Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol promotes oligodendrocyte development and CNS myelination in vivo

“Δ9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main bioactive compound found in the plant Cannabis sativa, exerts its effects by activating cannabinoid receptors present in many neural cells.

Cannabinoid receptors are also physiologically engaged by endogenous cannabinoid compounds, the so-called endocannabinoids. Specifically, the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol has been highlighted as an important modulator of oligodendrocyte (OL) development at embryonic stages and in animal models of demyelination. However, the potential impact of THC exposure on OL lineage progression during the critical periods of postnatal myelination has never been explored.

Here, we show that acute THC administration at early postnatal ages in mice enhanced OL development and CNS myelination in the subcortical white matter by promoting oligodendrocyte precursor cell cycle exit and differentiation. Mechanistically, THC-induced-myelination was mediated by CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, as demonstrated by the blockade of THC actions by selective receptor antagonists. Moreover, the THC-mediated modulation of oligodendroglial differentiation relied on the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway, as mTORC1 pharmacological inhibition prevented the THC effects.

Our study identifies THC as an effective pharmacological strategy to enhance oligodendrogenesis and CNS myelination in vivo.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32956517/

“In summary, our findings identify THC as a novel pharmacological candidate to enhance OL development and CNS myelination in vivo.”

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/glia.23911

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Cannabidiol Modulates Cytokine Storm in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Induced by Simulated Viral Infection Using Synthetic RNA

View details for Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research cover image“In the absence of effective antivirals and vaccination, the pandemic of COVID-19 remains the most significant challenge to our health care system in decades. There is an urgent need for definitive therapeutic intervention.

Clinical reports indicate that the cytokine storm associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the leading cause of mortality in severe cases of some respiratory viral infections, including COVID-19.

In recent years, cannabinoids have been investigated extensively due to their potential effects on the human body. Among all cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) has demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory effects in a variety of pathological conditions. Therefore, it is logical to explore whether CBD can reduce the cytokine storm and treat ARDS.

Materials and Methods: In this study, we show that intranasal application of Poly(I:C), a synthetic analogue of viral double-stranded RNA, simulated symptoms of severe viral infections inducing signs of ARDS and cytokine storm.

Discussion: The administration of CBD downregulated the level of proinflammatory cytokines and ameliorated the clinical symptoms of Poly I:C-induced ARDS.

Conclusion: Our results suggest a potential protective role for CBD during ARDS that may extend CBD as part of the treatment of COVID-19 by reducing the cytokine storm, protecting pulmonary tissues, and re-establishing inflammatory homeostasis.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32923657/

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/can.2020.0043

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Preliminary data on the antimicrobial effect of Cannabis sativa L. variety Futura 75 against food-borne pathogens in vitro as well as against naturally occurring microbial populations on minced meat during storage

 Archive of "Italian Journal of Food Safety".“In the present study, the antimicrobial effect of Cannabis sativa Futura 75 was evaluated both in vitro against foodborne bacterial pathogens, and on food against naturally occurring microbial groups of minced meat stored for 8 days at 4°C.

Ethanol extraction was performed on the grind of the inflorescence. After extraction, ethanol was completely evaporated and substituted by water. Serial dilutions of the extract, the grind and cannabidiol 99% were added to Nutrient Agar and spotted with Listeria monocytogenesSalmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. Regarding the evaluation on food, 50 mL of extract, characterised by CBD at concentration of 322,70 μg/mL, were added to 2.5 kg of minced beef meat. Meat was divided into aliquots and stored for 8 days at 4°C. At 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8 days, aerobic bacteria, enterobacteria, coliforms and E. coli were enumerated.

All tested products were efficient against Gram +. In particular, extract corresponding to CBD concentration of 0.017 and 0.3 mg/mL were effective against L. monocytogenes and Staphylococcus spp. respectively. After 8 days of storage at 4°C, treated minced meat showed a bright red colour in comparison to a brownish control meat. Moreover, Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were significantly reduced of 2.3 log CFU/g and 1.6 log CFU/g respectively in treated meat in comparison to the control.

