neurogenic inflammation underlying migraine pathophysiology.

Modulation of endocannabinoid system attenuates migraine pain, but its mechanisms of action remains unclear.

We investigated receptor mechanisms mediating anti-neuroinflammatory effects of endocannabinoid system modulation in in-vivo migraine model and ex-vivo hemiskull preparations in rats.

Selective ligands targeting CB1 and CB2 receptors may provide novel and effective treatment strategies against migraine.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32639078/

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ejn.14897

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Pharmacological Analysis of Cannabis Sativa: A Potent Herbal Plant

“Genus Cannabis belong to family Cannabaceae and is traditionally used as medicinal plant against many diseases notably asthma, malaria, treatment of skin diseases, diabetes and headache. The plant Cannabis sativa L. is flowering and an annual herbaceous plant located to eastern Asia but now of cosmopolitan distribution due to extensive cultivation.

Aim of the study: The aim of review is to provide a complete evaluation of the botanical, ethnological and chemical aspects of Cannabis sativa L., and its importance in pharmacological studies.

Results and discussions: This article briefly reviews the botany, traditional knowledge, pharmacological and therapeutic application of the plant C. sativa. This is an attempt to compile and document information about the chemical constituent, pharmacological and therapeutic effects of C. sativa as important herbal drug due to its safety and effectiveness. Studies have revealed its use as anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and improving testicular function in rats. Consumption of C. sativa is greater in all over the world among all other drugs of abuse in its various forms such as marijuana, hashish and cannabis oil. The study of herbal medicine spans the knowledge of biology, history, source, physical and chemical nature, and mechanism of action, traditional, medicinal and therapeutic use of drug. This article also provide knowledge about macroscopically and microscopically characters of Cannabis sativa with geographical sources. The wellknown cannabinoids are Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabidiol (CBD) and Cannabichromene (CBC) and their pharmacological properties and importance have been extensively studied. Hence, efforts are required to establish and validate evidence regarding safety and practices of Ayurveda medicines.

Conclusion: Thes studies will help in expanding the current therapeutic potential of C. sativa and it also provide a strong support to its future clinical use as herbal medicines having safe in use with no side effects.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32600228/

https://www.eurekaselect.com/183226/article

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Migraine Frequency Decrease Following Prolonged Medical Cannabis Treatment: A Cross-Sectional Study

brainsci-logo“Medical cannabis (MC) treatment for migraine is practically emerging, although sufficient clinical data are not available for this indication. This cross-sectional questionnaire-based study aimed to investigate the associations between phytocannabinoid treatment and migraine frequency.

Compared to non-responders, responders (n = 89, 61%) reported lower current migraine disability and lower negative impact, and lower rates of opioid and triptan consumption. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that responders consumed higher doses of the phytocannabinoid ms_373_15c and lower doses of the phytocannabinoid ms_331_18d (3.40 95% CI (1.10 to 12.00); p < 0.01 and 0.22 95% CI (0.05-0.72); p < 0.05, respectively).

Conclusions: These findings indicate that MC results in long-term reduction of migraine frequency in >60% of treated patients and is associated with less disability and lower antimigraine medication intake. They also point to the MC composition, which may be potentially efficacious in migraine patients.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32526965/

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3425/10/6/360

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Short- and Long-Term Effects of Cannabis on Headache and Migraine.

“Use of cannabis to alleviate headache and migraine is relatively common, yet research on its effectiveness remains sparse.

We sought to determine whether inhalation of cannabis decreases headache and migraine ratings as well as whether gender, type of cannabis (concentrate vs. flower), THC, CBD, or dose contribute to changes in these ratings. Finally, we explored evidence for tolerance to these effects.

Archival data were obtained from StrainprintTM, a medical cannabis app that allows patients to track symptoms before and after using different strains and doses of cannabis. Latent change score models and multilevel models were used to analyze data from 12,293 sessions where cannabis was used to treat headache and 7,441 sessions where cannabis was used to treat migraine.

There were significant reductions in headache and migraine ratings after cannabis use.

Men reported larger reductions in headache than women and use of concentrates was associated with larger reductions in headache than flower. Further, there was evidence of tolerance to these effects.

Perspective: Inhaled cannabis reduces self-reported headache and migraine severity by approximately 50%. However, its effectiveness appears to diminish across time and patients appear to use larger doses across time, suggesting tolerance to these effects may develop with continued use.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31715263

“Headache and migraine ratings were reduced by nearly 50% after using cannabis.”

https://www.jpain.org/article/S1526-5900(19)30848-X/fulltext

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[Significance of the endocannabinoid system in migraine].

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“Based on the traditional pain-relieving effect of Cannabis species an endogenous cannabinoid like system was discovered in the human body. Endocannabinoids have important role in the homeostasis of the body, such as stress response and mood control, feeding behaviour, energy balance and metabolism, immunological processes, and also play important role in controlling pain processing. Previous studies suggested that an endocannabinoid dysfunction, namely endocannabinoid deficit, might contribute to the development of migraine and its chronification. Although, the exact nature of the relationship between migraine and endocannabinoid system is not fully understood yet, in this brief review we summarise research results suggesting that the endocannabinoid system may be a potential drug target in the migraine therapy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30962405

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The endocannabinoid system in migraine: from bench to pharmacy and back.

