Chemometric Analysis of Cannabinoids: Chemotaxonomy and Domestication Syndrome

Scientific Reports

“Cannabis is an interesting domesticated crop with a long history of cultivation and use. Strains have been selected through informal breeding programs with undisclosed parentage and criteria. The term “strain” refers to minor morphological differences and grower branding rather than distinct cultivated varieties.

The “sativa” and “indica” lineages used to describe cannabis throughout the industry are based on postulation that sativa strains originated from European hemp cultivars, while indica are from potent, resinous Indian cannabis but given the use and trade of the plant in ancient times, the exact origin is unknown and these may not be distinct species. Comparisons of cannabinoid contents of these classifications have shown that the THC content can be identical between these two classification groups.”   https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-31120-2

“THC amounts identical in most cannabis strains, study finds. Newly published research from UBC’s Okanagan campus has determined that many strains of cannabis have virtually identical levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), despite their unique street names. The research shows that most strains, regardless of their origin or name, had the same amount of THC and CBD” https://phys.org/news/2018-10-thc-amounts-identical-cannabis-strains.html
“UBC Okanagan study: THC amounts identical in most cannabis strains. B.C. Kush. Platinum GSC. Blueberry Cookies. Blue Sapphire. Death Bubba. Oregon Golden Coat. Those are just some of the many, many types of marijuana available for purchase. Yet, according to newly published research from UBC Okanagan, many strains of cannabis have virtually identical levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) despite their unique street names.” https://globalnews.ca/news/4533548/ubc-okanagan-study-thc-amounts-identical-in-most-cannabis-strains/
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Abuse potential assessment of cannabidiol (CBD) in recreational polydrug users: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

“Treatment with a highly purified oral solution of cannabidiol (CBD), derived from the plant Cannabis sativa L., demonstrated some evidence of central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse events in patients enrolled in phase 3 trials for treatment of childhood-onset epilepsy. Cannabidiol was categorized as a Schedule 1 substance by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration; therefore, it was important to test CBD for human abuse potential.

Administration of a therapeutic dose of CBD (750 mg) showed significantly low abuse potential in a highly sensitive population of polydrug users. Although high and supratherapeutic doses of CBD (1500 mg and 4500 mg, respectively) had detectable subjective effects compared with placebo; the effects were significantly lower than those observed with alprazolam and dronabinol.

The majority of adverse events reported during the trial were of mild or moderate severity; no serious adverse events or deaths were reported.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30286443

https://www.epilepsybehavior.com/article/S1525-5050(18)30483-9/fulltext

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A systematic review on the neuroprotective perspectives of beta-caryophyllene.

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“Beta (β)-caryophyllene (BCAR) is a major sesquiterpene of various plant essential oils reported for several important pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, nephroprotective, antimicrobial, and immune-modulatory activity. Recent studies suggest that it also possesses neuroprotective effect.

This study reviews published reports pertaining to the neuropharmacological activities of BCAR. Databases such as PubMed, Scopus, MedLine Plus, and Google Scholar with keywords “beta (β)-caryophyllene” and other neurological keywords were searched. Data were extracted by referring to articles with information about the dose or concentration/route of administration, test system, results and discussion, and proposed mechanism of action.

A total of 545 research articles were recorded, and 41 experimental studies were included in this review, after application of exclusion criterion. Search results suggest that BCAR exhibits a protective role in a number of nervous system-related disorders including pain, anxiety, spasm, convulsion, depression, alcoholism, and Alzheimer’s disease.

Additionally, BCAR has local anesthetic-like activity, which could protect the nervous system from oxidative stress and inflammation and can act as an immunomodulatory agent. Most neurological activities of this natural product have been linked with the cannabinoid receptors (CBRs), especially the CB2R. This review suggests a possible application of BCAR as a neuroprotective agent.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30281175

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

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At 70, Singer Olivia Newton-John​ Using Cannabis To Treat Cancer.

