Activation of Cannabinoid Receptors Attenuates Endothelin-1-induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Rat Ventricular Myocytes.

Image result for Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology.“Evidence suggests that activation of the endocannabinoid system offers cardioprotection.

Aberrant energy production by impaired mitochondria purportedly contributes to various aspects of cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether cannabinoid (CB) receptor activation would attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction induced by endothelin-1 (ET1).

Acute exposure to ET1 (4 h) in the presence of palmitate as primary energy substrate induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and decreased mitochondrial bioenergetics and expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation (i.e. peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC)-1α, a driver of mitochondrial biogenesis, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1β, facilitator of fatty acid uptake).

A CB1/CB2 dual agonist with limited brain penetration, CB-13, corrected these parameters. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of energy homeostasis, mediated the ability of CB-13 to rescue mitochondrial function. In fact, the ability of CB-13 to rescue fatty acid oxidation-related bioenergetics, as well as expression of PGC-1α and CPT-1β, was abolished by pharmacological inhibition of AMPK using compound C and shRNA knockdown of AMPKα1/α2, respectively.

Interventions that target CB/AMPK signaling might represent a novel therapeutic approach to address the multi-factorial problem of cardiovascular disease.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31815823

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00005344-900000000-98463

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The effect of high maternal linoleic acid on endocannabinoid signalling in rodent hearts.

Image result for journal of developmental origins of health and disease “The endocannabinoid system (ECS), modulated by metabolites of linoleic acid (LA), is important in regulating cardiovascular function.

In pregnancy, LA is vital for foetal development.

Data indicate that a high LA diet alters cell viability and CB2 expression, potentially influencing cardiac function during pregnancy and development of the offspring’s heart.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31814560

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease/article/effect-of-high-maternal-linoleic-acid-on-endocannabinoid-signalling-in-rodent-hearts/C92E2C1126249B7CF9D8A929F0E52FA2

“A number of previous studies have shown that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and phytosterols are critically important for human health. Hempseed is a rich source of plant oil, which contains more than 80% PUFAs. The fatty acids in hempseed oil include a variety of essential fatty acids, including linoleic acid ”

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10059-011-0042-6

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Vasodilatory effects of cannabidiol in human pulmonary and rat small mesenteric arteries: modification by hypertension and the potential pharmacological opportunities.

 Image result for ovid journal“Cannabidiol (CBD) has been suggested as a potential antihypertensive drug.

The aim of our study was to investigate its vasodilatory effect in isolated human pulmonary arteries (hPAs) and rat small mesenteric arteries (sMAs).

METHODS:

Vascular effects of CBD were examined in hPAs obtained from patients during resection of lung carcinoma and sMAs isolated from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR); 11-deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt) hypertensive rats or their appropriate normotensive controls using organ bath and wire myography, respectively.

RESULTS:

CBD induced almost full concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in hPAs and rat sMAs. In hPAs, it was insensitive to antagonists of CB1 (AM251) and CB2 (AM630) receptors but it was reduced by endothelium denudation, cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin and nimesulide), antagonists of prostanoid EP4 (L161982), IP (Cay10441), vanilloid TRPV1 (capsazepine) receptors and was less potent under KCl-induced tone and calcium-activated potassium channel (KCa) inhibitors (iberiotoxin, UCL1684 and TRAM-34) and in hypertensive, overweight and hypercholesteremic patients. The time-dependent effect of CBD was sensitive to the PPARγ receptor antagonist GW9662. In rats, the CBD potency was enhanced in DOCA-salt and attenuated in SHR. The CBD-induced relaxation was inhibited in SHR and DOCA-salt by AM251 and only in DOCA-salt by AM630 and endothelium denudation.

CONCLUSION:

The CBD-induced relaxation in hPAs that was reduced in hypertensive, obese and hypercholesteremic patients was endothelium-dependent and mediated via KCa and IP, EP4, TRPV1 receptors. The CBD effect in rats was CB1-sensitive and dependent on the hypertension model. Thus, modification of CBD-mediated responses in disease should be considered when CBD is used for therapeutic purposes.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31800399

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004872-900000000-97067

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Alcohol Binge-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction Involves Endocannabinoid-CB1-R Signaling.

