Antidepressant-like effects of β-caryophyllene on restraint plus stress-induced depression.

Behavioural Brain Research“Chronic stress is depressogenic by altering neurotrophic and neuroinflammatory environments of the organism. The endocannabinoid system controls cognitive and emotional responses related with stress through the interaction with endocannabinoid receptors. β-Caryophyllene (BCP) is a CB2 agonist that exhibited anti-inflammatory, analgesic effects but minimal psychoactive effects. To test if BCP exhibits antidepressant-like action, animals were chronically restrained with additional stressors for 28 days, and BCP (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected once a day during the stress inflicting period. Then despair related behaviors and hippocampal expression of neurotrophic, inflammatory and cannabinoid receptor levels were measured. To test the effect of BCP on long-term depression, field potentials were measured during the application of lipopolysaccharide and low frequency stimulation. In the tail suspension test and forced swim test, chronic stress-induced despair behaviors were reduced by BCP. Also BCP improved the stress-related changes in the hippocampal expression of COX-2, BDNF, and CB2 receptor expression. In organotypic hippocampal slices, BCP reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced intensification of the long-term depression. In conclusion, BCP improved chronic stress related behavioral and biochemical changes. These results suggest that BCP may be effective in treating depression and stress related mental illnesses.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31862467

https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0166432819313348

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

“Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid.”    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18574142

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Influence of the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor ligands on the activity of atypical antidepressant drugs in the behavioural tests in mice.

Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior“Available data support the notion that cannabinoids, whose therapeutic value is limited due to severe adverse reactions, could be beneficial as adjunctive agents in the management of mood disorders.

Polytherapy, which is superior to monotherapy in the terms of effectiveness, usually requires lower doses of the individual components. Therefore, the main objective of our study was to determine whether administration of cannabinoid (CB) receptor ligands would enhance the antidepressant activity of atypical antidepressant drugs, i.e. agomelatine and tianeptine.

In summary, the outcomes of the present study showed that activation and inhibition of CB1 receptors as well as inhibition of CB2 receptors may increase the antidepressant activity of tianeptine, whereas only inhibition of CB1 and CB2 receptors has a potential to augment the antidepressant activity of agomelatine.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31785246

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091305719304873?via%3Dihub

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Cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system in anxiety, depression, and dysregulation of emotion in humans.

Image result for ovid journal“This review is to summarize most recent evidence published in the last 18 months on medical and recreational use of cannabis and cannabinoids in relation to anxiety, depression (unipolar and bipolar), and dysregulation of emotions as part of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and emotionally instable personality disorders.

It also covers the investigation of endocannabinoids as potential biomarkers in these conditions. This is important with increasing medicinal use of cannabinoids and growing social tolerance towards recreational cannabis use.

RECENT FINDINGS:

There is some recent evidence suggesting cannabinoids, cannabidiol or cannabidiol-enriched cannabis preparations have anxiolytic properties. In addition, depression may be worsened by cannabis use, however, randomized controlled trials (RCT) are lacking.

New evidence also suggests that cannabidiol or cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use for PTSD and emotion regulation can induce hyporesponse to fear and stress. Further, several lines of evidence point to the endocannabinoid system as a key player in some of the reviewed disorders, in particular anxiety and PTSD.

SUMMARY:

The most recent evidence for a therapeutic use of cannabinoids in the reviewed conditions is weak and lacking well designed RCTs. However, there is some indication of the role of the endocannabinoid system in these conditions that warrant further studies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31714262

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001504-900000000-99165

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Antidepressant active ingredients from herbs and nutraceuticals used in TCM: pharmacological mechanisms and prospects for drug discovery.

