Advancement of Research Progress on Synthesis Mechanism of Cannabidiol (CBD)

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“Cannabis sativa L. is a multipurpose crop with high value for food, textiles, and other industries. Its secondary metabolites, including cannabidiol (CBD), have potential for broad application in medicine. With the CBD market expanding, traditional production may not be sufficient. Here we review the potential for the production of CBD using biotechnology. We describe the chemical and biological synthesis of cannabinoids, the associated enzymes, and the application of metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and heterologous expression to increasing production of CBD.”

Minor Cannabinoids as Inhibitors of Skin Inflammation: Chemical Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

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“Despite millennia of therapeutic plant use, deliberate exploitation of Cannabis‘s diverse biomedical potential has only recently gained attention. Bioactivity studies focus mainly on cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with limited information about the broader cannabinome’s “minor phytocannabinoids”. In this context, our research targeted the synthesis of minor cannabinoids containing a lateral chain with 3 or 4 carbon atoms, focusing on cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabichromene (CBC) analogues. Using known and innovative strategies, we achieved the synthesis of 11 C3 and C4 analogues, five of which were inhibitors of skin inflammation, with the CBG-C4 ester derivative emerging as the most potent compound.”

Prescribed Medical Cannabis Use Among Older Individuals: Patient Characteristics and Improvements in Well-Being: Findings from T21

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“Background: Previous research has suggested that the use of cannabis-based medicinal products is increasing most rapidly among older aged individuals (65+ years). Despite this, little is known about the characteristics of older people using cannabis-based medicinal products and their effectiveness.

Objectives: We aimed to document the characteristics, outcomes and prescribing patterns of individuals aged 65+ years receiving prescribed cannabis compared to younger individuals receiving prescribed cannabis.

Methods: Data from T21, an observational study of patients seeking treatment with medicinal cannabinoids, including self-report ratings of quality of life (assessed via the EQ-5D-5L), general health (assessed via the visual analogue scale of the EQ-5D-5L), mood (assessed via the Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and sleep (assessed using four items derived from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were available at treatment entry [n = 4228; 198 (4.7%) 65+ years] and at a 3-month follow-up [n = 2455; 98 (4.2%) = 65+ years].

Results: Relative to younger individuals, those aged over 64 years were more likely to be female (52.5% vs 47.0%; p < 0.001), more likely to report pain as their primary condition (76.3% vs 45.6%; p < 0.001) and less likely to report current daily use (20.2% vs 60.3%, p < 0.001). They received fewer cannabis-based medicinal products (mean = 1.4 vs 2.1; F(1,2199) = 32.3, p < 0.001) and were more likely to receive a prescription for a cannabidiol dominant oil (17.5% vs 5.7%; p < 0.001) and less likely to receive a prescription for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol dominant flower (32.5% vs 75.2%; p < 0.001). There were significant improvements across all measures of well-being (p < 0.001), but the extent of improvements in sleep were more marked in younger individuals (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: There are important differences between individuals aged 65+ years and younger individuals receiving cannabis-based medicinal products. Older aged individuals experience considerable improvement in health and well-being when prescribed cannabis-based medicinal products.”

Vasoactive and Antifibrotic Properties of Cannabinoids and Applications to Vasospastic/Vaso-Occlusive Disorders: A Systematic Review

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“Background: Management of vasospastic and vaso-occlusive disorders is a complex challenge, with current treatments showing varied success. Cannabinoids have demonstrated both vasodilatory and antifibrotic properties, which present potential mechanisms for therapeutic relief. No existing review examines these effects in peripheral circulation in relation to vasospastic and vaso-occlusive disorders. This study aims to investigate vasodilatory and antifibrotic properties of cannabinoids in peripheral vasculature for application in vasospastic and vaso-occlusive disorders affecting the hand.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted by 2 independent reviewers across PubMed, Cochrane, Ovid MEDLINE, and CINAHL to identify studies in accordance with the determined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Information regarding study design, medication, dosage, and hemodynamic or antifibrotic effects were extracted. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize study findings as appropriate.

Results: A total of 584 articles were identified, and 32 were selected for inclusion. Studies were grouped by effect type: hemodynamic (n = 17, 53%) and antifibrotic (n = 15, 47%). Vasodilatory effects including reduced perfusion pressure, increased functional capillary density, inhibition of vessel contraction, and increased blood flow were reported in 82% of studies. Antifibrotic effects including reduced dermal thickening, reduced collagen synthesis, and reduced fibroblast migration were reported in 100% of studies.