 JACC: Basic to Translational Science“Excessive binge alcohol drinking may adversely affect cardiovascular function. In this study we characterize the detailed hemodynamic effects of an acute alcohol binge in mice using multiple approaches and investigate the role of the endocannabinoid-cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1-R) signaling in these effects. Acute alcohol binge was associated with elevated levels of cardiac endocannabinoid anandamide and profound cardiovascular dysfunction lasting for several hours and redistribution of circulation. These changes were attenuated by CB1-R antagonist or in CB1-R knockout mice. Our results suggest that a single alcohol binge has profound effects on the cardiovascular system, which involve endocannabinoid-CB1-R signaling.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31768478

“Alcohol is one of the most frequently used intoxicants in the United States. Binge alcohol drinking is a major contributor of emergency department visits. Binge alcohol drinking may adversely affect cardiovascular function. Here we show that acute alcohol intoxication is associated with elevated levels of cardiac endocannabinoid anandamide and profound cardiovascular dysfunction and blood redistribution lasting for several hours. The adverse cardiovascular effects of acute alcohol intoxication are attenuated by CB1-R antagonist or in CB1-R knockout mice. A single alcohol binge has profound effect on the cardiovascular system, which involves endocannabinoid-CB1-R signaling.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2452302X19301755?via%3Dihub

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Ameliorative effects of hempseed (Cannabis sativa) against hypercholesterolemia associated cardiovascular changes.

Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases“Hypercholesterolemia (HC) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) diseases, that are the major cause of mortality worldwide.

Free radicals mediated oxidative stress is a critical player in HC-associated pathophysiological insults including atherosclerosis. Unwanted side effects associated with statins, COX-2 inhibitors, and other synthetic drugs limit their use. Thus, modulation of oxidative stress during HC using green pharmaceuticals seems an appropriate approach against deleterious CV consequences without noticeable side-effect.

In this regard, owing to an abundance of proteins, fiber and optimal ratios of omega 6 PUFA: omega-3 PUFA in Hempseed (HS), we aim to exploit its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties to ameliorate HC- associated CV effects.

CONCLUSIONS:

Current study evidently demonstrates that the anti-hypercholesterolemic effects of HS are mediated through redox-sensitive modulation of inflammatory pathways.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31668458

“Hypercholesterolemia (HC) associated oxidative stress is central to cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Unwanted side effects associated with statins and other synthetic drugs limits their use. Modulation of HC associated oxidative stress by Hempseed (HS) was based on its anti-inflammatory/antioxidant properties. HS exhibited intense anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effect via redox modulation of PG biosynthetic pathway. The multipronged approach to characterize HC associated CV effects and its modulation by HS is novel.”

https://www.nmcd-journal.com/article/S0939-4753(19)30345-X/fulltext

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The Impact of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Deficiency on Neutrophil Recruitment and Inflammation.

View details for DNA and Cell Biology cover image“Neutrophil trafficking into damaged or infected tissues is essential for the initiation of inflammation, clearance of pathogens and damaged cells, and ultimately tissue repair. Neutrophil recruitment is highly dependent on the stepwise induction of adhesion molecules and promigratory chemokines and cytokines.

A number of studies in animal models have shown the efficacy of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists in limiting inflammation in a range of preclinical models of inflammation, including colitis, atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Recent work in preclinical models of inflammation raises two questions: by what mechanisms do CB2 agonists provide anti-inflammatory effects during acute inflammation and what challenges exist in the translation of CB2 modulating therapeutics into the clinic.”

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Interplay of liver-heart inflammatory axis and cannabinoid 2 receptor signalling in an experimental model of hepatic cardiomyopathy.