Although preliminary, the present study suggests the antimicrobial properties of the extract of Cannabis sativa both in vitro and in minced meat.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32913724/

https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ijfs/article/view/8581

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Cannabidiol Content and In Vitro Biological Activities of Commercial Cannabidiol Oils and Hemp Seed Oils

medicines-logo“Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed contains high contents of various nutrients, including fatty acids and proteins.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive compound that can be extracted from C. sativa and used for treating epilepsy and pain.

Industrial hemp products, including CBD and hemp seed oils, have become increasingly popular. Some products are marketed without a clear distinction between CBD and hemp seed oils.

Herein, the CBD content and biological activities of commercial CBD and hemp seed oils were examined.

Methods: CBD content was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. For in vitro antioxidant activity determination, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging assays were performed.

Results: The CBD concentrations in the two CBD oil samples were 18.9 ± 0.5 and 9.2 ± 0.4 mg/mL. Of the seven hemp seed oil samples, six samples contained CBD in concentrations ranging from 2.0 ± 0.1 to 20.5 ± 0.5 µg/mL, but it was not detected in one sample. Antioxidant activity was observed in both CBD oil samples.

Conclusions: The results indicate that (1) CBD content varied by hemp seed oil sample and that (2) antioxidant activity could be a useful landmark for discriminating CBD oils from hemp seed oils.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32906708/

https://www.mdpi.com/2305-6320/7/9/57

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Medicinal Cannabis and Synthetic Cannabinoid Use

medicina-logo“Cannabis products have been used for centuries by humans for recreational and medical purposes. Resent research, proposed the promising therapeutic potential of cannabis and related cannabinoids for a wide range of medical conditions, including psychiatric and neurological diseases.

This Special Issue presents the latest updates on medicinal cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids pharmacology, toxicology and new analytical methods to identify and quantify these compounds in conventional and non-conventional biological matrices. Moreover, it provides current data regarding their adverse effects, safety, application for medical purposes and their harmful effects.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32906770/

https://www.mdpi.com/1010-660X/56/9/453

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Druggable Targets in Endocannabinoid Signaling

 “Cannabis and cannabinoid-based extracts have long been utilized for their perceived therapeutic value, and support for the legalization of cannabis for medicinal purposes continues to increase worldwide.

Since the discovery of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as the primary psychoactive component of cannabis over 50 years ago, substantial effort has been directed toward detection of endogenous mediators of cannabinoid activity. The discovery of anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol as two endogenous lipid mediators of cannabinoid-like effects (endocannabinoids) has inspired exponential growth in our understanding of this essential pathway, as well as the pathological conditions that result from dysregulated endocannabinoid signaling.

This review examines current knowledge of the endocannabinoid system including metabolic enzymes involved in biosynthesis and degradation and their receptors, and evaluates potential druggable targets for therapeutic intervention.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32894511/

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-030-50621-6_8

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Industrial Hemp ( Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa) as an Emerging Source for Value-Added Functional Food Ingredients and Nutraceuticals

molecules-logo“Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L., Cannabaceae) is an ancient cultivated plant originating from Central Asia and historically has been a multi-use crop valued for its fiber, food, and medicinal uses. Various oriental and Asian cultures kept records of its production and numerous uses.

Due to the similarities between industrial hemp (fiber and grain) and the narcotic/medical type of Cannabis, the production of industrial hemp was prohibited in most countries, wiping out centuries of learning and genetic resources. In the past two decades, most countries have legalized industrial hemp production, prompting a significant amount of research on the health benefits of hemp and hemp products.

Current research is yet to verify the various health claims of the numerous commercially available hemp products. Hence, this review aims to compile recent advances in the science of industrial hemp, with respect to its use as value-added functional food ingredients/nutraceuticals and health benefits, while also highlighting gaps in our current knowledge and avenues of future research on this high-value multi-use plant for the global food chain.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32906622/

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/25/18/4078

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It Is Our Turn to Get Cannabis High: Put Cannabinoids in Food and Health Baskets

molecules-logo“Cannabis is an annual plant with a long history of use as food, feed, fiber, oil, medicine, and narcotics. Despite realizing its true value, it has not yet found its true place. Cannabis has had a long history with many ups and downs, and now it is our turn to promote it.

