“Cannabis sativa L. is a plant long used for its textile fibers, seed oil, and oleoresin with medicinal and psychoactive properties. It is the main source of phytocannabinoids, with over 100 compounds detected so far. In recent years, a lot of attention has been given to the main phytochemicals present in Cannabis sativa L., namely, cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Compared to THC, CBD has non-psychoactive effects, an advantage for clinical applications of anti-tumor benefits. The review is designed to provide an update regarding the multi-target effects of CBD in different types of cancer. The main focus is on the latest in vitro and in vivo studies that present data regarding the anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, cytotoxic, anti-invasive, anti-antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties of CBD together with their mechanisms of action. The latest clinical evidence of the anticancer effects of CBD is also outlined. Moreover, the main aspects of the pharmacological and toxicological profiles are given.”
“The monocyclic 1,4-benzoquinone, HU-331, the direct oxidation product of cannabidiol, inhibits the catalytic activity of topoisomerase II but without inducing DNA strand breaks or generating free radicals, and unlike many fused-ring quinones exhibits minimal cardiotoxicity. Thus, monocyclic quinones have potential as anticancer agents, and investigation of the structural origins of their biological activity is warranted. New syntheses of cannabidiol and (±)-HU-331 are here reported. Integrated synthetic protocols afforded a wide range of polysubstituted resorcinol derivatives; many of the corresponding novel 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone derivatives are potent inhibitors of the catalytic activity of topoisomerase II, some more so than HU-331, whose monoterpene unit replaced by a 3-cycloalkyl unit conferred increased antiproliferative properties in cell lines with IC50 values extending below 1 mM, and greater stability in solution than HU-331. The principal pharmacophore of quinones related to HU-331 was identified. Selected monocyclic quinones show potential for the development of new anticancer agents.”
“Endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors, their endogenous ligands, and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation. CB2, to a great extent, and CB1, to a lesser extent, are involved in regulating the immune response. They also regulate the inflammatory processes by inhibiting pro-inflammatory mediator release and immune cell proliferation. This review provides an overview on the role of the endocannabinoid system with a major focus on cannabinoid receptors in the pathogenesis and onset of inflammatory and autoimmune pediatric diseases, such as immune thrombocytopenia, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, obesity, neuroinflammatory diseases, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. These disorders have a high social impact and represent a burden for the healthcare system, hence the importance of individuating more innovative and effective treatments. The endocannabinoid system could address this need, representing a possible new diagnostic marker and therapeutic target.”
“As we learn more about the endocannabinoid system (ECS), our understanding and grasp of the system’s ubiquitous presence is expanding. In light of this, there is also a growing body of evidence for the therapeutic potential of ECS modulation in a range of clinical situations. Strategies include for example manipulation of the Cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor, mostly in terms of CNS processes, and activation of the Cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor as anti-inflammatory target.”
“Drug-resistant seizures are life-threatening and contribute to sustained hospitalization.
We present the case of a critically ill 28-year-old male with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome who had approximately 30 seizures/day in the intensive care unit.
Patient required mechanical ventilation and pharmacologically induced thiopentone coma.
He was commenced on cannabidiol and subsequently extubated.
He remained seizure-free thereafter on a combination of cannabidiol and anti-epileptic medication that predated his critical illness.
WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION:
Our case report provides a unique perspective on the role of cannabidiol in achieving remission from drug-resistant seizures in critically ill patients.”
“Excessive binge alcohol drinking may adversely affect cardiovascular function. In this study we characterize the detailed hemodynamic effects of an acute alcohol binge in mice using multiple approaches and investigate the role of the endocannabinoid-cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1-R) signaling in these effects. Acute alcohol binge was associated with elevated levels of cardiac endocannabinoid anandamide and profound cardiovascular dysfunction lasting for several hours and redistribution of circulation. These changes were attenuated by CB1-R antagonist or in CB1-R knockout mice. Our results suggest that a single alcohol binge has profound effects on the cardiovascular system, which involve endocannabinoid-CB1-R signaling.”
“Alcohol is one of the most frequently used intoxicants in the United States. Binge alcohol drinking is a major contributor of emergency department visits. Binge alcohol drinking may adversely affect cardiovascular function. Here we show that acute alcohol intoxication is associated with elevated levels of cardiac endocannabinoid anandamide and profound cardiovascular dysfunction and blood redistribution lasting for several hours. The adverse cardiovascular effects of acute alcohol intoxication are attenuated by CB1-R antagonist or in CB1-R knockout mice. A single alcohol binge has profound effect on the cardiovascular system, which involves endocannabinoid-CB1-R signaling.”
“Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a life-threatening complication of end-stage liver disease characterized by the rapid decline of kidney function. Herein, we explored the therapeutic potential of targeting the cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2-R) utilizing a commonly used mouse model of liver fibrosis and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), induced by bile duct ligation (BDL).
We found that liver injury triggered marked inflammation and oxidative stress also in the kidneys of BDL-operated mice. We detected pronounced histopathological alterations with tubular injury paralleled with increased inflammation, oxidative/nitrative stress and fibrotic remodeling both in hepatic and renal tissues as well as endothelial activation and markedly impaired renal microcirculation. This was accompanied by increased CB2-R expression in both liver and the kidney tissues of diseased animals. A selective CB2-R agonist, HU-910, markedly decreased numerous markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis both in the liver and in the kidneys. HU-910 also attenuated markers of kidney injury and improved the impaired renal microcirculation in BDL-operated mice.
Our results suggest that oxidative stress, inflammation and microvascular dysfunction are key events in the pathogenesis of BDL-associated renal failure. Furthermore, we demonstrate that targeting the CB2-R by selective agonists may represent a promising new avenue to treat HRS by attenuating tissue and vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis and consequent microcirculatory dysfunction in the kidneys.”
“Bile duct ligation (BDL) causes hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Oxidative damage/inflammation drives liver and kidney injury following BDL. Cannabinoid-2 receptor (CB2-R) activation attenuates hepatic damage in BDL. CB2-R activation mitigates the renal inflammation and oxidative damage in BDL. CB2-R activation attenuates renal microcirculatory dysfunction in BDL.”
“Uncontrolled infection and increased inflammatory mediators might cause systemic inflammatory response. It is already known that Cannabinoid Type 2 (CB2) receptors, which are commonly expressed in immune cells and in many other tissues, have an effect on the regulation of immune response.
In the present study of ours, the effects of CB2 receptor agonist JWH-133 was investigated on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced polymicrobial sepsis model in rats.
The JWH-133 treatment decreased the histopathological damage in brain, heart, lung, and liver and reduced the caspase-3, p-NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 levels in these tissues. In addition to this, JWH-133 treatment also decreased the serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 levels, which were increased due to CLP, and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 levels.
In the present study, it was determined that the CB2 receptor agonist JWH-133 decreases the CLP-induced inflammation, and reduces the damage in brain, lung, liver and heart.
Our findings show the therapeutic potential of the activation of CB2 receptors with JWH-133 in sepsis.”
“CB2 receptors are expressed in many tissues including immune cells. Activation of CB2 receptors has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effect.”
“Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic bladder disorder with unclear etiology.
The endocannabinoid system has been identified as a key regulator of immune function, with experimental evidence for the involvement of cannabinoid receptors in bladder inflammation.
This study used intravital microscopy (IVM) and behavioral testing in lipopolysaccharide-induced IC, to investigate the anti-inflammatory analgesic effects of a natural dietary sesquiterpenoid, beta-caryophyllene (BCP), which is present in cannabis among other plants, and has reported agonist actions at the cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2R).
BCP’s anti-inflammatory actions were compared to the synthetic CB2R-selective cannabinoid, HU308, and to an FDA-approved clinical treatment (dimethyl sulfoxide: DMSO). IVM data revealed that intravesical instillation of BCP and/or HU308 significantly reduces the number of adhering leukocytes in submucosal bladder venules and improves bladder capillary perfusion.
The effects of BCP were found to be comparable to that of the selective CB2R synthetic cannabinoid, HU308, and superior to intravesical DMSO treatment. Oral treatment with BCP was also able to reduce bladder inflammation and significantly reduced mechanical allodynia in experimental IC.
Based on our findings, we believe that CB2R activation may represent a viable therapeutic target for IC, and that drugs that activate CB2R, such as the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) dietary sesquiterpenoid, BCP, may serve as an adjunct and/or alternative treatment option for alleviating symptoms of inflammation and pain in the management of IC.”
“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934
“Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18574142
“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is comprised of cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1R and CB2R), endogenous ligands, and regulatory enzymes, and serves to regulate several important physiological functions throughout the brain and body.
Recent evidence suggests that the ECS may be a promising target for the treatment of epilepsy, including epilepsy subtypes that arise from mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel SCN1A.
The objective of this study was to explore the effects of modulating CB2R activity on seizure susceptibility.