Control of myogenic tone and agonist induced contraction of intramural coronary resistance arterioles by cannabinoid type 1 receptors and endocannabinoids.

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“It was tested whether intrinsic CB1R activation modifies myogenic and agonist induced contraction of intramural coronary resistance arteries of the rat. CB1R protein was detected by immuno-histochemistry and by Western blot, its mRNA by qRT-PCR in their wall. Microsurgically prepared cylindrical coronary segments (∼100-150μm) developed myogenic contraction (∼20% of relaxed luminal diameter), from which a substantial relaxation (∼15%) in response to WIN55212 (a specific agonist of the CB1Rs) has been found. CB1R-mediated relaxation was blocked by O2050 and AM251 (neutral antagonist and inverse agonist of the CB1R, respectively) and was partially blocked by the NO synthase blocker LNA. CB1R blockade enhanced myogenic tone and augmented AngII-induced vasoconstriction (from 17,8±1,2 to 29,1±2,9%, p <0,05). Inhibition of diacylglycerol lipase by tetrahydrolipstatin, (inhibitor of endogenous 2-AG production) also augmented coronary vasoconstriction. These observations prove that vascular endocannabinoids are significant negative modulators of the myogenic and agonist-induced tone of intramural coronary arterioles acting through CB1Rs.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29031792

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1098882317300047

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Activation of cannabinoid receptor type II by AM1241 protects adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells from oxidative damage and enhances their therapeutic efficacy in myocardial infarction mice via Stat3 activation.

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“The poor survival of cells in ischemic sites diminishes the therapeutic efficacy of stem cell therapy. Previously we and others have reported that Cannabinoid receptor type II (CB2) is protective during heart ischemic injury for its anti-oxidative activity. However, whether CB2 activation could improve the survival and therapeutic efficacy of stem cells in ischemic myocardium and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive.

Here, we showed evidence that CB2 agonist AM1241 treatment could improve the functional survival of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) in vitro as well as in vivo. Moreover, AD-MSCs adjuvant with AM1241 improved cardiac function, and inhibited cardiac oxidative stress, apoptosis and fibrosis. To unveil possible mechanisms, AD-MSCs were exposed to hydrogen peroxide/serum deprivation to simulate the ischemic environment in myocardium.

Results delineated that AM1241 blocked the apoptosis, oxidative damage and promoted the paracrine effects of AD-MSCs. Mechanistically, AM1241 activated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3) through the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. Moreover, the administration of AM630, LY294002, U0126 and AG490 (inhibitors for CB2, Akt, ERK1/2 and Stat3, respectively) could abolish the beneficial actions of AM1241.

Our result support the promise of CB2 activation as an effective strategy to optimize stem cell-based therapy possibly through Stat3 activation.”

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Bioactivities of alternative protein sources and their potential health benefits.

“Increasing the utilisation of plant proteins is needed to support the production of protein-rich foods that could replace animal proteins in the human diet so as to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses to the environment. Lupins, quinoa and hempseed are significant sources of energy, high quality proteins, fibre, vitamins and minerals. In addition, they contain compounds such as polyphenols and bioactive peptides that can increase the nutritional value of these plants. From the nutritional standpoint, the right combination of plant proteins can supply sufficient amounts of essential amino acids for human requirements. This review aims at providing an overview of the current knowledge of the nutritional properties, beneficial and non-nutritive compounds, storage proteins, and potential health benefits of lupins, quinoa and hempseed.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28804797

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Hempseed Peptides Exert Hypocholesterolemic Effects with a Statin-Like Mechanism.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

“This study had the objective of preparing a hempseed protein hydrolysate and investigating its hypocholesterolemic properties. The hydrolysate was prepared treating a total protein extract with pepsin. Nano HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis permitted identifying in total 90 peptides belonging to 33 proteins. In the range 0.1-1.0 mg/mL, it inhibited the catalytic activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoAR) in a dose-dependent manner. HepG2 cells were treated with 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL of the hydrolysate. Immunoblotting detection showed increments in the protein levels of regulatory element binding proteins 2 (SREBP2), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and HMGCoAR. However, the parallel activation of the phospho-5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, produced an inactivation of HMGCoAR by phosphorylation. The functional ability of HepG2 cells to uptake extracellular LDL was raised by 50.5 ± 2.7%, 221.5 ± 1.6%, and 109 ± 3.5%, respectively, versus the control at 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL concentrations. Finally, also a raise of the protein level of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexintype 9 was observed. All of these data suggest that the mechanism of action has some similarity with that of statins.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28931275

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b02742

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Cannabinoids in the Cardiovascular System.

Advances in Pharmacology

“Cannabinoids are known to modulate cardiovascular functions including heart rate, vascular tone, and blood pressure in humans and animal models. Essential components of the endocannabinoid system, namely, the production, degradation, and signaling pathways of endocannabinoids have been described not only in the central and peripheral nervous system but also in myocardium, vasculature, platelets, and immune cells.

The mechanisms of cardiovascular responses to endocannabinoids are often complex and may involve cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors or non-CB1/2 receptor targets.

Preclinical and some clinical studies have suggested that targeting the endocannabinoid system can improve cardiovascular functions in a number of pathophysiological conditions, including hypertension, metabolic syndrome, sepsis, and atherosclerosis.

In this chapter, we summarize the local and systemic cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids and highlight our current knowledge regarding the therapeutic potential of endocannabinoid signaling and modulation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28826540

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054358917300431?via%3Dihub

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Cumulative Lifetime Marijuana Use and Incident Cardiovascular Disease in Middle Age: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.