“At 70, Singer Olivia Newton-John​ Using Cannabis To Treat Cancer. Olivia Newton-John says she has been diagnosed with cancer for the third time in three decades. Newton-John says she’s “treating it naturally and doing really well.” The “Grease” star says she is taking cannabis oil, made from marijuana her husband John Easterling grows on their ranch in Santa Barbara. She said, “I believe I will win over it.”” https://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/2018/09/10/olivia-newton-john-cannabis-cancer/

“Grease star Olivia Newton-John is battling her breast cancer with cannabis. Grease star Olivia Newton-John is offering an update on her third battle with cancer and revealing how cannabis has become a key component in her treatment plan.”   http://www.digitalspy.com/showbiz/news/a865881/grease-olivia-newton-john-battling-breast-cancer-with-cannabis/

Olivia Newton-John Says She’s Managing Breast Cancer with Cannabis. Newton-John explained that she uses cannabis oil to treat the pain and help her sleep, much of which her husband John Easterling (who runs Amazon Herb Company) grows for her. “I’m very lucky that I live in a state where it’s legal and that I have a husband who is a plant medicine man,” she said. “How lucky is that?” Newton-John also advocated for legalizing cannabis in her home country of Australia, adding, “My dream is that it will be available to all the cancer patients or people going through cancer or any kind of disease that causes pain.” Newton-John turns 70 on September 26.” http://exclaim.ca/music/article/olivia_newton-john_says_shes_managing_breast_cancer_with_cannabis

“Olivia Newton-John diagnosed with cancer for a third time but believes she ‘will win’ health battle with homegrown cannabis treatment. The Grease actress is using homegrown cannabis as part of her treatment to fight the disease. She drinks a cannabis mixture made by her herbalist husband to control the illness.” https://www.mirror.co.uk/3am/celebrity-news/olivia-newton-john-diagnosed-cancer-13220595

“Olivia Newton-John uses medical marijuana to treat cancer”  https://www.buzz.ie/celebs/olivia-newton-john-drinks-cannabis-extract-numb-pain-cancer-253796

“Olivia Newton-John reveals marijuana helping her beat cancer”   http://www.9news.com.au/national/2017/09/03/08/58/olivia-newton-john-backs-medicinal-cannabis

“Olivia Newton-John’s cancer battle is going well… Thanks to cannabis oil!”  https://closeronline.co.uk/celebrity/news/olivia-newton-john-daughter-chloe-lattanzi-cannabis-oil-cancer/ 

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Olivia Newton-John ‘Feeling Great’ as Source Denies ‘False’ Report Her Cancer Has Spread Further. “This is just false,” a source close to Newton-John tells PEOPLE. “She’s feeling and looking great. Everything that’s being reported about her diagnosis is the same news she released last year.” https://people.com/music/olivia-newton-john-denies-false-report-cancer-spread/

“Olivia Newton-John Reveals Secret Cancer Battle in 2013: ‘I Just Decided to Keep It to Myself.” Last year, Newton-John announced she’d been diagnosed with stage 4 breast cancer that had metastasized to her back, but the 69-year-old actress has been treating the illness with natural wellness therapies, including medicinal marijuana. A source close to Newton-John tells PEOPLE that she’s been feeling fine and healthy as of late.” https://people.com/music/olivia-newton-john-secret-cancer-battle-decided-keep-myself/

Olivia Newton-John: It’s not just cancer sufferers needing help, carers do too. The mum-of-one discovered she had a tumour in the base of her spine last year. She had previously overcome breast cancer in 1992 after undergoing surgery and chemo, before secretly beating the disease again in 2013. Praising both husband John and her daughter Chloe, Olivia said: “Of course they’ve been a huge support, I think it’s hard for people on the outside – the care takers – because they have to be taken care of too sometimes, because it is hard for them.” John grows cannabis plants for Olivia, as she has chosen natural therapies such as cannabis oil to help ease her pain from the disease, instead of opioids and other drugs such as chemo this time round. He grows the plants in California where the couple live, as it is legal there.” https://startsat60.com/entertainment/tv-movies/olivia-newton-john-cancer-sufferers-carers-husband-john-help

