“Despite advances in glioblastoma (GBM) therapy, prognosis of the disease remains poor with a low survival rate.
Cannabidiol (CBD) can induce cell death and enhance radiosensitivity of GBM but not normal astrocytes.
Inhibition of ATM kinase is an alternative mechanism for radiosensitization of cancer cells.
In this study, we increased the cytotoxic effects of the combination of CBD and γ-irradiation in GBM cells through additional inhibition of ATM kinase with KU60019, a small molecule inhibitor of ATM kinase.
We observed in GBM cells treated by CBD, γ-irradiation and KU60019 high levels of apoptosis together with strong upregulation of the percentage of G2/M-arrested cells, blockade of cell proliferation and a massive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Overall, these changes caused both apoptotic and non-apoptotic inflammation-linked cell death. Furthermore, via JNK-AP1 activation in concert with active NF-κB, CBD upregulated gene and protein expression of DR5/TRAIL-R2 and sensitize GBM cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In contrast, CBD notably decreased in GBM surface levels of PD-L1, a critical immune checkpoint agent for T-lymphocytes. We also used in the present study TS543 human proneural glioma cells that were grown as spheroid culture. TS543 neurospheres exhibited dramatic sensitivity to CBD-mediated killing that was additionally increased in combination with γ-irradiation and KU60019.
In conclusion, treatment of human GBM by the triple combination (CBD, γ-irradiation and KU60019) could significantly increase cell death levels in vitro and potentially improve the therapeutic ratio of GBM.”
“To analyze available data related to the use of cannabinoids in medicine, with a special focus on pain management in cancer. The use of cannabis for medical purposes is growing but there are still numerous questions to be solved: effectiveness, safety, and specific indications.
There is considerable variation between countries in the approaches taken, reflecting a variety of historical and cultural factors and despite few randomized controlled studies using natural cannabinoids, there is a trend to state that the use of cannabis should be taken seriously as a potential treatment of cancer-related pain. Cannabidiol, a nontoxic phytocannabinoid with few side-effects is promising in various indications in medicine.
The endocannabinoid system is a potential therapeutic target. Cannabinoids may be considered as potential adjuvant in cancer-related pain management. Cannabidiol appears to be the drug of choice. Analgesic trial designs should evolve to get closer to real-life practice and to avoid biases.”
“Mammalian microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in modulating the response of immune cells to stimuli.
Cannabinoids are known to exert beneficial actions such as neuroprotection and immunosuppressive activities. However, the underlying mechanisms which contribute to these effects are not fully understood.
We previously reported that the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) differ in their anti-inflammatory signaling pathways.
Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to stimulate BV-2 microglial cells, we examined the role of cannabinoids on the expression of miRNAs. Expression was analyzed by performing deep sequencing, followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to describe networks and intracellular pathways.
miRNA sequencing analysis revealed that 31 miRNAs were differentially modulated by LPS and by cannabinoids treatments. In addition, we found that at the concentration tested, CBD has a greater effect than THC on the expression of most of the studied miRNAs.
The results clearly link the effects of both LPS and cannabinoids to inflammatory signaling pathways. LPS upregulated the expression of pro-inflammatory miRNAs associated to Toll-like receptor (TLR) and NF-κB signaling, including miR-21, miR-146a and miR-155, whereas CBD inhibited LPS-stimulated expression of miR-146a and miR-155. In addition, CBD upregulated miR-34a, known to be involved in several pathways including Rb/E2f cell cycle and Notch-Dll1 signaling.
Our results show that both CBD and THC reduced the LPS-upregulated Notch ligand Dll1 expression. MiR-155 and miR-34a are considered to be redox sensitive miRNAs, which regulate Nrf2-driven gene expression. Accordingly, we found that Nrf2-mediated expression of redox-dependent genes defines a Mox-like phenotype in CBD treated BV-2 cells.
In summary, we have identified a specific repertoire of miRNAs that are regulated by cannabinoids, in resting (surveillant) and in LPS-activated microglia. The modulated miRNAs and their target genes are controlled by TLR, Nrf2 and Notch cross-talk signaling and are involved in immune response, cell cycle regulation as well as cellular stress and redox homeostasis.”
“Patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) who completed 1 of 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of add-on cannabidiol (CBD) (GWPCARE3, NCT02224560 or GWPCARE4, NCT02224690) were invited to enroll in an open-label extension (OLE) study evaluating the long-term safety and efficacy of CBD (GWPCARE5, NCT02224573). Herein we present an interim analysis of the safety, efficacy, and patient-reported outcomes from this trial.
Patients received a pharmaceutical formulation of highly purified CBD oral solution (Epidiolex; 100 mg/mL), titrated from 2.5 to 20 mg/kg/d over a 2-week titration period, in addition to their existing medications. Doses could be reduced if not tolerated or increased up to 30 mg/kg/d if thought to be of benefit.
This interim analysis was based on a November 2016 data cut. Of 368 patients who completed treatment in GWPCARE3 and GWPCARE4, 366 (99.5%) enrolled in the OLE study (GWPCARE5). Median treatment duration was 38 weeks at a mean modal dose of 23 mg/kg/d. Most patients (92.1%) experienced adverse events (AEs), primarily of mild (32.5%) or moderate (43.4%) severity. The most common AEs were diarrhea (26.8%), somnolence (23.5%), and convulsion (21.3%). Thirty-five patients (9.6%) discontinued treatment due to AEs. Liver transaminase elevations were reported in 37 patients (10.1%), of whom 29 were receiving concomitant valproic acid; 34 cases resolved spontaneously or with dose modification of CBD or concomitant medication. Median reduction from baseline in drop seizure frequency (quantified monthly over 12-week periods) ranged from 48% to 60% through week 48. Median reduction in monthly total seizure frequency ranged from 48% to 57% across all 12-week periods through week 48. Eighty-eight percent of patients/caregivers reported an improvement in the patient’s overall condition per the Subject/Caregiver Global Impression of Change scale.
In this study, long-term add-on CBD treatment had an acceptable safety profile in patients with LGS and led to sustained reductions in seizures.”
“Preclinical work shows cannabidiol as a promising drug to manage neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (NHIBD). The molecular mechanism is not well defined but the beneficial effects of this phytocannabinoid are blocked by antagonists of both cannabinoid CB2(CB2R) and serotonin 5-HT1A (5-HT1AR) receptors that, in addition, may form heteromers in a heterologous expression system. Using bioluminescence energy transfer, we have shown a direct interaction of the two receptors that leads to a particular signaling in a heterologous system. A property attributed to the heteromer, namely cross-antagonism, was found in primary cultures of neurons thus indicating the occurrence of the receptor heteromer in the CNS. Oxygen-glucose deprivation to neurons led to an increase of CB2R-mediated signaling and an upregulation of CB2-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complex expression. In situ proximity ligation assays in brain cortical section were performed to compare the expression of CB2-5-HT1A complexes in rat E20 fetuses and at different postnatal days. The expression, which is elevated in fetus and shortly after birth, was sharply reduced at later ages (even at P7). The expression of heteromer receptors was more marked in a model of NHIBD and, remarkably, the drop in expression was significantly delayed with respect to controls. These results indicate that CB2-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complex may be considered as a target in the therapy of the NHIBD.”
“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a highly touted product for many different disorders among the lay press. Numerous CBD products are available, ranging from a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved product called Epidiolex to products created for medical marijuana dispensaries and products sold in smoke shops, convenience stores, and over the Internet.
The legal status of the non-FDA-approved products differs depending on the source of the CBD and the state, while the consistency and quality of the non-FDA-approved products vary markedly. Without independent laboratory verification, it is impossible to know whether the labeled CBD dosage in non-FDA-approved CBD products is correct, that the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol content is <0.3%, and that it is free of adulteration and contamination.
On the Internet, CBD has been touted for many ailments for which it has not been studied, and in those diseases with evaluable human data, it generally has weak or very weak evidence. The control of refractory seizures is a clear exception, with strong evidence of CBD’s benefit. Acute CBD dosing before anxiety-provoking events like public speaking and the chronic use of CBD in schizophrenia are promising but not proven. CBD is not risk free, with adverse events (primarily somnolence and gastrointestinal in nature) and drug interactions. CBD has been shown to increase liver function tests and needs further study to assess its impact on suicidal ideation.”
