Hypothesizing that marijuana smokers are at a significantly lower risk of carcinogenicity relative to tobacco-non-marijuana smokers: evidenced based on statistical reevaluation of current literature.

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“A hypothetical link between marijuana smoking and cancer has been established based on a number of misleading assumptions. However, recent studies tend to suggest, if anything, an inverse association between marijuana use and cancers.

To test the hypothesis that marijuana smoking significantly lowers the risk of developing cancer in humans, we analyzed published data from a prospective cohort study on cancer incidence among nonsmokers (NS), marijuana-only smokers (MS), tobacco-only smokers (TS), and marijuana and tobacco smokers (MTS).

Using the log linear model to calculate the probability of developing each cancer form as a function of the interaction between marijuana and tobacco smoking, as well as functions of marijuana and tobacco smoking main effects whereby chi square statistics were calculated for the interaction and main effect estimates, we found that in all cases tested there was a significantly lower risk for MS compared to TS. Male and female TS had a greater probability of developing lung cancer than did MS. Males and females TS had a greater probability of developing lung cancer compared with NS. Males and female MTS had a slightly higher probability of developing lung cancer than did MS.

This difference was statistically significant: chi2 = 30.51, p < .00001, with a correlation coefficient of -0.75, Z = -7.84, p < .05. Male and female MTS had a lower probability of developing lung cancer than did TS. This difference was statistically significant: chi2 = 71.61, p = .00003, with a correlation coefficient of 0.61, Z = 5.06, p < .05.”




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Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC) Induce Neurogenesis and Improve Cognitive Performances of Male Sprague Dawley Rats.

Neurotoxicity Research

“Neurogenesis is influenced by various external factors such as enriched environments. Some researchers had postulated that neurogenesis has contributed to the hippocampal learning and memory. This project was designed to observe the effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC) in cognitive performance that influenced by the neurogenesis.

Different doses of ∆9-THC were used for observing the neurogenesis mechanism occurs in the hippocampus of rats. The brains were stained with antibodies, namely BrdU, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nestin, doublecortin (DCX) and class III β-tubulin (TuJ-1). The cognitive test was used novel-object discrimination test (NOD) while the proteins involved, DCX and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), were measured.

Throughout this study, ∆9-THC enhanced the markers involved in all stages of neurogenesis mechanism. Simultaneously, the cognitive behaviour of rat also showed improvement in learning and memory functions observed in behavioural test and molecular perspective.

Administration of ∆9-THC was observed to enhance the neurogenesis in the brain, especially in hippocampus thus improved the cognitive function of rats.”


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Targeting fatty acid amide hydrolase as a therapeutic strategy for antitussive therapy.

European Respiratory Society

“Cough is the most common reason to visit a primary care physician, yet it remains an unmet medical need. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an enzyme that breaks down endocannabinoids, and inhibition of FAAH produces analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Cannabinoids inhibit vagal sensory nerve activation and the cough reflex, so it was hypothesised that FAAH inhibition would produce antitussive activity via elevation of endocannabinoids.

Primary vagal ganglia neurons, tissue bioassay, in vivoelectrophysiology and a conscious guinea pig cough model were utilised to investigate a role for fatty acid amides in modulating sensory nerve activation in vagal afferents. FAAH inhibition produced antitussive activity in guinea pigs with concomitant plasma elevation of the fatty acid amides N-arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide), palmitoylethanolamide, N-oleoylethanolamide and linoleoylethanolamide. Palmitoylethanolamide inhibited tussive stimulus-induced activation of guinea pig airway innervating vagal ganglia neurons, depolarisation of guinea pig and human vagus, and firing of C-fibre afferents. These effects were mediated via a cannabinoid CB2/Gi/o-coupled pathway and activation of protein phosphatase 2A, resulting in increased calcium sensitivity of calcium-activated potassium channels.

These findings identify FAAH inhibition as a target for the development of novel, antitussive agents without the undesirable side-effects of direct cannabinoid receptor agonists.”



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[Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-cannabidiol in the treatment of spasticity in chronic spinal cord injury: a clinical experience].

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“Spasticity in chronic spinal cord injury is a condition that can have negative repercussions on the patient’s quality of life. Its treatment is complex and sometimes the outcome is insufficient.

Cannabinoids have recently been used in multiple sclerosis to successfully treat spasticity that is refractory to other therapies.


To quantify the clinical response of a group of patients with spastic chronic spinal cord injury to the orally administered drug delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-cannabidiol (Sativex ®) as medication for use in special situations.


Fifteen patients took part in this study. A significant improvement was observed on three of the scales recorded: modified Ashworth scale (z = -2.97; p = 0.003), Penn spasm frequency scale (z = -2.76; p = 0.006) and Numeric Rating Scale (z = -3.21; p = 0.001).


Sativex can be considered an alternative in patients with spasticity associated with chronic spinal cord injury for whom other therapeutic measures have been insufficient. Further studies need to be conducted before the use of this drug can be recommended and so as to define a complete profile of its long-term side effects.”


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Crash Fatality Rates After Recreational Marijuana Legalization in Washington and Colorado

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“Objectives. To evaluate motor vehicle crash fatality rates in the first 2 states with recreational marijuana legalization and compare them with motor vehicle crash fatality rates in similar states without recreational marijuana legalization.