Conclusion: Overall, cannabinoids were found to have vasodilatory and antifibrotic effects on peripheral circulation via both endothelium-dependent and independent mechanisms. Our review suggests the applicability of cannabis-based medicines for vasospastic and vaso-occlusive disorders affecting the hand (eg, Raynaud disease, Buerger disease). Future research should aim to assess the effectiveness of cannabis-based medicines for these conditions.”

Lysosomal cholesterol accumulation in aged astrocytes impairs cholesterol delivery to neurons and can be rescued by cannabinoids

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“Cholesterol is crucial for the proper functioning of eukaryotic cells, especially neurons, which rely on cholesterol to maintain their complex structure and facilitate synaptic transmission. However, brain cells are isolated from peripheral cholesterol by the blood-brain barrier and mature neurons primarily uptake the cholesterol synthesized by astrocytes for proper function.

This study aimed to investigate the effect of aging on cholesterol trafficking in astrocytes and its delivery to neurons. We found that aged astrocytes accumulated high levels of cholesterol in the lysosomal compartment, and this cholesterol buildup can be attributed to the simultaneous occurrence of two events: decreased levels of the ABCA1 transporter, which impairs ApoE-cholesterol export from astrocytes, and reduced expression of NPC1, which hinders cholesterol release from lysosomes. We show that these two events are accompanied by increased microR-33 in aged astrocytes, which targets ABCA1 and NPC1. In addition, we demonstrate that the microR-33 increase is triggered by oxidative stress, one of the hallmarks of aging. By coculture experiments, we show that cholesterol accumulation in astrocytes impairs the cholesterol delivery from astrocytes to neurons.

Remarkably, we found that this altered transport of cholesterol could be alleviated through treatment with endocannabinoids as well as cannabidiol or CBD. Finally, according to data demonstrating that aged astrocytes develop an A1 phenotype, we found that cholesterol buildup is also observed in reactive C3+ astrocytes.

Given that reduced neuronal cholesterol affects synaptic plasticity, the ability of cannabinoids to restore cholesterol transport from aged astrocytes to neurons holds significant implications in aging and inflammation.”

Cannabidiol alleviates suture-induced corneal pathological angiogenesis and inflammation by inducing myeloid-derived suppressor cells

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“Background: Currently, no perfect treatment for neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis exist, and each treatment method has its complications and side effects. This study aimed to investigate the anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol and its mechanism of action.

Method: An in vivo corneal neovascularization (CNV) model was established using the suture method to investigate the inhibitory effects of CBD on suture-induced corneal inflammation, pathological blood vessel formation, and lymphangiogenesis. Additionally, the impact of CBD on immune cells was studied. In vitro methodologies, including cell sorting and co-culture, were employed to elucidate its mechanism of action.

Results: Compared with the CNV group, CBD can inhibit CNV, lymphangiogenesis, and inflammation induced via the suture method. In addition, CBD specifically induced CD45+CD11b+Gr-1+ cell upregulation, which significantly inhibited the proliferation of CD4+ T lymphocytes in vitro and exhibited a CD31+ phenotype, proving that they were myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). We administered anti-Gr-1 to mice to eliminate MDSCs in vivo and found that anti-Gr-1 partially reversed the anti-inflammatory and angiogenic effects of CBD. Furthermore, we found that compared with MDSCs in the normal group, CBD-induced MDSCs overexpress peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ). Administering PPAR-γ inhibitor in mice almost reversed the induction of MDSCs by CBD, demonstrating the role of PPAR-γ in the function of CBD.

Conclusion: This study indicates that CBD may induce MDSCs upregulation by activating the nuclear receptor PPAR-γ, exerting anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and lymphangiogenic effects, and revealing potential therapeutic targets for corneal neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis.”

Neuroprotective Effects of Cannabispirenone A against NMDA-Induced Excitotoxicity in Differentiated N2a Cells

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“The endocannabinoid system is found throughout the central nervous system, and its cannabinoids receptor 1 is critical in preventing neurotoxicity caused by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation (NMDARs). The activity of NMDARs places demands on endogenous cannabinoids to regulate their calcium currents.

Endocannabinoids keep NMDAR activity within safe limits, protecting neural cells from excitotoxicity. Cannabinoids are remembered to deliver this outcome by repressing presynaptic glutamate discharge or obstructing postsynaptic NMDAR-managed flagging pathways.

