“Cannabis Found Effective in Fighting Drug-Resistant Bacteria”

1957: “[Hemp (Cannabis sativa); antibiotic drug. I. Hemp in the old & popular medicine].” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13484424
1958: “[Hemp (Cannabis sativa)–antibiotic drugs. II. Method & results of bacteriological experiments & preliminary clinical experience].” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13553773
1959: “[Hemp (Cannabis sativa)-an antibiotic drug. 3. Isolation and constitution of two acids from Cannabis sativa].” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14411912
1962: “Antibiotic activity of various types of cannabis resin.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14489783
2008: “Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure-activity study.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18681481
“Cannabis plant extracts can effectively fight drug-resistant bacteria.” http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=5787866
“According to research, the five most common cannabinoid compounds in weed—tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabinol and cannabichromene—can kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria.” https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/news-blog/whoa-the-stuff-in-pot-kills-germs-2008-08-27/
“All five cannabinoids (THC, CBD, CBG, CBC, and CBN) were potent against bacteria. Notably, they performed well against bacteria that were known to be multidrug resistant, like the strains of MRSA” http://arstechnica.com/science/2008/08/killing-bacteria-with-cannabis/
2014: “Better than antibiotics, cannabinoids kill antibiotic-resistant MRSA bacteria” http://usahealthresource.blogspot.com/2014/02/marijuana-extracts-and-compounds-kill.html
2019: “Cannabis Found Effective in Fighting Drug-Resistant Bacteria” https://www.courthousenews.com/cannabis-found-effective-in-fighting-drug-resistant-bacteria/
“Cannabis oil kills bacteria better than established antibiotics… providing a possible new weapon in the war on superbugs, according to new research. It offers hope of curing killer infections – including MRSA and pneumonia, say scientists.” https://www.thelondoneconomic.com/lifestyle/cannabis-oil-kills-bacteria-better-than-established-antibiotics/24/06/ 
“CANNABIS COMPOUND COULD BE LATEST WEAPON IN WAR AGAINST SUPERBUGS”
“Marijuana skin cream kills superbugs, says Botanix” https://stockhead.com.au/health/marijuana-skin-cream-kills-superbugs-says-botanix/
“Botanix’s CBD-based product destroys superbug skin infections in another ‘world first’” https://smallcaps.com.au/botanix-cbd-based-product-destroys-skin-superbug-infections/
“Compound in cannabis found to be ‘promising’ new antibiotic that does not lose its effectiveness with use” https://www.kelownanow.com/watercooler/news/news/Cannabis/Compound_in_cannabis_found_to_be_promising_new_antibiotic_that_does_not_lose_its_effectiveness_with_use/
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Repetitive high-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation reverses depressive-like behaviors and protein expression at hippocampal synapses in chronic unpredictable stress-treated rats by enhancing endocannabinoid signaling.

Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior“The anti-depressant effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a clinically-useful treatment for depression, is associated with changes to the endocannabinoid system (ECS).

However, it is currently unknown whether different frequencies of rTMS alter the ECS differently. To test this, rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) were treated with rTMS at two different frequencies (5 (high) or 1 Hz (low), 1.26 Tesla) for 7 consecutive days.

Interestingly, we found that only high-frequency rTMS ameliorated depressive-like behaviors and normalized the expression of hippocampal synaptic proteins in CUS-treated rats;

Collectively, our results suggest that high-frequency rTMS exerts its anti-depressant effect by up-regulating diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLα) and cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R).”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31229467

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091305719301376?via%3Dihub

Transcranial magnetic stimulation.jpg

“Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), also known as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), is a noninvasive form of brain stimulation in which a changing magnetic field is used to cause electric current at a specific area of the brain through electromagnetic induction. An electric pulse generator, or stimulator, is connected to a magnetic coil, which in turn is connected to the scalp. The stimulator generates a changing electric current within the coil which induces a magnetic field; this field then causes a second inductance of inverted electric charge within the brain itself. Adverse effects of TMS are rare, and include fainting and seizure. Other potential issues include discomfort, pain, hypomania, cognitive change, hearing loss, and inadvertent current induction in implanted devices such as pacemakers or defibrillators”  https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091305719301376?via%3Dihub

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A systematic review of cannabidiol dosing in clinical populations.