“Cannabinoids, the biologically active constituents of Cannabis, have potent neuronal and immunological effects. However, the basic and medical research dedicated to medical cannabis and cannabinoids is limited. The influence of these treatments on hematologic reconstitution and on the development of graft versus host disease (GVHD) after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is largely unknown.
In this research, we compared the influence of D9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on lymphocyte activation in vitro and in murine BMT models.
Our in vitro results demonstrate that these treatments decrease activated lymphocyte proliferation and affect cytokine secretion. We also discovered that CBD and THC utilize different receptors to mediate these effects. In vivo, in a syngeneic transplantation model, we demonstrate that all treatments inhibit lymphocyte reconstitution and show the inhibitory role of the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) on lymphocyte recovery.
Although pure cannabinoids exhibited a superior effect in vitro, in an allogeneic (C57BL/6 to BALB/c) BMT mouse model, THC-high and CBD-high cannabis extracts treatment reduced the severity of GVHD and improved survival significantly better than the pure cannabinoids.
Our results highlights the complexity of using cannabinoids-based treatments and the need for additional comparative scientific results.”
“The effect of cannabidiol (CBD), a high-affinity agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid-2 (TRPV2) channel, has been poorly investigated in human brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMEC) forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB). TRPV2 expression and its role on Ca2+ cellular dynamics, trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER), cell viability and growth, migration, and tubulogenesis were evaluated in human primary cultures of BMEC (hPBMEC) or in the human cerebral microvessel endothelial hCMEC/D3 cell line. Abundant TRPV2 expression was measured in hCMEC/D3 and hPBMEC by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, nontargeted proteomics, and cellular immunofluorescence studies. Intracellular Ca2+ levels were increased by heat and CBD and blocked by the nonspecific TRP antagonist ruthenium red (RR) and the selective TRPV2 inhibitor tranilast (TNL) or by silencing cells with TRPV2 siRNA. CBD dose-dependently induced the hCMEC/D3 cell number (EC50 0.3 ± 0.1 μM), and this effect was fully abolished by TNL or TRPV2 siRNA. A wound healing assay showed that CBD induced cell migration, which was also inhibited by TNL or TRPV2 siRNA. Tubulogenesis of hCMEC/D3 cells in 3D matrigel cultures was significantly increased by 41 and 73% after a 7 or 24 h CBD treatment, respectively, and abolished by TNL. CBD also increased the TEER of hPBMEC monolayers cultured in transwell, and this was blocked by TNL. Our results show that CBD, at extracellular concentrations close to those observed in plasma of patients treated by CBD, induces proliferation, migration, tubulogenesis, and TEER increase in human brain endothelial cells, suggesting CBD might be a potent target for modulating the human BBB.”
“Cellular retinol-binding proteins (CRBPs) facilitate the uptake and intracellular transport of vitamin A. They integrate retinoid metabolism, playing an important role in regulating the synthesis of bioactive vitamin A metabolites. Thus, CRBPs constitute potential pharmacological targets to modulate cellular retinoid status that in turn may have applications in the treatment of certain immunological, metabolic, and ocular disorders.
Here we identify abnormal cannabidiol (abn-CBD) as a non-retinoid inhibitor of cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (CRBP1). X-ray crystal structures of CRBP1 in complex with abn-CBD and its derivatives revealed a distinctive mode of protein-ligand interaction and provided a molecular basis for the high affinity and selectivity of this compound. We demonstrated that abn-CBD modulates the flux of retinoids via the retinoid cycle in vivo. Furthermore, the biological activity of abn-CBD was evidenced by its ability to protect against light-induced retinal damage in Balb/cJ mice.
Altogether, our findings indicate that targeting selected CRBPs with a small-molecule inhibitor can potentially lead to the development of new therapeutic agents to counteract diseases with etiologies involving imbalance in retinoid metabolism or signaling.”