“Cannabidiol (CBD) has a number of biological effects by acting on the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. CBD may be involved in anti-inflammatory processes via CB1 and CB2 receptors, resulting in a decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, CBD’s poor aqueous solubility is a major issue in pharmaceutical applications. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate a CBD nasal spray solution. A water-soluble CBD was prepared by complexation with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) at a stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 and forming polymeric micelles using poloxamer 407. The mixture was then lyophilized and characterized using FT-IR, DSC, and TGA. CBD-β-CD complex-polymeric micelles were formulated for nasal spray drug delivery. The physicochemical properties of the CBD-β-CD complex-polymeric micelle nasal spray solution (CBD-β-CDPM-NS) were assessed.
The results showed that the CBD content in the CBD-β-CD complex polymeric micelle powder was 102.1 ± 0.5%. The CBD-β-CDPM-NS was a clear colorless isotonic solution. The particle size, zeta potential, pH value, and viscosity were 111.9 ± 0.7 nm, 0.8 ± 0.1 mV, 6.02 ± 0.02, and 12.04 ± 2.64 cP, respectively. This formulation was stable over six months at ambient temperature. The CBD from CBD-β-CDPM-NS rapidly released to 100% within 1 min. Ex-vivo permeation studies of CBD-β-CDPM-NS through porcine nasal mucosa revealed a permeation rate of 4.8 μg/cm2/min, which indicated that CBD was effective in penetrating nasal epithelial cells. CBD-β-CDPM-NS was tested for its efficacy and safety in terms of cytokine production from nasal immune cells and toxicity to nasal epithelial cells. The CBD-β-CDPM-NS was not toxic to nasal epithelial at the concentration of CBD equivalent to 3.125-50 μg/mL.
When the formulation was subjected to bioactivity testing against monocyte-like macrophage cells, it proved that the CBD-β-CDPM-NS has the potential to inhibit inflammatory cytokines. CBD-β-CDPM-NS demonstrated the formulation’s ability to reduce the cytokine produced by S-RBD stimulation in ex vivo porcine nasal mucosa in both preventative and therapeutic modes.”
“In vitro and ex vivo experiments were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CBD.
•CBD-β-CD complexed in poloxamer micelles were 4,275 times water-soluble than CBD.
•CBD-β-CD complexed in poloxamer micelles was developed and evaluated as nasal spray solution.
•The developed nasal spray reduced SARS-CoV-2-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines.”