Chemical and Bioinformatics Analyses of the Anti-Leishmanial and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Hemp Essential Oil

biomolecules-logo“Industrial hemp is a multiuse crop that has been widely cultivated to produce fibers and nutrients. The capability of the essential oil (EO) from inflorescences as antimicrobial agent has been reported. However, literature data are still lacking about the hemp EO antiprotozoal efficacy in vivo.

The present study aims to unravel this concern through the evaluation of the efficacy of hemp EOs (2.5 mL/kg, intraperitoneally) of three different cultivars, namely Futura 75Carmagnola selezionata and Eletta campana, in mice intraperitoneally infected with Leishmania tropica. A detailed description of EO composition and targets-components analysis is reported.

Myrcene, α-pinene and E-caryophyllene were the main components of the EOs, as indicated by the gas-chromatographic analysis. However, a prominent position in the scenario of the theoretical interactions underlying the bio-pharmacological activity was also occupied by selina-3,7(11)-diene, which displayed affinities in the micromolar range (5.4-28.9) towards proliferator-activated receptor α, cannabinoid CB2 receptor and acetylcholinesterase. The content of this compound was higher in Futura 75 and Eletta campana, in accordance with their higher scavenging/reducing properties and efficacy against the tissue wound, induced by L. tropica.

Overall, the present study recommends hemp female inflorescences, as sources of biomolecules with potential pharmacological applications, especially towards infective diseases.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33673274/

https://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/11/2/272

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Comparative Investigation of Composition, Antifungal, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Essential Oil from Three Industrial Hemp Varieties from Italian Cultivation

antibiotics-logo“Industrial hemp is characterized by a huge amount of by-products, such as inflorescences, that may represent high-quality sources of biomolecules with pharmaceutical interest.

In the present study, we have evaluated the phytochemical profile, including terpene and terpenophenolic compounds, of the essential oils (EOs) of Futura 75Carmagnola selezionata and Eletta campana hemp varieties.

The EOs were also tested for antifungal properties toward Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Arthroderma crocatum, Arthroderma quadrifidum, Arthroderma gypseum, Arthroderma curreyi, and Arthroderma insingulare. In parallel, we investigated the inhibitory effects of the EOs against tyrosinase, and the production of prostaglandin E2 in isolated mouse skin exposed to hydrogen peroxide.

In human H1299 lung adenocarcinoma cells, we also evaluated the influence of the EOs on the gene expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), which are involved in SARS-CoV-2 entry in human host. E-caryophyllene and α-pinene were the prominent terpenes in the EOs, whereas the cannabidiolic acid was the terpenophenol present at higher concentration.

The EOs inhibited the growth of all tested dermatophytes species. In isolated skin specimens, EOs prevented the hydrogen-peroxide-induced synthesis of prostaglandin E2, consistent with the intrinsic antityrosinase activity. Finally, in H1299 cells, all tested EOs reduced the gene expression of ACE-2 and TMPRSS2, as well.

Therefore, the present findings highlight the rationale for the use of the present EOs against infectious diseases.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33809983/

https://www.mdpi.com/2079-6382/10/3/334

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In silico inquest reveals the efficacy of Cannabis in the treatment of post-Covid-19 related neurodegeneration

Publication Cover “Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the Covid-19 pandemic has proved itself as the deadliest pathogen. A major portion of the population has become susceptible to this strain. Scientists are pushing their limits to formulate a vaccine against Covid-19 with the least side effects.

Although the recent discoveries of vaccines have shown some relief from the covid infection rate, however, physical fatigue, mental abnormalities, inflammation and other multiple organ damages are arising as post-Covid symptoms. The long-term effects of these symptoms are massive. Patients with such symptoms are known as long-haulers and treatment strategy against this condition is still unknown.

In this study, we tried to explore a strategy to deal with the post-Covid symptoms. We targeted three human proteins namely ACE2, Interleukin-6, Transmembrane serine protease and NRP1 which are already reported to be damaged via Covid-19 proteins and upregulated in the post-Covid stage. Our target plant in this study is Cannabis (popularly known as ‘Ganja’ in India).