The endocannabinoid system must exert a negative influence proportional to the strength of NMDAR signaling for such control to be effective. The goal of this paper is to draw the attention towards the neuroprotective mechanism of constituents of Cannabis sativa against NMDA-induced excitotoxic result.

Phytochemical investigation of the cannabis flowers led to the isolation of nine secondary metabolites. A spiro-compound, Cannabispirenone A, which on treatment of the cells prior to NMDA exposure significantly increases cell survival while decreasing ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and intracellular calcium.

Our findings showed that this compound showed neuroprotection against NMDA-induced excitotoxic insult, has antioxidative properties, and increased cannabinoid receptor 1 expression, which may be involved in the signaling pathway for this neuroprotection.”

“In the current study, we assessed the flowers of the cannabis plant that showed ability to protect cells from NMDA-induced insult and discovered that it could prevent cell death. To our knowledge, we here reporting the first-time neuroprotective properties of the molecule isolated from the flowers of the cannabis plant.”

The development of cannabinoids as therapeutic agents in the United States

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“Cannabis is one of the oldest and widely used substances in the world. Cannabinoids within the cannabis plant, known as phytocannabinoids, mediate cannabis’ effects through interactions with the body’s endogenous cannabinoid system.

This endogenous system, the endocannabinoid system, has important roles in physical and mental health. These roles point to the potential to develop cannabinoids as therapeutic agents, while underscoring the risks related to interfering with the endogenous system during non-medical use.

This scoping narrative review synthesizes the current evidence for both the therapeutic and adverse effects of the major (i.e., Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol) and lesser studied minor phytocannabinoids, from nonclinical to clinical research. We pay particular attention to the areas where evidence is well-established, including analgesic effects after acute exposures and neurocognitive risks after acute and chronic use.

In addition, drug development considerations for cannabinoids as therapeutic agents within the United States are reviewed. The proposed clinical study design considerations encourage methodological standards for greater scientific rigor and reproducibility, ultimately, to extend our knowledge of the risks and benefits of cannabinoids for patients and providers.

Significance Statement This work provides a review of prior research related to phytocannabinoids, including therapeutic potential and known risks in the context of drug development within the United States. We also provide study design considerations for future cannabinoid drug development.”

Infant formula as a solid lipid dose form for enhancement of the oral bioavailability of cannabidiol for paediatric patients

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“Cannabinoids can save paediatric patients from harmful psychological conditions caused by epilepsy. However, the limited aqueous solubility of the drug presents a limitation to oral absorption and bioavailability.

Previous studies have shown the enhancement of oral bioavailability for poorly water-soluble drugs using milk or milk-based products like infant formula as a novel lipid-based formulation, due to digestion of the lipids to enhance drug solubility. that is particularly well suited to infants and in low economy settings.

Therefore, this study has investigated the in vitro solubilization enhancement of cannabidiol (CBD) in milk-based products during digestion using synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering, followed by pharmacokinetic studies to determine the relative oral bioavailability. The in vitro results, coupled with in vivo data, demonstrate a two-fold increase in the oral bioavailability of CBD in bovine milk as well as infant formula.

The results of this study indicate the potential for infant formula to be considered as a novel formulation approach for CBD. Further study is encouraged for more drugs with infant formula to strengthen the correlation between the solubilization of drug and their oral bioavailability.”

Assessment of Moroccan Cannabis sativa Seed Oil: Chemical Analysis and Evaluation of Antioxidant, Toxicological, and Antinociceptive Effects

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“Cannabis sativa L. is a plant known locally as “El kif” of the Cannabaceae family. This study aimed to conduct a chemical analysis of Cannabis sativa seed oil (CSSO) and assess its acute toxicity, antioxidant properties, and analgesic effects.

The chemical analysis was performed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify its fatty acids (FAs) content. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging method and the FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) method. Concurrently, acute toxicity, along with antinociceptive activity, was studied through three distinct animal models: writhing test, formalin test, and hot plate test.

The results revealed that linoleic acid, oleic acid, α-linolenic acid, and palmitic acid were the main components of CSSO. The LD50 of CSSO was greater than 5 g/kg, indicating low toxicity. Additionally, CSSO exhibited a significant content of flavonoids and total polyphenols, along with notable antioxidant activity with values. The results indicated a significant increase in thermal stimulus latency, a reduction in the number of writhes induced by acetic acid, and a decrease in licking time in both phases of the formalin test.

In conclusion, this study suggests promising results for CSSO emphasizing its potential as a therapeutic agent.”