 Image result for curr opin neurol“Migraine is a common, highly disabling disorder. Its treatment involves acute and preventive therapy. Many of available preventive medications are not well tolerated, which results in poor compliance and limited effectiveness. Cannabinoids have been proposed for the treatment of migraine but their efficacy and tolerability are controversial.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Cannabinoids modulate functions and activity of signaling pathways that have a key role in pain control. Growing preclinical evidence and initial clinical findings suggest that modulation of the endocannabinoid system, via endogenous or exogenous cannabinoids may be relevant for migraine via multiple mechanisms.

SUMMARY:

The endocannabinoid system qualifies as an interesting area of research worth exploration in the quest for therapeutic targets for the treatment of migraine.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30883435

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Understanding the endocannabinoid system as a modulator of the trigeminal pain response to concussion.

“Post-traumatic headache is the most common symptom of postconcussion syndrome and becomes a chronic neurological disorder in a substantial proportion of patients.

This review provides a brief overview of the epidemiology of postconcussion headache, research models used to study this disorder, as well as the proposed mechanisms.

An objective of this review is to enhance the understanding of how the endogenous cannabinoid system is essential for maintaining the balance of the CNS and regulating inflammation after injury, and in turn making the endocannabinoid system a potential modulator of the trigeminal response to concussion.

The review describes the role of endocannabinoid modulation of pain and the potential for use of phytocannabinoids to treat pain, migraine and concussion.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30202590

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Medicinal Properties of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids in Cannabis, and Benefits in Migraine, Headache, and Pain: An Update on Current Evidence and Cannabis Science.

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“Comprehensive literature reviews of historical perspectives and evidence supporting cannabis/cannabinoids in the treatment of pain, including migraine and headache, with associated neurobiological mechanisms of pain modulation have been well described.

Most of the existing literature reports on the cannabinoids Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), or cannabis in general. There are many cannabis strains that vary widely in the composition of cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other compounds. These components work synergistically to produce wide variations in benefits, side effects, and strain characteristics. Knowledge of the individual medicinal properties of the cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids is necessary to cross-breed strains to obtain optimal standardized synergistic compositions. This will enable targeting individual symptoms and/or diseases, including migraine, headache, and pain.

OBJECTIVE:

Review the medical literature for the use of cannabis/cannabinoids in the treatment of migraine, headache, facial pain, and other chronic pain syndromes, and for supporting evidence of a potential role in combatting the opioid epidemic. Review the medical literature involving major and minor cannabinoids, primary and secondary terpenes, and flavonoids that underlie the synergistic entourage effects of cannabis. Summarize the individual medicinal benefits of these substances, including analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.

CONCLUSION:

There is accumulating evidence for various therapeutic benefits of cannabis/cannabinoids, especially in the treatment of pain, which may also apply to the treatment of migraine and headache. There is also supporting evidence that cannabis may assist in opioid detoxification and weaning, thus making it a potential weapon in battling the opioid epidemic. Cannabis science is a rapidly evolving medical sector and industry with increasingly regulated production standards. Further research is anticipated to optimize breeding of strain-specific synergistic ratios of cannabinoids, terpenes, and other phytochemicals for predictable user effects, characteristics, and improved symptom and disease-targeted therapies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30152161

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Patterns of medicinal cannabis use, strain analysis, and substitution effect among patients with migraine, headache, arthritis, and chronic pain in a medicinal cannabis cohort.

The Journal of Headache and Pain Cover Image

“Medicinal cannabis registries typically report pain as the most common reason for use. It would be clinically useful to identify patterns of cannabis treatment in migraine and headache, as compared to arthritis and chronic pain, and to analyze preferred cannabis strains, biochemical profiles, and prescription medication substitutions with cannabis.

RESULTS:

Of 2032 patients, 21 illnesses were treated with cannabis. Pain syndromes accounted for 42.4% (n = 861) overall; chronic pain 29.4% (n = 598;), arthritis 9.3% (n = 188), and headache 3.7% (n = 75;). Across all 21 illnesses, headache was a symptom treated with cannabis in 24.9% (n = 505). These patients were given the ID Migraine™ questionnaire, with 68% (n = 343) giving 3 “Yes” responses, 20% (n = 102) giving 2 “Yes” responses (97% and 93% probability of migraine, respectively). Therefore, 88% (n = 445) of headache patients were treating probable migraine with cannabis. Hybrid strains were most preferred across all pain subtypes, with “OG Shark” the most preferred strain in the ID Migraine™ and headache groups. Many pain patients substituted prescription medications with cannabis (41.2-59.5%), most commonly opiates/opioids (40.5-72.8%). Prescription substitution in headache patients included opiates/opioids (43.4%), anti-depressant/anti-anxiety (39%), NSAIDs (21%), triptans (8.1%), anti-convulsants (7.7%), muscle relaxers (7%), ergots (0.4%).

CONCLUSIONS:

Chronic pain was the most common reason for cannabis use, consistent with most registries. The majority of headache patients treating with cannabis were positive for migraine. Hybrid strains were preferred in ID Migraine™, headache, and most pain groups, with “OG Shark”, a high THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol)/THCA (tetrahydrocannabinolic acid), low CBD (cannabidiol)/CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), strain with predominant terpenes β-caryophyllene and β-myrcene, most preferred in the headache and ID Migraine™ groups. This could reflect the potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-emetic properties of THC, with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of β-caryophyllene and β-myrcene. Opiates/opioids were most commonly substituted with cannabis. Prospective studies are needed, but results may provide early insight into optimizing crossbred cannabis strains, synergistic biochemical profiles, dosing, and patterns of use in the treatment of headache, migraine, and chronic pain syndromes.”

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