Methods. We used the US Fatality Analysis Reporting System to determine the annual numbers of motor vehicle crash fatalities between 2009 and 2015 in Washington, Colorado, and 8 control states. We compared year-over-year changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates (per billion vehicle miles traveled) before and after recreational marijuana legalization with a difference-in-differences approach that controlled for underlying time trends and state-specific population, economic, and traffic characteristics.

Results. Pre–recreational marijuana legalization annual changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates for Washington and Colorado were similar to those for the control states. Post–recreational marijuana legalization changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates for Washington and Colorado also did not significantly differ from those for the control states (adjusted difference-in-differences coefficient = +0.2 fatalities/billion vehicle miles traveled; 95% confidence interval = −0.4, +0.9).

Conclusions. Three years after recreational marijuana legalization, changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates for Washington and Colorado were not statistically different from those in similar states without recreational marijuana legalization. Future studies over a longer time remain warranted.”


“Study: Marijuana not linked to rise in auto fatalities”  http://www.ktvu.com/news/study-marijuana-not-linked-to-rise-in-auto-crash-rates

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Maternal and infant outcomes following third trimester exposure to marijuana in opioid dependent pregnant women maintained on buprenorphine.

Drug and Alcohol Dependence Home

“Analyses failed to support any significant relationship between marijuana use in the third trimester and a variety of maternal and infant outcomes.

Preliminary results indicate that marijuana exposure in the third trimester does not complicate the pregnancy or the delivery process.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28917206


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What’s the harm? Alcohol and marijuana use and perceived risks of unprotected sex among adolescents and young adults.

Addictive Behaviors

“The link between substance use and risky sexual behavior, particularly unprotected sex, among adolescents and young adults has been well established in the literature; however, less is known regarding how different patterns and types of substance use differentially relate to unprotected sex and perceived risks of unprotected sex.

The current study examined perceived risks and unprotected sex among adolescents and young adults, and examined whether marijuana use, alcohol use, and dual marijuana and alcohol use were differentially linked to unprotected sex and perceived risks of unprotected sex.

In a hierarchical logistic regression, only alcohol use was related to having unprotected sex at last intercourse (b=0.25, p<0.001). The second multinomial logistic regression showed that the interaction of alcohol and marijuana use was significantly related to lower levels of perceived risk of unprotected sex (moderate risk: b=0.06, p=0.04, OR=1.07; no/slight risk: b=0.07, p=0.03).

While dual marijuana and alcohol use was related to lower perceived risk of unprotected sex, only alcohol use only was associated with a higher likelihood of unprotected sex.”



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Restless Genital Syndrome (ReGS) should be distinguished from Spontaneous Orgasms: A case report of Cannabis induced spontaneous orgasm.

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“A case is described of a 40 year old woman with persistent spontaneous orgasms after use of Cannabis and five hour hard pounding sexual activity. She presented with severe anxiety in particular to suffer from Restless Genital Syndrome (ReGS). However, she did not fulfill to any of the five criteria of ReGS. It was concluded that her spontaneous orgasms were the result of the use of Cannabis combined with long duration of previous sexual activity. This is not only important for physicians but alsof for highly exposed subjects like those active in the sex industry.”

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11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol glucuronide exhibits acyl-migration isomers.

Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis

“11-nor-Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid glucuronide (THCCOOH-glucuronide) is an 1-β-O-acyl glucuronide which degrades not only to 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-THC (THCCOOH) but, additionally, to an isomer with a currently unknown structure. The present study was carried out to examine whether acyl glucuronide isomers are formed by acyl migration and if they are involved in formation of this isomer. THCCOOH-glucuronide was incubated in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4, 37°C, 7days) and a variety of glucuronide cleavage procedures were performed. Samples of the incubation mixture and of different biological specimens from cannabis users were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of six chromatographically separated isomeric acyl glucuronides were detected during incubation of THCCOOH-glucuronide reference substance. In biological specimens of cannabis users, two additional isomers were found. However, the main glucuronide present in human specimens was different from that of a commercially available reference substance. Both, the commercial and the authentic glucuronide were cleaved by β-glucuronidases, the other formed isomers by alkaline hydrolysis only. Mass spectrometric investigations (i.e. product ion, precursor ion and neutral loss scans) confirmed identity. The THCCOOH isomer was detected in all authentic samples, but not in those after buffer incubation. By analyzing THCCOOH-glucuronide in authentic samples, it has to be taken into account that the authentic glucuronide is different from that of the commercial reference standard. THCCOOH-glucuronide undergoes acyl migration and some isomers occur to minor extents in biological specimens. Acyl migration does not lead to the formation of the THCCOOH isomer.”



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Challenges towards Revitalizing Hemp: A Multifaceted Crop.

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“Hemp has been an important crop throughout human history for food, fiber, and medicine. Despite significant progress made by the international research community, the basic biology of hemp plants remains insufficiently understood. Clear objectives are needed to guide future research. As a semi-domesticated plant, hemp has many desirable traits that require improvement, including eliminating seed shattering, enhancing the quantity and quality of stem fiber, and increasing the accumulation of phytocannabinoids. Methods to manipulate the sex of hemp plants will also be important for optimizing yields of seed, fiber, and cannabinoids. Currently, research into trait improvement is hindered by the lack of molecular techniques adapted to hemp. Here we review how addressing these limitations will help advance our knowledge of plant biology and enable us to fully domesticate and maximize the agronomic potential of this promising crop.”



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