ABC7 Los Angeles

“Sleep apnea, a condition affecting more than 12 million Americans, can lead to a host of health problems, including heart disease, and a new treatment containing ingredients derived from cannabis is being developed to help those with the disorder.”

Cannabidiol induces rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects and enhances cortical 5-HT/glutamate neurotransmission: Role of 5-HT1A receptors.

“Cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotomimetic component of marihuana…

…we have evaluated the effects of CBD following acute and chronic administration in the olfactory bulbectomy mouse model of depression…

In conclusion, our findings indicate that CBD could represent a novel fast antidepressant drug, via enhancing both serotonergic and glutamate cortical signalling through a 5-HT1A receptor-dependent mechanism.”

Cannabis to lower blood pressure!

News Medical - Life Sciences & Medicine

“A new method for lowering blood pressure (hypertension) through use of a compound that synthesizes a cannabis (hashish) plant component has been developed by a pharmacology Ph.D. student at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem School of Pharmacy.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for about one-third of all deaths in industrialized countries, and is the leading reason for visits there to physicians as well as for drug prescriptions. However, not all patients respond well to the drugs available. There is no “ideal’ hypotensive (blood pressure lowering) drug.

The cannabis plant – also known as hashish or marijuana – through its chemical compounds — cannabinoids — has been shown to have a beneficial, hypotensive effect.”

Report shows relationship between sensation seeking, reward sensitivity and cannabis use

“Lowering Of Blood Pressure Achieved Through Use Of Hashish-like Drug”

Use of Cannabinoids for Spasticity and Pain Management in MS.

“Several randomized trials have demonstrated potential benefit of cannabis derivatives in the symptomatic treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. These provide class 1 and 2 evidence for cannabinoid product use for spasticity and pain in these patients. The precise best ratio or doses are not yet clear. The safety and potential long-term effects of these products on cognitive function in people with MS have not been evaluated. Since short-term memory and processing speed can be significantly impaired in many people with MS, the concern of potential cognitive impairment related to cannabis products needs consideration in clinical care and should be addressed in longer, prospective studies.”

Cannabinoid receptor-specific mechanisms to ameliorate pain in sickle cell anemia via inhibition of mast cell activation and neurogenic inflammation.

“Sickle cell anaemia is a manifestation of a single point mutation in haemoglobin, but inflammation and pain are the insignia of this disease which can start in infancy and continue throughout life.

Earlier studies showed that mast cell activation contributes to neurogenic inflammation and pain in sickle mice.

Morphine is the common analgesic treatment but also remains a major challenge due to the side effects and ability to activate mast cells. Therefore, we examined the cannabinoid receptor-specific mechanisms to ameliorate mast cell activation, neurogenic inflammation and hyperalgesia, using HbSS-BERK sickle and cannabinoid receptor 2 deleted sickle mice.

We show that cannabinoids ameliorate mast cell activation, inflammation and neurogenic inflammation in sickle mice via both cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2.

Thus, cannabinoids influence systemic and neural mechanisms, ameliorating the disease pathobiology and hyperalgesia in sickle mice.

This study provides a “proof of principle” for the potential of cannabinoid/cannabinoid receptor-based therapeutics to treat several manifestations of sickle cell anaemia.”

Oxyradical Stress, Endocannabinoids, and Atherosclerosis.

“Atherosclerosis is responsible for most cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is caused by several factors including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and chronic inflammation.

Oxidants and electrophiles have roles in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and the concentrations of these reactive molecules are an important factor in disease initiation and progression.

Overactive NADPH oxidase (Nox) produces excess superoxide resulting in oxidized macromolecules, which is an important factor in atherogenesis. Although superoxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have obvious toxic properties, they also have fundamental roles in signaling pathways that enable cells to adapt to stress.

In addition to inflammation and ROS, the endocannabinoid system (eCB) is also important in atherogenesis.

Linkages have been postulated between the eCB system, Nox, oxidative stress, and atherosclerosis.

For instance, CB2 receptor-evoked signaling has been shown to upregulate anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative pathways, whereas CB1 signaling appears to induce opposite effects.

The second messenger lipid molecule diacylglycerol is implicated in the regulation of Nox activity and diacylglycerol lipase β (DAGLβ) is a key biosynthetic enzyme in the biosynthesis eCB ligand 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG).

Furthermore, Nrf2 is a vital transcription factor that protects against the cytotoxic effects of both oxidant and electrophile stress.

This review will highlight the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in intracellular signaling and the impact of deregulated ROS-mediated signaling in atherogenesis.

In addition, there is also emerging knowledge that the eCB system has an important role in atherogenesis.

We will attempt to integrate oxidative stress and the eCB system into a conceptual framework that provides insights into this pathology.”

An Introduction to the Endogenous Cannabinoid System.

“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a widespread neuromodulatory system that plays important roles in central nervous system development, synaptic plasticity, and the response to endogenous and environmental insults.

The ECS comprises cannabinoid receptors, endogenouscannabinoids (endocannabinoids), and the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of the endocannabinoids.

The most abundant cannabinoid receptors are the CB1 cannabinoid receptors; however, CB2 cannabinoid receptors, transient receptor potential channels, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors are also engaged by some cannabinoids.

Exogenous cannabinoids, such as tetrahydrocannabinol, produce their biological effects through their interactions with cannabinoid receptors.

The best-studied endogenous cannabinoids are 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide). Despite similarities in chemical structure, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and anandamide are synthesized and degraded by distinct enzymatic pathways, which impart fundamentally different physiologic and pathophysiologic roles to these two endocannabinoids.

As a result of the pervasive social use of cannabis and the involvement of endocannabinoids in a multitude of biological processes, much has been learned about the physiologic and pathophysiologic roles of the ECS.

This review provides an introduction to the ECS with an emphasis on its role in synaptic plasticity and how the ECS is perturbed in schizophrenia.”

Human rights, public health and medicinal cannabis use.

“This paper explores the interplay between the human rights and drug control frameworks and critiques case law on medicinal cannabis use to demonstrate that a bona fide human rights perspective allows for a broader conception of ‘health’.

This broad conception, encompassing both medicalised and social constructionist definitions, can inform public health policies relating to medicinal cannabis use.

The paper also demonstrates how a human rights lens can alleviate a core tension between the State and the individual within the drug policy field.

The leading medicinal cannabis case in the UK highlights the judiciary’s failure to engage with an individual’s human right to health as they adopt an arbitrary, externalist view, focussing on the legality of cannabis to the exclusion of other concerns.

Drawing on some international comparisons, the paper considers how a human rights perspective can lead to an approach to medicinal cannabis use which facilitates a holistic understanding of public health.”

Beneficial effects of a Cannabis sativa extract treatment on diabetes-induced neuropathy and oxidative stress.

“Neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes and it is still considered to be relatively refractory to most of the analgesics. The aim of the present study was to explore the antinociceptive effect of a controlled cannabis extract (eCBD) in attenuating diabetic neuropathic pain.

These findings highlighted the beneficial effects of cannabis extract treatment in attenuating diabetic neuropathic pain, possibly through a strong antioxidant activity and a specific action upon nerve growth factor.”