Pharmacological Research“Depression is a widespread psychological disorder that affects up to 20% of the world’s population. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), with its unique curative effect in depression treatment, is gaining increasing attention as the discovery of novel antidepressant drug has become the pursuit of pharmaceutical. This article summarizes the work done on the natural products from TCM that have been reported to conceive antidepressant effects in the past two decades, which can be classified according to various mechanisms including increasing synaptic concentrations of monoamines, alleviating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunctions, lightening the impairment of neuroplasticity, fighting towards immune and inflammatory dysregulation. The antidepressant active ingredients identified can be generally divided into saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, polysaccharides and others. Albiflorin, Baicalein, Berberine chloride, beta-Asarone, cannabidiol, Curcumin, Daidzein, Echinocystic acid (EA), Emodin, Ferulic acid, Gastrodin, Genistein, Ginsenoside Rb1, Ginsenoside Rg1, Ginsenoside Rg3, Hederagenin, Hesperidin, Honokiol, Hyperoside, Icariin, Isoliquiritin, Kaempferol, Liquiritin, L-theanine, Magnolol, Paeoniflorin, Piperine, Proanthocyanidin, Puerarin, Quercetin, Resveratrol (trans), Rosmarinic acid, Saikosaponin A, Senegenin, Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside and Vanillic acid are Specified in this review. Simultaneously, chemical structures of the active ingredients with antidepressant activities are listed and their sources, models, efficacy and mechanisms are described. Chinese compound prescription and extracts that exert antidepressant effects are also introduced, which may serve as a source of inspiration for further development. In the view of present study, the antidepressant effect of certain TCMs are affirmative and encouraging. However, there are a lot of work needs to be done to evaluate the exact therapeutic effects and mechanisms of those active ingredients, specifically, to establish a unified standard for diagnosis and evaluation of curative effect.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31706012

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1043661819322601?via%3Dihub

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Perceived Efficacy of Medical Cannabis in the Treatment of Co-Occurring Health-Related Quality of Life Symptoms.

 Publication Cover“For persons living with chronic conditions, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) symptoms, such as pain, anxiety, depression, and insomnia, often interact and mutually reinforce one another.

There is evidence that medical cannabis (MC) may be efficacious in ameliorating such symptoms and improving HRQoL.

As many of these HRQoL symptoms may mutually reinforce one another, we conducted an exploratory study to investigate how MC users perceive the efficacy of MC in addressing co-occurring HRQoL symptoms. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of persons with a state medical marijuana card in Illinois (N = 367) recruited from licensed MC dispensaries across the state. We conducted tests of ANOVA to measure how perceived MC efficacy for each HRQoL symptom varied by total number of treated symptoms reported by participants.

Pain was the most frequently reported HRQoL treated by MC, followed by anxiety, insomnia, and depression. A large majority of our sample (75%) reported treating two or more HRQoL symptoms. In general, perceived efficacy of MC in relieving each HRQoL symptom category increased with the number of co-occurring symptoms also treated with MC. Perceived efficacy of MC in relieving pain, anxiety, and depression varied significantly by number of total symptoms experienced.

This exploratory study contributes to our understanding of how persons living with chronic conditions perceive the efficacy of MC in treating co-occurring HRQoL symptoms. Our results suggest that co-occurring pain, anxiety, and depression may be particularly amenable to treatment with MC.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31693457

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08964289.2019.1683712?journalCode=vbmd20

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Does cannabis use modify the effect of post-traumatic stress disorder on severe depression and suicidal ideation? Evidence from a population-based cross-sectional study of Canadians

Image result for journal of psychopharmacology“Post-traumatic stress disorder sharply increases the risk of depression and suicide. Individuals living with post-traumatic stress disorder frequently use cannabis to treat associated symptoms.

We sought to investigate whether cannabis use modifies the association between post-traumatic stress disorder and experiencing a major depressive episode or suicidal ideation.

This study provides preliminary epidemiological evidence that cannabis use may contribute to reducing the association between post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depressive and suicidal states. There is an emerging need for high-quality experimental investigation of the efficacy of cannabis/cannabinoids for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31684805

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0269881119882806

“Cannabis could help alleviate depression and suicidality among people with PTSD” https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-11-cannabis-alleviate-depression-suicidality-people.html

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Ligands of the CB2 cannabinoid receptors augment activity of the conventional antidepressant drugs in the behavioural tests in mice.

Behavioural Brain Research“Although a lot of information can be found on the specific dual role of the endocannabinoid system in the emotional-related responses, little is known whether stimulation or inhibition of the CB receptors may affect the activity of the frequently prescribed antidepressant drugs.

Our interests have been particularly focused on the potential influence of the CB2 receptors, as the ones whose central effects are relatively poorly documented when compared to the central effects of the CB1 receptors. Therefore, we evaluated the potential interaction between the CB2 receptor ligands (i.e., JWH133 – CB2 receptor agonist and AM630 – CB2 receptor inverse agonist) and several common antidepressant drugs that influence the monoaminergic system (i.e., imipramine, escitalopram, reboxetine).