American Journal of Public Health Logo

“To investigate the effects of marijuana in the development of incident cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes.

Compared with no marijuana use, cumulative lifetime and recent marijuana use showed no association with incident CVD, stroke or transient ischemic attacks, coronary heart disease, or CVD mortality.

Marijuana use was not associated with CVD when stratified by age, gender, race, or family history of CVD.

Neither cumulative lifetime nor recent use of marijuana is associated with the incidence of CVD in middle age.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28207342

http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/10.2105/AJPH.2017.303654

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A single dose of cannabidiol reduces blood pressure in healthy volunteers in a randomized crossover study.

Image result for JCI Insight

“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid used in multiple sclerosis and intractable epilepsies. Preclinical studies show CBD has numerous cardiovascular benefits, including a reduced blood pressure (BP) response to stress. The aim of this study was to investigate if CBD reduces BP in humans.

CONCLUSIONS:

This data shows that acute administration of CBD reduces resting BP and the BP increase to stress in humans, associated with increased HR. These hemodynamic changes should be considered for people taking CBD. Further research is required to establish whether CBD has a role in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28614793

“Our data show that a single dose of CBD reduces resting blood pressure and the blood pressure response to stress. This may reflect the anxiolytic and analgesic effects of CBD, as well as any potential direct cardiovascular effects. CBD has multiple desirable effects on the cardiovascular system” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5470879/

https://insight.jci.org/articles/view/93760

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Analysis of Natural Product Regulation of Cannabinoid Receptors in the treatment of Human Disease.

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“The organized tightly regulated signaling relays engaged by the cannabinoid receptors (CBs) and their ligands, G proteins and other effectors, together constitute the endocannabinoid system (ECS). This system governs many biological functions including cell proliferation, regulation of ion transport and neuronal messaging. This review will firstly examine the physiology of the ECS, briefly discussing some anomalies in the relay of the ECS signaling as these are consequently linked to maladies of global concern including neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease and cancer.

While endogenous ligands are crucial for dispatching messages through the ECS, there are also commonalities in binding affinities with copious exogenous ligands, both natural and synthetic. Therefore, this review provides a comparative analysis of both types of exogenous ligands with emphasis on natural products given their putative safer efficacy and the role of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) in uncovering the ECS.

Efficacy is congruent to both types of compounds but noteworthy is the effect of a combination therapy to achieve efficacy without the unideal side-effects. An example is Sativex that displayed promise in treating Huntington’s disease (HD) in preclinical models allowing for its transition to current clinical investigation. Despite the in vitro and preclinical efficacy of Δ9-THC to treat neurodegenerative ailments, its psychotropic effects limit its clinical applicability to treating feeding disorders.

We therefore propose further investigation of other compounds and their combinations such as the triterpene, α,β-amyrin that exhibited greater binding affinity to CB1 than CB2 and was more potent than Δ9-THC and the N-alkylamides that exhibited CB2 selective affinity, the latter can be explored towards peripherally exclusive ECS modulation. The synthetic CB1 antagonist, Rimonabant was pulled from market for the treatment of diabetes, however its analogue SR144528 maybe an ideal lead molecule towards this end and HU-210 and Org27569 are also promising synthetic small molecules.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28583800

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0163725817301511

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Activation of cannabinoid receptor type II by AM1241 protects adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells from oxidative damage and enhances their therapeutic efficacy in myocardial infarction mice via Stat3 activation.

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“The poor survival of cells in ischemic sites diminishes the therapeutic efficacy of stem cell therapy. Previously we and others have reported that Cannabinoid receptor type II (CB2) is protective during heart ischemic injury for its anti-oxidative activity. However, whether CB2 activation could improve the survival and therapeutic efficacy of stem cells in ischemic myocardium and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive.

Here, we showed evidence that CB2 agonist AM1241 treatment could improve the functional survival of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) in vitro as well as in vivo. Moreover, AD-MSCs adjuvant with AM1241 improved cardiac function, and inhibited cardiac oxidative stress, apoptosis and fibrosis. To unveil possible mechanisms, AD-MSCs were exposed to hydrogen peroxide/serum deprivation to simulate the ischemic environmentin myocardium. Results delineated that AM1241 blocked the apoptosis, oxidative damage and promoted the paracrine effects of AD-MSCs. Mechanistically, AM1241 activated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3) through the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. Moreover, the administration of AM630, LY294002, U0126 and AG490 (inhibitors for CB2, Akt, ERK1/2 and Stat3, respectively) could abolish the beneficial actions of AM1241.

Our result support the promise of CB2 activation as an effective strategy to optimize stem cell-based therapy possibly through Stat3 activation.”

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Marijuana compounds show promise in treatment of cardiac disease

Marijuana compounds show promise in treatment of cardiac disease

“A Nevada company is hoping to develop new medicines for heart failure using compounds in marijuana and a novel therapy identified by a University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa researcher. Dr. Alexander Stokes, assistant research professor in the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology at the UH John A. Burns School of Medicine, obtained a U.S. patent for his novel therapy in 2015. The patent claims the cannabinoid receptor TRPV1 can be regulated therapeutically by plant-based cannabinoids.”  https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-01-marijuana-compounds-treatment-cardiac-disease.html

“Marijuana compounds show promise in treatment of cardiac disease”  http://manoa.hawaii.edu/news/article.php?aId=8355

“Marijuana compounds show promise in treatment of cardiac disease”  http://www.hawaii.edu/news/2017/01/12/marijuana-compounds-show-promise-in-treatment-of-cardiac-disease/

 

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