British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology banner“Cannabidiol is a cannabis-derived medicinal product with potential application in a wide-variety of contexts, however its effective dose in different disease states remains unclear. This review aimed to investigate what doses have been applied in clinical populations, in order to understand the active range of cannabidiol in a variety of medical contexts.

RESULTS:

A total of 1038 articles were retrieved, of which 35 studies met inclusion criteria covering 13 medical contexts. 23 studies reported a significant improvement in primary outcomes (e.g. psychotic symptoms, anxiety, seizures), with doses ranging between <1 – 50 mg/Kg/day. Plasma concentrations were not provided in any publication. Cannabidiol was reported as well tolerated and epilepsy was the most frequently studied medical condition, with all 11 studies demonstrating positive effects of cannabidiol on reducing seizure frequency or severity (average 15 mg/Kg/day within randomised controlled trials). There was no signal of positive activity of CBD in small randomised controlled trials (range n=6-62) assessing diabetes, Crohn’s disease, ocular hypertension, fatty liver disease or chronic pain. However, low doses (average 2.4 mg/Kg/day) were used in these studies.

CONCLUSION:

This review highlights cannabidiol has a potential wide range of activity in several pathologies. Pharmacokinetic studies as well as conclusive phase III trials to elucidate effective plasma concentrations within medical contexts are severely lacking and highly encouraged.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31222854

https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bcp.14038

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Molecular docking analysis of phyto-constituents from Cannabis sativa with pfDHFR.

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“Available antimalarial drugs have been associated with numerous side effects, which include skin rashes and myelo-suppression. Therefore, it is of interest to explore compounds from natural source having drug-like properties without side effect.

This study focuses on the screening of compounds from Cannabis sativa against malaria Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase for antimalarial properties using Glide (Schrodinger maestro 2018-1).

The result showed that phytochemicals from Cannabis sativa binds with a higher affinity and lower free energy than the standard ligand with isovitexin and vitexin having a glide score of -11.485 and -10.601 respectively, sophoroside has a glide score of -9.711 which is lower than the cycloguanil (co-crystallized ligand) having a glide score of -6.908.

This result gives new perception to the use of Cannabis sativa as antimicrobial agent.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31223216

http://www.bioinformation.net/014/97320630014574.htm

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Aplicaciones terapéuticas por acción de los cannabinoides.

“The interest on cannabinoids became evident between the 1940 and 1950 decades. Although the active substance of the plant was not known, a series of compounds with cannabinomimetic activity were synthesized, which were investigated in animals and clinically. The most widely tested was Δ6a, 10a-THC hexyl. Δ6a, 10a-THC dimethylheptyl (DMHP) antiepileptic effects were studied in several children, with positive results being obtained in some cases. DMHP differs from sinhexyl in that its side chain is DMHP instead of n-hexyl. The first cannabinoid isolated from Cannabis sativa was cannabinol, although its structure was correctly characterized several years later. Cannabidiol was isolated some years later and was subsequently characterized by Mechoulam and Shvo. In 2013, the National Academy of Medicine and the Faculty of Medicine of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, through the Seminar of Studies on Entirety, decided to carry out a systematic review on a subject that is both complex and controversial: the relationship between marijuana and health. In recent years, studies have been conducted with cannabis in several diseases: controlled clinical trials on spasticity in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury, chronic, essentially neuropathic, pain, movement disorders (Gilles de Latourette, dystonia, levodopa dyskinesia), asthma and glaucoma, as well as non-controlled clinical trials on Alzheimer’s disease, neuroprotection, intractable hiccups, epilepsy, alcohol and opioid dependence and inflammatory processes.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31219471

http://gacetamedicademexico.com/frame_esp.php?id=310

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The Impact of Cannabis Consumption on Mortality, Morbidity, and Cost in Acute Pancreatitis Patients in the United States: A 10-Year Analysis of the National Inpatient Sample.