Cannabis contains approximately 600 identified and many yet unidentified potentially useful compounds. Cannabinoids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and alkaloids are some of the secondary metabolites present in cannabis. However, among a plethora of unique chemical compounds found in this plant, the most important ones are phytocannabinoids (PCs).

Over hundreds of 21-22-carbon compounds exclusively produce in cannabis glandular hairs through either polyketide and or deoxyxylulose phosphate/methylerythritol phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathways. Trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are those that first come to mind while talking about cannabis. Nevertheless, despite the low concentration, cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabichromene (CBC), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabidivarin (CBDV), cannabinodiol (CBND), and cannabinidiol (CBDL) may have potentially some medical effects.

PCs and endocannabinoids (ECs) mediate their effects mainly through CB1 and CB2 receptors. Despite all concerns regarding cannabis, nobody can ignore the use of cannabinoids as promising tonic, analgesic, antipyretic, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-epileptic, anticancer agents, which are effective for pain relief, depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis, cardiovascular disorders, and appetite stimulation.

The scientific community and public society have now increasingly accepted cannabis specifically hemp as much more than a recreational drug. There are growing demands for cannabinoids, mainly CBD, with many diverse therapeutic and nutritional properties in veterinary or human medicine. The main objective of this review article is to historically summarize findings concerning cannabinoids, mainly THC and CBD, towards putting these valuable compounds into food, feed and health baskets and current and future trends in the consumption of products derived from cannabis.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32899626/

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/25/18/4036

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Cannabidiol as a Novel Therapeutic for Immune Modulation

 “The immune-suppressive effects of cannabidiol (CBD) are attributed to the modulation of essential immunological signaling pathways and receptors. Mechanistic understanding of the pharmacological effects of CBD emphasizes the therapeutic potential of CBD as a novel immune modulator.

Studies have observed that the antagonists of CB1 and CB2 receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 reverse the immunomodulatory effects of CBD. CBD also inhibits critical activators of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathway, as well as the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor signaling pathway, in turn decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Furthermore, CBD protects against cellular damage incurred during immune responses by modulating adenosine signaling.

Ultimately, the data overwhelmingly support the immunosuppressive effects of CBD and this timely review draws attention to the prospective development of CBD as an effective immune modulatory therapeutic.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32903924/

https://www.dovepress.com/cannabidiol-as-a-novel-therapeutic-for-immune-modulation-peer-reviewed-article-ITT

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Topical cannabis-based medicines – A novel paradigm and treatment for non-uremic calciphylaxis leg ulcers: An open label trial

“Non-Uremic Calciphylaxis (NUC) is a rare condition that often manifests as intractable and painful integumentary wounds, afflicting patients with a high burden of co-morbidity.

The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is a ubiquitous signalling system that is theorised to be dysregulated within wound beds and associated peri-wound tissues.

Preclinical research has shown that the dominant chemical classes derived from the cannabis plant, cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids, interact with the integumentary ECS to promote wound closure and analgesia.

This is a prospective open label cohort study involving two elderly Caucasian females with recalcitrant NUC leg ulcers of greater than 6 months duration.

Topical Cannabis-Based Medicines (TCBM) composed of cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids were applied daily to both the wound bed and peri-wound tissues until complete wound closure was achieved.

Wounds were photographed regularly, and the digital images were subjected to planimetric analysis to objectively quantify the degree of granulation and epithelization. Analgesic utilisation, as a surrogate/proxy for pain scores, was also tracked. The cohort had a mean M3 multimorbidity index score of 3.31. Complete wound closure was achieved in a mean of 76.3 days. Additionally, no analgesics were required after a mean of 63 days.

The treatments were well tolerated with no adverse reactions. The positive results demonstrated in very challenging wounds such as NUC, among highly complex patients, suggest that TCBM may have an even broader role within integumentary and wound management.

This treatment paradigm warrants being trialled in other wound types and classes, and ultimately should be subjected to randomised controlled trials.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32875692/

“Topical Cannabis‐Based Medicines, applied to both wound beds and peri‐wound tissues, represent a promising novel, non‐invasive, and safe treatment option for NUC leg ulcers.”

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/iwj.13484

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