“Δ9‐THCA‐A, the precursor of Δ9‐THC, is a non‐psychotropic phytocannabinoid that shows PPARγ agonistic activity. Herein, we investigated Δ9‐THCA ability to modulate classic cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and evaluated its anti‐arthritis activity.
Cannabinoid receptors binding and intrinsic activity, as well as their downstream signaling were analyzed in vitro and in silico . The anti‐arthritis properties of Δ9‐THCA‐A were studied in human chondrocytes and in the murine model of collagen‐induced arthritis (CIA). Plasmatic disease biomarkers were identified by liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry (LC‐MS/MS) based on proteomic and ELISA assays.
Functional and docking analyses showed that Δ9‐THCA‐A can act as an orthosteric CB1 agonist and also as a positive allosteric modulator in the presence of CP‐55,940. In addition, Δ9‐THCA‐A seemed to be an inverse agonist for CB2.In vivo experiments showed that Δ9‐THCA‐A reduced arthritis in CIA mice. Δ9‐THCA‐A prevented the infiltration of inflammatory cells; synovium hyperplasia and cartilage damage. Furthermore, Δ9‐THCA‐A inhibited the expression of inflammatory and catabolic genes on knee joints. The anti‐arthritic effect of Δ9‐THCA‐A was ablated by either SR141716 or T0070907. Analysis of plasmatic biomarkers as well as determination of cytokines and anti‐collagen antibodies confirmed that Δ9‐THCA‐A mediates its activity mainly through PPARγ and CB1 pathways.
Conclusion and Implications
Δ9‐THCA‐A modulates CB1 receptor through the orthosteric and allosteric binding sites. In addition, our studies document that Δ9‐THCA‐A exerts anti‐arthritis activity through CB1/PPARγ pathways, highlighting its potential for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA).”
“Over the last two decades, affirmative diagnoses of osteoarthritis in the United States have tripled due to increasing rates of obesity and an aging population.
Hemp-derived cannabidiol (CBD) is the major non-THC component of cannabis and has been promoted as a potential treatment for a wide variety of disparate inflammatory conditions.
Here we evaluated CBD for its ability to modulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro and in murine models of induced inflammation and further validated the ability of a liposomal formulation to increase bioavailability in mice and in humans.
Subsequently, the therapeutic potential of both naked and liposomally-encapsulated CBD was explored in a 4-week, randomized placebo-controlled, double-blinded study in a spontaneous canine model of osteoarthritis.
In vitro and in mouse models, CBD significantly attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α while elevating levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10. In the veterinary study, CBD significantly decreased pain and increased mobility in a dose-dependent fashion among animals with an affirmative diagnosis of osteoarthritis.
Liposomal CBD (20 mg/day) was as effective as the highest dose of non-liposomal CBD (50 mg/day) in improving clinical outcomes. Hematocrit, comprehensive metabolic profile, and clinical chemistry indicated no significant detrimental impact of CBD administration over the four-week analysis period.
This study supports the safety and therapeutic potential of hemp-derived CBD for relieving arthritic pain and suggests follow-up investigations in humans is warranted.”
“Cannabis use in the management of musculoskeletal diseases has gained advocacy since several states have legalized its recreational use.
Cannabidiol (CBD), a commercially available, non-neurotropic marijuana constituent, has shown promise in arthritic animal models by attenuating pro-inflammatory immune responses. Additional research has demonstrated the benefit of CBD in decreasing the endogenous pain response in mice subjected to acute arthritic conditions, and further studies have highlighted improved fracture healing following CBD use in murine mid-femoral fractures.
However, there is a lack of high-quality, novel research investigating the use of CBD in human musculoskeletal diseases aside from anecdotal accounts and retrospective reviews, perhaps due to legal ramifications limiting the enrollment of patients. The purpose of this review article is to highlight the extent of current research on CBD and its biochemical and pharmacologic efficacy in the treatment of joint disease, as well as the evidence for use of CBD and cannabis in patients undergoing joint arthroplasty.
Based on available literature relying on retrospective data and case reports, it is challenging to propose a recommendation for CBD use in perioperative pain management. Additionally, a number of CBD products currently available as supplements with different methods of administration, and it is important to remember that these products are non-pharmaceuticals. However, given the increased social relevance of CBD and cannabis-based medicines, future, prospective controlled studies evaluating their efficacy are needed.”
“Endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors, their endogenous ligands, and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation. CB2, to a great extent, and CB1, to a lesser extent, are involved in regulating the immune response. They also regulate the inflammatory processes by inhibiting pro-inflammatory mediator release and immune cell proliferation. This review provides an overview on the role of the endocannabinoid system with a major focus on cannabinoid receptors in the pathogenesis and onset of inflammatory and autoimmune pediatric diseases, such as immune thrombocytopenia, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, obesity, neuroinflammatory diseases, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. These disorders have a high social impact and represent a burden for the healthcare system, hence the importance of individuating more innovative and effective treatments. The endocannabinoid system could address this need, representing a possible new diagnostic marker and therapeutic target.”
“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist that tempers inflammation.
An interaction between the CB2 receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) has been suggested and PPAR-γ activation exerts anti-arthritic effects.