Summarizing, the results of the present study revealed that both activation and inhibition of the CB2 receptor function have a potential to strengthen the antidepressant activity of drugs targeting the monoaminergic system. Most probably, the described interaction has a pharmacodynamic background.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31626848

“Interplay between CB2 receptor ligands and antidepressants is pharmacodynamic in nature.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166432819311891?via%3Dihub

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Effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in neuropsychiatric disorders: A review of pre-clinical and clinical findings.

Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science“Cannabis sativa (cannabis) is one of the oldest plants cultivated by men. Cannabidiol (CBD) is the major non-psychomimetic compound derived from cannabis. It has been proposed to have a therapeutic potential over a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders.

In this narrative review, we have summarized a selected number of pre-clinical and clinical studies, examining the effects of CBD in neuropsychiatric disorders. In some pre-clinical studies, CBD was demonstrated to potentially exhibit anti-epileptic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory anti-psychotic, anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Moreover, CBD was shown to reduce addictive effects of some drugs of abuse.

In clinical studies, CBD was shown to be safe, well-tolerated and efficacious in mitigating the symptoms associated with several types of seizure disorders and childhood epilepsies.

Given that treatment with CBD alone was insufficient at managing choreic movements in patients with Huntington’s disease, other cannabis-derived treatments are currently being investigated. Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have reported improvements in sleep and better quality of life with CBD; however, to fully elucidate the therapeutic potential of CBD on the symptoms of PD-associated movement disorders, larger scale, randomized, placebo-controlled studies still need to be conducted in the future.

Currently, there are no human studies that investigated the effects of CBD in either Alzheimer’s disease or unipolar depression, warranting further investigation in this area, considering that CBD was shown to have effects in pre-clinical studies.

Although, anxiolytic properties of CBD were reported in the Social Anxiety Disorder, antipsychotic effects in schizophrenia and anti-addictive qualities in alcohol and drug addictions, here too, larger, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CBD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31601406

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187711731930095X?via%3Dihub

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Preclinical and Clinical Evidence Supporting Use of Cannabidiol in Psychiatry.

Image result for hindawi “Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major chemical compound present in Cannabis sativa.

CBD is a nonpsychotomimetic substance, and it is considered one of the most promising candidates for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

The aim of this review is to illustrate the state of art about scientific research and the evidence of effectiveness of CBD in psychiatric patients.

RESULTS:

Preclinical and clinical studies on potential role of CBD in psychiatry were collected and further discussed. We found four clinical studies describing the effects of CBD in psychiatric patients: two studies about schizophrenic patients and the other two studies carried out on CBD effects in patients affected by generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD).

CONCLUSION:

Results from these studies are promising and suggest that CBD may have a role in the development of new therapeutic strategies in mental diseases, and they justify an in-depth commitment in this field. However, clinical evidence we show for CBD in psychiatric patients is instead still poor and limited to schizophrenia and anxiety, and it needs to be implemented with further studies carried out on psychiatric patients.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31558911

“Results of our research, enriched in assessment of methodological quality of the studies, confirm the view of this cannabinoid as a promising molecule especially in particular sectors of psychiatry such as schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, and autism. CBD is considered a safe substance and is one of the most promising candidates for the treatment of psychiatric disorders”.

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2019/2509129/

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Endocannabinoid modulation of inflammatory hyperalgesia in the IFN-α mouse model of depression.

Brain, Behavior, and Immunity“Depression is a well-recognised effect of long-term treatment with interferon-alpha (IFN-α), a widely used treatment for chronic viral hepatitis and malignancy. In addition to the emotional disturbances, high incidences of painful symptoms such as headache and joint pain have also been reported following IFN-α treatment.

The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in emotional and nociceptive processing, however it is unknown whether repeated IFN-α administration induces alterations in this system.

The present study investigated nociceptive responding in the IFN-α-induced mouse model of depression and associated changes in the endocannabinoid system. Furthermore, the effects of modulating peripheral endocannabinoid tone on inflammatory pain-related behaviour in the IFN-α model was examined.

In summary, increasing peripheral endocannabinoid tone attenuates inflammatory hyperalgesia induced following repeated IFN-α administration. These data provide support for the endocannabinoid system in mediating and modulating heightened pain responding associated with IFNα-induced depression.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31505257

“Inflammatory hyperalgesia is associated with altered endocannabinoid levels. Enhancing peripheral endocannabinoid tone attenuates IFN-α related hyperalgesia.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889159119306063?via%3Dihub

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