The molecular docking and simulation studies revealed that Cannabidiol (CBD) and Cannabivarin (CVN) obtained from Cannabis can bind to post-Covid symptoms related central nervous system (CNS) proteins and downregulate them which can be beneficial in post-covid symptoms treatment strategy. Thus we propose Cannabis as an important therapeutic plant against post-Covid symptoms.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33810774/

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07391102.2021.1905556?journalCode=tbsd20

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In Vitro Evaluation of the Activity of Terpenes and Cannabidiol against Human Coronavirus E229

life-logo“The activity of a new, terpene-based formulation, code-named NT-VRL-1, against Human Coronavirus (HCoV) strain 229E was evaluated in human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5 cells), with and without the addition of cannabidiol (CBD). The main constituents in the terpene formulation used for the experiment were beta caryophyllene, eucalyptol, and citral. The tested formulation exhibited an antiviral effect when it was pre-incubated with the host cells prior to virus infection. The combination of NT-VRL-1 with CBD potentiated the antiviral effect better than the positive controls pyrazofurin and glycyrrhizin. There was a strong correlation between the quantitative results from a cell-viability assay and the cytopathic effect seen under the microscope after 72 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of activity of a combination of terpenes and CBD against a coronavirus.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33805385/

https://www.mdpi.com/2075-1729/11/4/290

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Non-Cannabinoid Metabolites of Cannabis sativa L. with Therapeutic Potential

plants-logo“The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) produces an estimated 545 chemical compounds of different biogenetic classes. In addition to economic value, many of these phytochemicals have medicinal and physiological activity. The plant is most popularly known for its two most-prominent and most-studied secondary metabolites-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Both Δ9-THC and CBD have a wide therapeutic window across many ailments and form part of a class of secondary metabolites called cannabinoids-of which approximately over 104 exist.

This review will focus on non-cannabinoid metabolites of Cannabis sativa that also have therapeutic potential, some of which share medicinal properties similar to those of cannabinoids. The most notable of these non-cannabinoid phytochemicals are flavonoids and terpenes. We will also discuss future directions in cannabis research and development of cannabis-based pharmaceuticals. Caflanone, a flavonoid molecule with selective activity against the human viruses including the coronavirus OC43 (HCov-OC43) that is responsible for COVID-19, and certain cancers, is one of the most promising non-cannabinoid molecules that is being advanced into clinical trials.

As validated by thousands of years of the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes, vast anecdotal evidence abounds on the medicinal benefits of the plant. These benefits are attributed to the many phytochemicals in this plant, including non-cannabinoids. The most promising non-cannabinoids with potential to alleviate global disease burdens are discussed.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33672441/

https://www.mdpi.com/2223-7747/10/2/400

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Cannabidiol Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Replication and Promotes the Host Innate Immune Response

bioRxiv“The rapid spread of COVID-19 underscores the need for new treatments.

Here we report that cannabidiol (CBD), a compound produced by the cannabis plant, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection. CBD and its metabolite, 7-OH-CBD, but not congeneric cannabinoids, potently block SARS-CoV-2 replication in lung epithelial cells.

CBD acts after cellular infection, inhibiting viral gene expression and reversing many effects of SARS-CoV-2 on host gene transcription. CBD induces interferon expression and up-regulates its antiviral signaling pathway. A cohort of human patients previously taking CBD had significantly lower SARS-CoV-2 infection incidence of up to an order of magnitude relative to matched pairs or the general population.

This study highlights CBD, and its active metabolite, 7-OH-CBD, as potential preventative agents and therapeutic treatments for SARS-CoV-2 at early stages of infection.”

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.03.10.432967v1

“Cannabis compound inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in human lung cells”   https://www.news-medical.net/news/20210314/Cannabis-compound-inhibits-SARS-CoV-2-replication-in-human-lung-cells.aspx

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Fighting the storm: could novel anti-TNFα and anti-IL-6 C. sativa cultivars tame cytokine storm in COVID-19?

 Aging“The main aspects of severe COVID-19 disease pathogenesis include hyper-induction of proinflammatory cytokines, also known as ‘cytokine storm’, that precedes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and often leads to death. COVID-19 patients often suffer from lung fibrosis, a serious and untreatable condition. There remains no effective treatment for these complications.