“‘I use cannabis’: Olivia Newton-John talks cancer treatment” https://startsat60.com/health/i-use-cannabis-olivia-newton-john-opens-up-on-cancer-treatment

“Olivia Newton-John using cannabis oil as she battles cancer for the third time”  https://www.hellomagazine.com/healthandbeauty/health-and-fitness/2018091162192/olivia-newton-john-using-cannabis-oil-battles-cancer-third-time/

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“Olivia Newton-John Is Using Cannabis Oil To Treat Her Cancer”  https://www.inverse.com/article/32780-cannabis-oil-cancer-treatment-cannabinoid-chemotherapy

“Olivia Newton John’s cannabis oil for cancer treatment” https://www.msn.com/en-nz/health/medical/olivia-newton-johns-cannabis-oil-for-cancer-treatment/ar-AAoTvE3

“‘I believe I will win’: Olivia Newton-John, 69, reveals the tragic cancer diagnosis she kept secret… as she fights the disease for a third time with the help of her husband” https://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-6148177/Olivia-Newton-John-69-reveals-tragic-cancer-diagnosis-kept-secret.html

“Olivia’s husband grows her medical marijuana”  https://au.be.yahoo.com/entertainment/celebrity/a/37038356/john-easterling-home-grows-olivia-newton-johns-medical-marijuana/

“Olivia Newton-John Admits to Using Home-Grown Medical Marijuana to Battle Cancer” http://popculture.com/2017/09/11/olivia-newton-john-medical-marijuana-breast-cancer/

“Olivia Newton-John Reveals She Was Unable to Walk After Cancer Relapse – and She’s Using Marijuana to Ease Pain. The 68-year-old said that the “hardest thing” has been her pain level, admitting that trying to do shows was “really agonizing.” Now, she’s been treating the pain with medical marijuana her husband John Easterling grows. “I’ll be fine,” said Newton-John.” https://people.com/music/olivia-newton-john-cancer-update-couldnt-walk-australian-60-minutes/

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“Olivia Newton-John on Being a Cancer ‘Thriver’ and Using Weed to Cope with Her Relapse: It’s a ‘Healing Plant’. The actress also shared that she’s been treating the pain with medical marijuana her husband John Easterling grows. “People have this vision from the ’60s of people just sitting around and getting stoned,” she said. “It’s not about that. This plant is a healing plant. I think we need to change the vision of what it is because it helped me greatly and it helps with pain and inflammation.”” https://people.com/music/olivia-newton-john-cancer-relapse-weed/

Olivia Newton-John reveals she is on medical cannabis for cancer” https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-6171365/Olivia-Newton-John-reveals-medical-cannabis-breast-cancer.html

“‘It’s a magical miracle plant:’ Olivia Newton-John reveals husband John Easterling grows marijuana to aid her breast cancer battle” https://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-4869940/Olivia-Newton-John-benefits-medical-marijuana.html

“‘It’s really important and should be available’: Olivia Newton-John speaks about how ‘medical cannabis’ is helping her beat breast cancer” https://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-4846664/Olivia-Newton-John-talks-cannabis-use-time.html

“Olivia Newton-John voices her support for medical marijuana after revealing her husband grows the plant to aid her breast cancer battle” https://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-4891760/Olivia-Newton-John-voices-support-medical-marijuana.html

“‘Medical cannabis has helped me a lot’: Olivia Newton-John speaks candidly about the ‘healing remedies’ that have helped CURE her pain during her agonising cancer battle” https://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-5181401/Olivia-Newton-John-speaks-candidly-medical-cannabis.html

“Let’s Get Physical! Olivia Newton-John beams in green as she dazzles Melbourne crowds at charity walk to raise funds for her cancer research centre… after speaking candidly about her attempts to ‘win over’ the disease” https://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-6172857/Olivia-Newton-John-beams-green-dazzles-crowds-cancer-research-charity-walk.html

