Effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on the inhibition of melanoma cells in vitro

Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry: Vol 41, No 5 “Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the most popular emerging plant extracts that is being investigated for its wide range of potential health benefits.

This experiment tests how B16 mice melanoma cells, are affected by four different concentrations (0.2 mg/mL, 0.04 mg/mL, 0.008 mg/mL and 0.0016 mg/mL) of 99% CBD oil.

The results of this experiment demonstrate that CBD significantly inhibited melanoma cell growth in-vitro at 0.2 mg/mL and 0.04 mg/mL.

This shows that CBD has the potential to inhibit melanoma cell growth in vertebrates, namely mice.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33428525/

 

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Phenolic Compounds Cannabidiol, Curcumin and Quercetin Cause Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Suppress Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells

ijms-logo“Anticancer activity of different phenols is documented, but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Recently, we have shown that cannabidiol kills the cells of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by a direct interaction with mitochondria, with their consequent dysfunction.

In the present study, cytotoxic effects of several phenolic compounds against human the T-ALL cell line Jurkat were tested by means of resazurin-based metabolic assay. To unravel underlying mechanisms, mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) and [Ca2+]m measurements were undertaken, and reactive oxygen species generation and cell death were evaluated by flow cytometry.

Three out of eight tested phenolics, cannabidiol, curcumin and quercetin, which displayed a significant cytotoxic effect, also dissipated the ∆Ψm and induced a significant [Ca2+]m increase, whereas inefficient phenols did not.

Dissipation of the ∆Ψm by cannabidiol was prevented by cyclosporine A and reverted by Ru360, inhibitors of the permeation transition pore and mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter, respectively. Ru360 prevented the phenol-induced [Ca2+]m rise, but neither cyclosporine A nor Ru360 affected the curcumin- and quercetin-induced ∆Ψm depolarization. Ru360 impeded the curcumin- and cannabidiol-induced cell death.

Thus, all three phenols exert their antileukemic activity via mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, whereas curcumin and quercetin suppress the metabolism of leukemic cells by direct mitochondrial uncoupling.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33379175/

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/22/1/204

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Role of marijuana components on the regenerative ability of stem cells

“Stem cell therapy promotes tissue regeneration and wound healing. Efforts have been made to prime stem cells to enhance their regenerative abilities.

Certain marijuana components, namely the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) and psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are defined as immunomodulators.9 We test whether two sources of stem cells, primed with CBD or THC, would demonstrate improved regenerative abilities.

Human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs), not obtained from the same individual, were treated with low (300 nM) or high (3 μM) concentration CBD. Porcine ASCs and BMDSCs were isolated from a single pig, and treated with either low or high concentrations of CBD or THC. Transwell migration and MTT proliferation assays were performed on the human ASCs and BMDSCs. Also, transwell migration assay was performed on the porcine ASCs and BMDSCs. Finally, a wound healing scratch assay in porcine primary fibroblasts (PFs) was performed, co-cultured with the cannabinoid-treated ASCs.

CBD priming at low concentration induces migration by 180% (P < .01) in porcine ASCs, and by only 93% (P < .02) in porcine BMDSCs. In porcine stem cells, THC priming at low concentration induces migration by 91.6% (P < .01) in ASCs but by only 44.3% (P < .03) in BMDSCs. Compared to PFs co-cultured with untreated ASCs, PFs co-cultured with low CBD-primed ASCs had 75% faster wound closure at 18 hours (P < .01).

CBD and THC priming of ASCs and BMDSCs, particularly at lower doses, enhances a number of regenerative parameters, suggesting that these major marijuana components may improve stem cell-based therapies.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: Our study demonstrates that cannabinoids can enhance the regenerative capacity of two major sources of stem cells, adipose- and bone marrow-derived, from human and porcine donors. Stem cell isolation and expansion is invasive, costly and time consuming. Stem cells with improved regenerative properties may be effective in the treatment of acute or chronic wounds. This is the first study to compare the priming potential of two sources of stem cells from the same animal, with the same genetic and epigenetic profile, as well as the first to prime with THC.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33349985/

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cbf.3609

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Assessment of antiviral potencies of cannabinoids against SARS-CoV-2 using computational and in vitro approaches

International Journal of Biological Macromolecules“Effective treatment choices to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are limited because of the absence of effective target-based therapeutics. The main object of the current research was to estimate the antiviral activity of cannabinoids (CBDs) against the human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

In the presented research work, we performed in silico and in vitro experiments to aid the sighting of lead CBDs for treating the viral infections of SARS-CoV-2. Virtual screening was carried out for interactions between 32 CBDs and the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro enzyme. Afterward, in vitro antiviral activity was carried out of five CBDs molecules against SARS-CoV-2.

