Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol attenuates oxycodone self-administration under extended access conditions.

Neuropharmacology

“Growing nonmedical use of prescription opioids is a global problem, motivating research on ways to reduce use and combat addiction.

Medical cannabis (“medical marijuana”) legalization has been associated epidemiologically with reduced opioid harms and cannabinoids have been shown to modulate effects of opioids in animal models.

This study was conducted to determine if Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) enhances the behavioral effects of oxycodone.

Together these data demonstrate additive effects of THC and oxycodone and suggest the potential use of THC to enhance therapeutic efficacy, and to reduce the abuse, of opioids.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30980837

“Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) enhances the antinociceptive effects of oxycodone. Vaporized and injected THC reduces oxycodone self-administration. Cannabinoids may reduce opioid use for analgesia. Cannabinoids may reduce nonmedical opioid use.”  

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0028390819301212?via%3Dihub

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Safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of action of cannabinoids in neurological disorders.

The Lancet Neurology

“In the past two decades, there has been an increasing interest in the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for neurological disorders such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, pain, and neurodegenerative diseases. Cannabis-based treatments for pain and spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis have been approved in some countries. Randomised controlled trials of plant-derived cannabidiol for treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome, two severe childhood-onset epilepsies, provide evidence of anti-seizure effects. Despite positive results in these two severe epilepsy syndromes, further studies are needed to determine if the anti-seizure effects of cannabidiol extend to other forms of epilepsy, to overcome pharmacokinetic challenges with oral cannabinoids, and to uncover the exact mechanisms by which cannabidiol or other exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids exert their therapeutic effects.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30910443

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laneur/article/PIIS1474-4422(19)30032-8/fulltext

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Cannabidiol attenuates mechanical allodynia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats via serotonergic system activation through 5-HT1A receptors.

Brain Research

“Most diabetic patients describe moderate to severe pain symptoms whose pharmacological treatment is palliative and poorly effective. Cannabidiol (CBD) has shown promising results in painful conditions. Then, we aimed to investigate the potential antinociceptive effect of CBD over the mechanical allodynia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic (DBT) rats, as well as its involved mechanisms. Wistar adult male diabetic rats were treated acutely or sub-chronically (for 14 days) with CBD (0.1, 0.3 or 3 mg/Kg, intraperitoneal; i.p.) and had their mechanical threshold assessed using the electronic Von Frey. Acute treatment with CBD (at doses of 0.3 and 3 mg/Kg) exerted a significant anti-allodynic effect, which is not associated with locomotor impairment. The antinociceptive effect of CBD (3 mg/Kg) was not altered by the pre-treatment with CB1 or CB2 receptor antagonists (AM251 and AM630; respectively; both at a dose of 1 mg/kg, i.p.) nor by glycine receptor antagonist (strychnine hydrochloride, 10 μg/rat, intrathecal, i.t.). However, this effect was completely prevented by the pre-treatment with the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100135 (3 μg/rat, i.t.). Sub-chronic treatment with CBD (0.3 or 3 mg/Kg) induced a sustained attenuation of the mechanical allodynia in DBT rats. DBT rats presented significantly lower spinal cord levels of serotonin, which was prevented by the daily treatment with CBD (0.3 mg/Kg). Taken together, our data suggest that CBD may be effective in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy and this effect seems to be potentially mediated by the serotonergic system activation through 5-HT1A receptors.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30898678

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006899319301532?via%3Dihub

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Analyzing the role of cannabinoids as modulators of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway for their use in the management of neuropathic pain.

Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters

“Neuropathic pain is a debilitating form of treatment-resistant chronic pain caused by damage to the nervous system. Cannabinoids have been known for suppressing neuropathic pain by modulating the endo cannabinoid system. Since the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling has recently been implicated in pain sensation, we investigated the impact of major cannabinoids (1-6) from the leaves of Cannabis sativa and an epoxy derivative of compound 2, here upon referred to as 2a, on modulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The results presented in this study show that compound 1, 2 and 2a exhibited potent inhibitory activity against Wnt/β-catenin pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Compound 2a was seen to inhibit this pathway at slightly lower concentrations than its parent molecule 2, under similar conditions. Taken together, compound 1, 2 and 2a, by virtue of their inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, could be developed as effective neuroprotective agents for the management of neuropathic pain.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30871771

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X19301428?via%3Dihub

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CBD as the New Medicine in the Pain Provider’s Armamentarium.

“As providers who currently treat some chronic pain patients with CBD oil as part of a multimodal analgesic treatment regimen, we have found great benefit of this new weapon recently being utilized in our armamentarium. As mentioned in the article, the current political climate surrounding CBD is both vague and ever-changing, which can and does impact treatment and subsequent patient outcomes as pain medicine providers. If we want to make cannabis and CBD into a legitimate medicinal treatment, there must be more regulations on CBD oil production and accurate labeling. Patients will continue to seek CBD oil as an additional option to treat their chronic pain as it gains popularity, so it is our duty as providers to protect them and ensure they have safe options of this new medication to choose from.”
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Role of endocannabinoid system in dopamine signalling within the reward circuits affected by chronic pain.

Pharmacological Research

“The association between chronic pain, depression and anxiety has gained particular attention due to high rates of comorbidity. Recent data demonstrated that the mesolimbic reward circuitry is involved in the pathology of chronic pain. Interestingly, the mesolimbic reward circuit participates both in pain perception and in pain relief.