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Olivia Newton-John leads the biggest ever Wellness Walk and Research Run! With participant numbers up by over 50 per cent from last year, the beautiful grounds at La Trobe University were filled with a vibe of family, community, love and hope. Olivia Newton-John was an enthusiastic participant enjoying the sunshine, along with her husband John Easterling, her niece Tottie Goldsmith (herself an ONJ Centre Goodwill Champion) and other family members. She was grateful for the large crowd of people who were there to support her ONJ Centre.“It’s very moving actually, to see so many people turn out,” says Olivia. “It looks like there are more people than last year which is fantastic, people with their dogs and their children and their friends. It’s wonderful.”” https://www.onjcancercentre.org/news/article/2018/09/18/biggest-ever-wellness-walk-and-research-run

“Well over half a million dollars has been raised so far and while the event itself is over for this year, fundraising is still open until the 30 September. You can continue to support family and friends by donating to their page, or you can donate to Olivia’s page here: https://secure.artezpacific.com/registrant/FundraisingPage.aspx?registrationID=1213890&langPref=en-CA

“The Olivia Newton-John Cancer Wellness & Research Centre is at the frontier of cancer medicine, with over 200 ongoing clinical trials.” https://www.onjcancercentre.org/patients-family/clinical-trials

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http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/olivia-newton-john-champions-the-use-of-magical-miracle-medicinal-cannabis/

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Recreational Cannabis Reduces Rapes and Thefts: Evidence from a Quasi-Experiment

 

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“An argument against the legalization of the cannabis market is that such a policy would increase crime. Exploiting the recent staggered legalization enacted by the states of Washington (end of 2012) and Oregon (end of 2014) we show, combining difference-in-differences and spatial regression discontinuity designs, that recreational cannabis caused a significant reduction of rapes and thefts on the Washington side of the border in 2013-2014 relative to the Oregon side and relative to the pre-legalization years 2010-2012.”

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2841267

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Joint culpability: The effects of medical marijuana laws on crime

Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization

“Most U.S. states have passed medical marijuana laws. In this paper, we study the effects of these laws on violent and property crime. We first estimate models that control for city fixed effects and flexible city-specific time trends. To supplement this regression analysis, we use the synthetic control method which can relax the parallel trend assumption and better account for heterogeneous policy effects.

Both the regression analysis and the synthetic control method suggest no causal effects of medical marijuana laws on violent or property crime at the national level. We also find no strong effects within individual states, except for in California where the medical marijuana law reduced both violent and property crime by 20%.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016726811830180X?via%3Dihub

“Legalising medical marijuana shows no effect on crime rates in US states”  https://theconversation.com/legalising-medical-marijuana-shows-no-effect-on-crime-rates-in-us-states-102030

“Study shows that medical cannabis use does not lead to rise in rate of crimes committed” https://www.nzherald.co.nz/world/news/article.cfm?c_id=2&objectid=12130350

“Study shows that medical marijuana use DOES NOT lead to a significant increase in the rate of crimes committed” https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6197313/Study-shows-medical-marijuana-use-DOES-NOT-lead-significant-increase-crime-rate.html

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A Comparative Study on Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Essential Oil Extraction Using Traditional and Advanced Techniques.

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“A comparative study of Cannabis sativa (Hemp) essential constituents obtained by using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SCFE), Steam Distillation (SD) and Hydrodistillation (HD) is presented here.

The optimized extraction temperatures were 130,110 and 50 ℃ for hydrodistillation, steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction respectively. The essential oil of C. sativa was analyzed by using Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 33, 30 and 31 components have been identified in HD, SD and SCFE respectively. Yield of essential oil using SCFE (0.039%) was more than HD (0.025%) and SD (0.035%) extraction respectively.