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“The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of cannabis use among all patients admitted with acute pancreatitis (AP) in the United States and to investigate the impact of cannabis use on AP mortality, morbidity, and cost of care.

RESULTS:

More than 2.8 million patients with AP patients were analyzed. Cannabis-exposed (CE) patients’ prevalence was 0.3%. Patients exposed to cannabis were younger and mostly males compared with non-cannabis-exposed patients. After adjusting for these factors, the CE group had significantly lower inpatient mortality compared with the noncannabis group (odds ratio, 0.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.53). Cannabis-exposed patients also had decreased length of stay, inflation-adjusted charges, acute kidney injury, ileus, shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and parenteral nutrition requirement.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cannabis-exposed hospitalized patients with AP had lower age-adjusted, mortality, morbidity, and hospitalization-cost than non-cannabis-exposed patients.”

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The origins of cannabis smoking: Chemical residue evidence from the first millennium BCE in the Pamirs.

 Science Advances: 5 (6)“Cannabis is one of the oldest cultivated plants in East Asia, grown for grain and fiber as well as for recreational, medical, and ritual purposes. It is one of the most widely used psychoactive drugs in the world today, but little is known about its early psychoactive use or when plants under cultivation evolved the phenotypical trait of increased specialized compound production. The archaeological evidence for ritualized consumption of cannabis is limited and contentious. Here, we present some of the earliest directly dated and scientifically verified evidence for ritual cannabis smoking. This phytochemical analysis indicates that cannabis plants were burned in wooden braziers during mortuary ceremonies at the Jirzankal Cemetery (ca. 500 BCE) in the eastern Pamirs region. This suggests cannabis was smoked as part of ritual and/or religious activities in western China by at least 2500 years ago and that the cannabis plants produced high levels of psychoactive compounds.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31206023

https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/6/eaaw1391

“Earliest evidence for cannabis smoking discovered in ancient tombs”  https://www.nationalgeographic.com/culture/2019/06/earliest-evidence-cannabis-marijuana-smoking-china-tombs/

“The First Evidence of Smoking Pot Was Found in a 2,500-Year-Old Pot”  https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/2500-year-old-chinese-cemetery-offers-earliest-physical-evidence-cannabis-smoking-180972410/

“Earliest Evidence of People “Smoking” Weed Found in 2,500-Year-Old Chinese Pots”  https://www.sciencealert.com/ancient-pots-from-china-reveal-humans-smoking-cannabis-2-500-years-ago

“Oldest evidence of marijuana use discovered in 2500-year-old cemetery in peaks of western China” https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/06/oldest-evidence-marijuana-use-discovered-2500-year-old-cemetery-peaks-western-china

“Cannabis use for medicinal purposes dates back at least 3,000 years.”  https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/cam/hp/cannabis-pdq#section/_7

“Cannabis has been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years.” https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/cam/hp/cannabis-pdq

“The use of Cannabis for medicinal purposes dates back to ancient times.” http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/cam/patient/cannabis-pdq#section/all

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Cannabis treatment in hospitalized patients using the SYQE inhaler: Results of a pilot open-label study.

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“The objectives were to evaluate the, usability, feasibility of use, satisfaction, and safety of the Syqe Inhaler Exo (Syqe Inhaler), a metered dose, Pharmacokinetics-validated, cannabis inhaler device in a cohort of hospitalized patients that were using medical cannabis under license as a part of their ongoing medical treatment.