Publication cover image“Hepatic cardiomyopathy, a special type of heart failure develops in up to 50% of patients with cirrhosis and is a major determinant of survival. However, there is no reliable model of hepatic cardiomyopathy in mice. Herein we aimed to characterize the detailed hemodynamics of mice with bile-duct ligation (BDL)-induced liver fibrosis, by monitoring echocardiography and intracardiac pressure-volume (PV) relationships and myocardial structural alterations. Treatment of mice with a selective cannabinoid-2 receptor (CB2 -R) agonist, known to attenuate inflammation and fibrosis, was used to explore the impact of liver inflammation, fibrosis on cardiac function.

MAIN RESULTS:

BDL induced massive inflammation (increased leukocyte infiltration, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines), oxidative stress, microvascular dysfunction, and fibrosis in the liver. These pathological changes were accompanied by impaired diastolic, systolic and macrovascular functions, cardiac inflammation (increased MIP1, interleukin-1, P-selectin, CD45+ cells) and oxidative stress (increased malondialdehyde, 3-nitrotyrosine and NADPH-oxidases). CB2 -R up-regulation was observed both in livers and hearts of mice exposed to BDL. CB2 -R activation markedly improved hepatic inflammation, impaired microcirculation, fibrosis. CB2 -R activation also decreased serum TNF-alpha levels, and improved cardiac dysfunction, myocardial inflammation and oxidative stress underlining the importance of inflammatory mediators in the pathology of hepatic cardiomyopathy.

CONCLUSION:

We propose BDL-induced cardiomyopathy in mice as a model for hepatic/cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. This cardiomyopathy, similarly to cirrhotic cardiomyopathy in humans, is characterized by systemic hypotension, impaired macro- and microvascular function accompanied by both systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Our results indicate that the liver-heart inflammatory axis has a pivotal pathophysiological role in the development of hepatic cardiomyopathy. Thus, controlling liver and/or myocardial inflammation (e.g. with selective CB2-R agonists) may delay/prevent the development of cardiomyopathy in severe liver disease. ”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31469200

https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/hep.30916

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Role of the endocannabinoidome in human and mouse atherosclerosis.

“The Endocannabinoid (eCB) system and its role in many physiological and pathological conditions is well described and accepted, and includes cardiovascular disorders. However, the eCB system has been expanded to an “-ome”; the endocannabinoidome (eCBome) that includes endocannabinoid-related mediators, their protein targets and metabolic enzymes, many of which significantly impact upon cardiometabolic health. These recent discoveries are here summarized with a special focus on their potential involvement in atherosclerosis. We described the role of classical components of the eCB system (eCBs, CB1 and CB2 receptors) and eCB-related lipids, their regulatory enzymes and molecular targets in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, since increasing evidence points to significant cross-talk between the eCBome and the gut microbiome and the gut microbiome and atherosclerosis, we explore the possibility that a gut microbiome – eCBome axis has potential implications in atherosclerosis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31448709

http://www.eurekaselect.com/174465/article

“Oral cannabinoid therapy reduces progression of atherosclerosis”  https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/787468

“The active ingredient in marijuana that produces changes in brain messages appears to fight atherosclerosis — a hardening of the arteries.” https://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/news/20050406/marijuana-chemical-fights-hardened-arteries

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The protective mechanism of cannabidiol in cardiac injury: A systematic review of non-clinical studies.

“Cardiac disease is accounted as the leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality, mainly in association with induction of inflammation and oxidative stress. The disease is characterized by the overproduction of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), and reduced antioxidant capacity.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive ingredient of marijuana that reported to be safe and well tolerated in patients. Due to its pleiotropic effect, CBD has been shown to exert cytoprotective effects. This study intended to clarify the mechanisms and the potential role of CBD regarding cardiac injuries treatment.

RESULTS:

Our findings obviously demonstrate that CBD has multi-functional protective assets to improve cardiac injuries; preliminary through scavenging of free radicals, and reduction of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation.

CONCLUSION:

CBD can protect against cardiac injuries, mainly through its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects on the basis of non-clinical studies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31291873

http://www.eurekaselect.com/173374/article

“Cytoprotection is a process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytoprotection

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