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has emerged as a highly relevant player involved in both pain perception and reward processing. Targeting ECS could become a novel treatment strategy for chronic pain patients.

However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of action of cannabinoids at the intersection of neurochemical changes in reward circuits and chronic pain. Because understanding the benefits and risks of cannabinoids is paramount, the aim of this review is to evaluate the state-of-art knowledge about the involvement of the ECS in dopamine signalling within the reward circuits affected by chronic pain.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30831242

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1043661819300088?via%3Dihub

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Cannabinoids: a new approach for pain control?

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“To analyze available data related to the use of cannabinoids in medicine, with a special focus on pain management in cancer. The use of cannabis for medical purposes is growing but there are still numerous questions to be solved: effectiveness, safety, and specific indications.

RECENT FINDINGS:

There is considerable variation between countries in the approaches taken, reflecting a variety of historical and cultural factors and despite few randomized controlled studies using natural cannabinoids, there is a trend to state that the use of cannabis should be taken seriously as a potential treatment of cancer-related pain. Cannabidiol, a nontoxic phytocannabinoid with few side-effects is promising in various indications in medicine.

SUMMARY:

The endocannabinoid system is a potential therapeutic target. Cannabinoids may be considered as potential adjuvant in cancer-related pain management. Cannabidiol appears to be the drug of choice. Analgesic trial designs should evolve to get closer to real-life practice and to avoid biases.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30789867

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001622-900000000-00002

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New Insights in Cannabinoid Receptor Structure and Signaling.

“Cannabinoid has long been used for medicinal purposes. Cannabinoid signaling has been considered the therapeutic targets for treating pain, addiction, obesity, inflammation, and other diseases. Recent studies have suggested that in addition to CB1 and CB2, there are non-CB1 and non-CB2 cannabinoid-related orphan GPCRs including GPR18, GPR55, and GPR119. In addition, CB1 and CB2 display allosteric binding and biased signaling, revealing correlations between biased signaling and functional outcomes. Interestingly, new investigations have indicated that CB1 is functionally present within mitochondria of striated and heart muscles directly regulating intramitochondrial signaling and respiration.

CONCLUSION:

In this review, we summarize the recent progress in cannabinoid-related orphan GPCRs, CB1/CB2 structure, Gi/Gs coupling, allosteric ligands and biased signaling, and mitochondria-localized CB1, and discuss the future promise of this research.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30767756

http://www.eurekaselect.com/170011/article

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Spontaneous, anecdotal, retrospective, open-label study on the efficacy, safety and tolerability of cannabis galenical preparation (Bedrocan).

International Journal of Pharmacy Practice banner

“Our main aim was to investigate the short-term therapeutic effects, safety/tolerability and potential side effects of the cannabis galenical preparation (Bedrocan) in patients with a range of chronic conditions unresponsive to other treatments.

METHODS:

In this retrospective, ‘compassionate use’, observational, open-label study, 20 patients (age 18-80 years) who had appealed to our ‘Second Opinion Medical Consulting Network’ (Modena, Italy), were instructed to take sublingually the galenical oil twice a day for 3 months of treatment. The usual starting dose was low (0.5 ml/day) and gradually titrated upward to the highest recommended dose (1 ml/day). Tolerability and adverse effects were assessed at baseline and monthly thereafter during the treatment period through direct contact (email or telephone) or visit if required. Patients’ quality of life was evaluated at baseline and 3 months using the medical outcome short-form health survey questionnaire (SF-36).

KEY FINDINGS:

From baseline to 6 months post-treatment, SF-36 scores showed: reductions in total pain (P < 0.03); improvements in the physical component (P < 0.02); vitality (P < 0.03); social role functioning (P < 0.02); and general health state (P < 0.02). No changes in role limitations (P = 0.02) due to emotional state (e.g. panic, depression, mood alteration) were reported. Monthly reports of psychoactive adverse effects showed significant insomnia reduction (P < 0.03) and improvement in mood (P < 0.03) and concentration (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS:

These data suggest that a cannabis galenical preparation may be therapeutically effective and safe for the symptomatic treatment of some chronic diseases. Further studies on the efficacy of cannabis as well as cannabinoid system involvement in the pathophysiology are warranted.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30768819

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ijpp.12514

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Combined tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol to treat pain in epidermolysis bullosa: a report of three cases

British Journal of Dermatology banner

“Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a genetic blistering disorder characterized by intense pain related to disease pathology and care‐based interventions.

Opioid‐based therapies underpin pain care in EB; however, they are unable to provide adequate analgesia in a significant proportion of patients.

Cannabinoid‐based medicines (CBMs) have been studied increasingly for pain conditions of various aetiologies and pose as a novel dimension for pain care in EB.

We present three patients with EB who were prescribed pharmaceutical‐grade sublingually administered CBMs comprising tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol.

All three patients reported improved pain scores, reduced pruritus and reduction in overall analgesic drug intake.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30347109

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bjd.17341

“Cannabinoids Could Help Manage EB-related Pain, Study Suggests”  https://epidermolysisbullosanews.com/2019/02/08/cannabinoids-could-help-manage-eb-related-pain-study-suggests/

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