The main component of sesquiterpenes obtained by hydrodistillation at 130 ℃ with their percentages included caryophyllene (40.58%), trans-α-bergamotene (5.41%), humulene (10.97%), cis-β-farnesene (8.53%) and monoterpenes included α-pinene (2.13%), d-limonene (6.46%), p-cymol (0.65%) and cineole (2.58%) respectively.

The main component of sesquiterpenes obtained by SD steam distillation at 110 ℃ including caryophyllene (38.60%) trans-α-bergamotene (4.22%), humulene (10.26%), cis-β-farnesene (6.67%) and monoterpenes included α-pinene (3.21%), d-limonene (7.07%), p-cymol (2.59%) and cineole (3.88%) whereas the more percentages of major components were obtained by SCFE at 50 ℃ included caryophyllene (44.31%), trans-α-bergamotene (6.79%), humulene (11.97%) cis-β-farnesene (9.71%) and monoterpenes included α-pinene (0.45%), d-limonene (2.13%) p-cymol (0.19%) and cineole (1.38 %) respectively.

We found yield/efficiency, chemical composition, quality of the essential oils by supercritical fluid extraction superior in terms of modern, green, saving energy and a rapid approach as compared to traditional techniques.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30221908

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False-positive cannabinoid screens in adult cystic fibrosis patients treated with lumacaftor/ivacaftor

Journal of Cystic Fibrosis

“Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by gene mutations resulting in defective cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein activity. CFTR modulators have been developed to improve CFTR protein function. The combination of ivacaftor (IVA) and lumacaftor (LUM) partially restores CFTR protein function of F508del, the most common CF mutation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30217546

“False-positive cannabinoid screens in adult cystic fibrosis patients treated with lumacaftor/ivacaftor”

https://www.cysticfibrosisjournal.com/article/S1569-1993(18)30754-9/fulltext

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Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Signaling on Hippocampal GABAergic Neurons Influences Microglial Activity.

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“Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, play important roles in defending the brain against pathogens and supporting neuronal circuit plasticity. Chronic or excessive pro-inflammatory responses of microglia damage neurons, therefore their activity is tightly regulated.

Pharmacological and genetic studies revealed that cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor activity influences microglial activity, although microglial CB1 receptor expression is very low and activity-dependent. The CB1 receptor is mainly expressed on neurons in the central nervous system (CNS)-with an especially high level on GABAergic interneurons.

Here, we determined whether CB1 signaling on this neuronal cell type plays a role in regulating microglial activity.

Our result suggests that CB1 receptor agonists can modulate microglial activity indirectly, through CB1 receptors on GABAergic neurons.

Altogether, we demonstrated that GABAergic neurons, despite their relatively low density in the hippocampus, have a specific role in the regulation of microglial activity and cannabinoid signaling plays an important role in this arrangement.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30210289

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnmol.2018.00295/full

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Pharmaceutical potentialities of β-caryophyllene for drug delivery systems: a prospection.

“The β-caryophyllene (BCP), a phytocannabinoid presents in various essential oils, demonstrated selective action on the CB2 endocannabinoid receptor and attracted considerable attention because of its several pharmacological activities. Despite this recognized potential, this hydrophobic compound is a volatile and acid-sensitive sesquiterpene that readily oxidizes when exposed to air, and has low bioavailability in oral formulations. Thus, the development of formulations that guarantee its stability and increase its bioavailability is a challenge for its use in the pharmaceutical field.

RESULTS:

The systems presented here may represent an interesting approach to overcome the limitations already mentioned for this terpene. These systems proved to be promising for improving solubility, stability and controlled release of this pharmacological relevant sesquiterpene. In the industrial field, some companies have filed patent applications for the commercial use of the BCP, however, the use of pharmaceutical formulations still appeared moderate.

CONCLUSION:

This prospective study evidenced the new perspectives related to BCP vectorization systems in the pharmaceutical and industrial marketing field and may serve as a basis for further research and pharmaceutical use of this powerful cannabinoid.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30207226

http://www.eurekaselect.com/165376/article

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

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