Out of all cytokines, TNFα and IL-6 play crucial roles in cytokine storm pathogenesis and are likely responsible for the escalation in disease severity. These cytokines also partake in the molecular pathogenesis of fibrosis. Therefore, new approaches are urgently needed, that can efficiently and swiftly downregulate TNFα, IL-6, and the inflammatory cytokine cascade, in order to curb inflammation and prevent fibrosis, and lead to disease remission.

Cannabis sativa has been proposed to modulate gene expression and inflammation and is under investigation for several potential therapeutic applications against autoinflammatory diseases and cancer. Here, we hypothesized that the extracts of novel C. sativa cultivars may be used to downregulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pathways involved in inflammation and fibrosis.

Novel anti-TNFα and anti-IL-6 cannabis extracts can be useful additions to the current anti-inflammatory regimens to treat COVID-19, as well as various rheumatological diseases and conditions, and ‘inflammaging’ – the inflammatory underpinning of aging and frailty.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33465050/

https://www.aging-us.com/article/202500/text

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Cannabinoids as Key Regulators of Inflammasome Signaling: A Current Perspective

Segura Lab - New publication in Frontiers in Immunology“Inflammasomes are cytoplasmic inflammatory signaling protein complexes that detect microbial materials, sterile inflammatory insults, and certain host-derived elements. Inflammasomes, once activated, promote caspase-1-mediated maturation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, leading to pyroptosis. Current advances in inflammasome research support their involvement in the development of chronic inflammatory disorders in contrast to their role in regulating innate immunity.

Cannabis (marijuana) is a natural product obtained from the Cannabis sativa plant, and pharmacologically active ingredients of the plant are referred to as cannabinoids. Cannabinoids and cannabis extracts have recently emerged as promising novel drugs for chronic medical conditions. Growing evidence indicates the potent anti-inflammatory potential of cannabinoids, especially Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and synthetic cannabinoids; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. Several attempts have been made to decipher the role of cannabinoids in modulating inflammasome signaling in the etiology of chronic inflammatory diseases.

In this review, we discuss recently published evidence on the effect of cannabinoids on inflammasome signaling. We also discuss the contribution of various cannabinoids in human diseases concerning inflammasome regulation. Lastly, in the milieu of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we confer available evidence linking inflammasome activation to the pathophysiology of COVID-19 suggesting overall, the importance of cannabinoids as possible drugs to target inflammasome activation in or to support the treatment of a variety of human disorders including COVID-19.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33584697/

“Cannabis has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects owing to its constituents, cannabinoids and terpenoids. Overall, cannabinoids hold a great promise as additional therapeutics to support the current treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, along with COVID-19”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2020.613613/full

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Cannabinoids in Dermatologic Surgery

JAAD Journals on Twitter: "Have questions for JAAD authors? Join the new  JAAD Virtual Journal Club and start engaging with authors today:  https://t.co/KWSzvAEPd5… https://t.co/ip6aG4d2fm"“Though known as a medicinal herb for centuries, the recent legalization of cannabinoids across many states has ushered in a new era where cannabinoids have become a popular treatment option amongst clinicians and patients alike. Cannabinoids have demonstrated efficacy in wound healing, reducing inflammation, ameliorating pain, and have shown potential as an anti-tumor agent. As a result, cannabinoids have been rapidly woven into the fabric of modern medicine. However, the utility of cannabinoids in dermatologic surgery has not been explored to date. In this paper, we review the current literature to discuss the potential impact of cannabinoid use in dermatologic surgery.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33422628/

https://www.jaad.org/article/S0190-9622(21)00104-3/pdf

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Association Between Marijuana Use and Cardiovascular Disease in US Adults

Cureus | LinkedIn “This study aims to add evidence regarding the impact marijuana use has on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease.

Our study lends support to the notion that marijuana use does not have an association with cardiovascular disease.

Although previous literature has shown that marijuana use has a negative impact on cardiovascular health, our study suggests that users and non-users of marijuana did not have an association with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33409101/

“The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between marijuana use and cardiovascular disease. After controlling for several confounding variables, we found that there was a decrease in the prevalence of cardiovascular events with marijuana use. In conclusion, our study found that there is no link to marijuana use and an increase in cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, there may be a link between marijuana use and lowered risk of cardiovascular disease”

https://www.cureus.com/articles/45502-association-between-marijuana-use-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-us-adults

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