Before and after inhaling from the Syqe Inhaler, participants were asked to fill a questionnaire regarding pain reduction on a visual analog scale from 0 to 10 and, if relevant, reduction in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and/or spasticity. A patient satisfaction questionnaire and a usability questionnaire were filled in following the last use. Prescribed treatment included 4 daily doses of 500 μg tetrahydrocannabinol each delivered from 16 mg cannabis flos per inhalation plus up to an additional four SOS (distress code for more doses of cannabis) doses.

Result: Daily cannabis dose consumed during hospitalization with the Syqe Inhaler was 51 mg (20-96) versus 1,000 mg (660-3,300) consumed prehospitalization. Patients were easily trained and continued to use Syqe Inhaler for the duration of their hospitalization (5 [3-7] days).

Pain intensity 30-60 minutes following inhalations was reported to be significantly lower than preinhalation 4 [1-5] versus 7 [2-9]). Participants ranked their satisfaction with Syqe Inhaler as 6 (5-7). Three participants reported mild cough, which resolved spontaneously.

Significance of results: Cannabis inhalation by combustion is not feasible for hospitalized patients. The use of Syqe Inhaler during hospitalization yielded high levels of patients and staff satisfaction with no complications.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31196236

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/palliative-and-supportive-care/article/cannabis-treatment-in-hospitalized-patients-using-the-syqe-inhaler-results-of-a-pilot-openlabel-study/0C1940413E704A7EADCB949F5F49603A

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[Cannabis for medical purposes and its prescription].

“Since 10 March 2017, physicians have been allowed to prescribe cannabis to patients with serious illnesses and in the absence of alternative therapies. Patients can obtain it as dried flowers or extracts in standardised pharmaceutical quality by prescription (narcotic prescription, except for cannabidiol) in pharmacies. When prescribing, physicians have to take a few things into account. The first step is to decide which therapeutic effects are to be achieved and which is the most suitable cannabis product. Cannabis for medical use must meet the requirements for pharmaceutical quality. An identity check must be carried out in the pharmacy on the basis of the monographs of the German Pharmacopoeia (DAB) or the German Pharmaceutical Codex/New Prescription Form (DAC/NRF). For the production of prescription drugs, e.g. capsules, drops or inhalates, there are also corresponding monographs for the preparation of prescription drugs. These standardised, quality-assured prescription formulas should be given preference in the case of a medical prescription. When prescribing an oral or inhalative form of application, it should be noted that the onset and duration of action are very different. Also, due to the complex pharmacology of cannabinoids, interindividual genetic differences in the metabolisation of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the individual structure and function of the cannabinoid receptors, as well as differences in receptor density and distribution, the dosage and frequency of application must be individually determined. Last but not least, the dosage also depends on the type of disease and individual susceptibility to side effects. When prescribed for the first time, a creeping dosage with a very low initial dose is recommended.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31187182

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00103-019-02970-6

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Availability of legalized cannabis reduces demand for illegal cannabis among Canadian cannabis users: evidence from a behavioural economic substitution paradigm.

“In the context of cannabis legalization, an important question among clinicians, policymakers, and the public is whether availability of legal cannabis will significantly reduce consumption (demand) of illegal cannabis.

Using paradigms from behavioural economics, we tested the prediction that legal cannabis would be an asymmetrical substitute for illegal cannabis, with legal cannabis operating as a superior commodity based on its regulated status. In a sample of 289 adult cannabis users in Ontario, we found evidence of substitutability for both legal and illegal cannabis, but significantly lower substitutability of illegal for legal cannabis, a pattern that was also present for price elasticity (α) and Pmax.

Thus, the data indicated asymmetric substitution such that the availability of legal cannabis substantially decreased demand for illegal cannabis, but a significantly smaller effect in reverse.

These results suggest that the introduction of legal cannabis into the market may disrupt and reduce illegal purchases, contributing to the reduction of the potential harms associated with the illegal market.

However, in revealing price windows in which legal cannabis is preferred over the contraband alternative, these data also have significant implications for pricing policies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30523535

https://link.springer.com/article/10.17269%2Fs41997-018-0160-4

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