The aim of this study was to characterize the therapeutic activity of BCP and to investigate PPAR-γ involvement in a collagen antibody induced arthritis (CAIA) experimental model.
BCP significantly hampered the severity of the disease, reduced relevant pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-13. BCP also decreased joint expression of matrix metalloproteinases 3 and 9. Arthritic joints showed increased COX2 and NF-ĸB mRNA expression and reduced expression of the PPARγ coactivator-1 alpha, PGC-1α, and PPAR-γ. These conditions were reverted following BCP treatment.
Finally, BCP reduced NF-ĸB activation and increased PGC-1α and PPAR-γ expression in human articular chondrocytes stimulated with LPS. These effects were reverted by AM630, a CB2 receptor antagonist.
These results suggest that BCP ameliorates arthritis through a cross-talk between CB2 and PPAR-γ.”
“Described during the late 1980s and 1990s, cannabinoid receptors (CB1R and CB2R) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activated by endogenous ligands and cannabinoid drug compounds, such as Δ9-THC. Whereas CB1R has a role in the regulation of neurotransmission in different brain regions and mainly mediates the psychoactive effects of cannabinoids, CB2R is found predominantly in the cells and tissues of the immune system and mediates anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory processes. Studies have demonstrated that CB1R and CB2R can affect the activation of T cells, B cells, monocytes, and microglial cells, inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine expression and upregulating proresolution mediators. Thus, in this review, we summarize the mechanisms by which CBRs interact with the autoimmune environment and the potential to suppress the development and activation of autoreactive cells. Finally, we highlight how the modulation of CB1R and CB2R is advantageous in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).”
“Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory, synovitis-dominated systemic disease with unknown etiology. RA is characterized by the involvement of multiple affected joints, symmetry, and invasive arthritis of the limbs, which can lead to joint deformity, cartilage destruction, and loss of function. Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has potent immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects and is predominantly expressed in non-neuronal tissues. In the current study, the role of CB2 in the process of inflammatory bone erosion in RA was examined. The selective agonist or high-affinity ligand of CB2 (4-quinolone-3-carboxamides CB2 agonist, 4Q3C CB2agonist, 4Q3C) significantly reduced the severity of arthritis, decreased histopathological findings, and markedly reduced bone erosion in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. In addition, 4Q3C prevented an increase in the nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio and inhibited the formation of osteoclasts in CIA mice. Furthermore, the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase was lower in 4Q3C-treated CIA mice than in control CIA mice. Micro-computed tomography corroborated the finding that 4Q3C reduced joint destruction. These data clearly indicate that the CB2-selective agonist, 4Q3C, may have anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastogenesis effects in RA and may be considered to be a novel treatment for RA.”
“An increasing number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are using cannabis to treat their symptoms, although systematic studies regarding efficacy in RA are lacking. Within this review we will give an overview on the overall effects of cannabinoids in inflammation and why they might be useful in the treatment of RA.
Peripherally, cannabinoids show anti-inflammatory effects by activating cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2) which decrease cytokine production and immune cell mobilization. In contrast, cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) activation on immune cells is proinflammatory while CB1 antagonism provides anti-inflammatory effects by increasing β2-adrenergic signaling in the joint and secondary lymphoid organs. In addition, the nonpsychotropic cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD) demonstrated antiarthritic effects independent of cannabinoid receptors. In addition to controlling inflammation, cannabinoids reduce pain by activating central and peripheral CB1, peripheral CB2 receptors and CBD-sensitive noncannabinoid receptor targets.
Cannabinoids might be a suitable treatment for RA, but it is important to target the right receptors in the right place. For clinical studies, we propose a combination of a CB2 agonist to decrease cytokine production, a peripheral CB1 antagonist to prevent detrimental CB1 signaling and to support anti-inflammatory effects of CB2 via activation of β2-adrenergic receptors and CBD to induce cannabinoid-receptor-independent anti-inflammatory effects.”
“Medical uses of Cannabis sativa have been known for over 6,000 years. Nowadays, cannabis is mostly known for its psychotropic effects and its ability to relieve pain, even though there is evidence of cannabis use for autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis centuries ago. The pharmacological therapy in autoimmune diseases is mainly based on immunosuppression of diffefent axes of the immune system while many of the drugs have major side effects. In this review we set out to examine the rule of Cannabis sativa as an immunomodulator and its potential as a new treatment option. In order to examine this subject we will focus on some major autoimmune diseases such as diabetes type I and rheumatoid arthritis.”
“Chronic pain is a main symptom of osteoarthritis (OA). Moreover, a high percentage of OA patients suffer from mental health problems.
The endocannabinoid (EC) system has attracted attention as an emerging drug target for pain treatment together with its activity on the mesolimbic reward system.
Understanding the circuits that govern the reward of pain relief is crucial for the search for effective analgesics. Therefore, we investigated the role of the EC system on dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) in an animal model of OA-related chronic pain.
Our results demonstrated that chronic pain in OA rats was reflected by the inhibition of mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic transmission, and may indicate the pro-pain role of NA in the FCx.
The data provide understanding about changes in neurotransmission in chronic pain states and may explain the clinical improvement in perceived life quality following cannabinoid treatment.
Additional mechanistic studies in preclinical models examining the intersection between chronic pain and reward circuits may offer new approaches for improving pain therapy.”