Interestingly, among them, two CBDs molecules namely Δ (Yu et al., 2020 [9])-tetrahydrocannabinol (IC50 = 10.25 μM) and cannabidiol (IC50 = 7.91 μM) were observed to be more potent antiviral molecules against SARS-CoV-2 compared to the reference drugs lopinavir, chloroquine, and remdesivir (IC50 ranges of 8.16-13.15 μM). These molecules were found to have stable conformations with the active binding pocket of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro by molecular dynamic simulation and density functional theory.

Our findings suggest cannabidiol and Δ (Yu et al., 2020 [9])-tetrahydrocannabinol are possible drugs against human coronavirus that might be used in combination or with other drug molecules to treat COVID-19 patients.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33290767/

“In summary, this report demonstrates the antiviral potencies of CBD and Δ9-THC against SARS-CoV-2. Based on privileged safety index CBD and Δ9-THC in human and their current in vitro potencies against SARS-CoV-2, it can be concluded that these compounds are potential antiviral molecules towards SARS-CoV-2 and may have worked as dual-acting against SARS-CoV-2, not only block the viral translation procedure by inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 Mpro but also reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in lung cells by acting as agonists of CB-2 receptor. The successful in vitro work here of CBD and Δ9-THC lays the framework for their application in human clinical trials for the treatment of human coronavirus infections. Thus, CBD and Δ9-THC may be used in combination or with other drugs to treat COVID-19 patients.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0141813020351783?via%3Dihub

Fig. 1

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Medicinal Applications of Cannabinoids Extracted from Cannabis sativa (L.): A new Route to Fight against COVID-19?

 “Cannabis sativa is a well-known plant which has been of benefit since ancient times in several medicinal systems, including Chinese, Indian, Greek and Egyptian ones.

Although C. sativa is one of the most investigated medicinal plants in the world, it faces the most controversial of issues for its legalization as a medication. C. sativa contains several hundreds of phytoconstituents including the infamous «cannabinoid.” It is necessary to properly understand the medicinal importance of these phytochemicals and spread awareness among the countries where it’s still facing legal complexities.

The current review is focusing on most recent literature pertaining to the various applications of cannabinoids with a special focus on medicinal aspect of the phytochemicals. Peer reviewed articles focusing on the importance of cannabis and cannabinoids were the target of this review. Articles were selected based on the relevance to the general scope of the work i.e. application of cannabinoids.

Cannabinoids can truly be regarded as wonder drug keeping their immense diversity of usage but unfortunately, many of the mares never researched biologically or pharmacologically due to their low yield in the plant. However, the approval of some cannabinoids by the FDA (along with other recognized national medical health systems) has opened the horizons for the explicit use of these natural drugs in medicines such as Epidiolex® (cannabidiol used for the treatment of severe forms of epilepsy) and Sativex®(‘Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol’ used for the treatment of spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis, aka: MS.)

Many pharmacological properties of C. sativa are attributed to cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive component, along with Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC), a psychoactive component. This review addresses the most important application or current utilization of cannabinoids in a variety of treatments such as: chronic pain, cancer, emesis, anorexia, irritable bowel syndrome, communicative diseases, glaucoma and central nervous system disorders. The biosynthetic pathway of cannabinoids is also discussed. In short, this plant has a myriad of bioactive compounds which have the potential to increase the list of approved cannabinoids suitable for therapy.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33267756/

https://www.eurekaselect.com/188617/article

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Short-Term Medical Cannabis Treatment Regimens Produced Beneficial Effects among Palliative Cancer Patients

pharmaceuticals-logo“In the last decade the use of medical cannabis (MC) for palliative cancer treatment has risen. However, the choice between products is arbitrary and most patients are using Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-dominant cannabis products.

In this study, we aimed to assess the short-term outcomes of MC treatment prescribed by oncologists in relation to the type of cannabis they receive.

A comparative analysis was used to assess the differences in treatment effectiveness and safety between THC-dominant (n = 56, 52%), cannabidiol (CBD)-dominant (n = 19, 18%), and mixed (n = 33, 30%) MC treatments. Oncology patients (n = 108) reported on multiple symptoms in baseline questionnaires, initiated MC treatment, and completed a one-month follow-up.

Most parameters improved significantly from baseline, including pain intensity, affective and sensory pain, sleep quality and duration, cancer distress, and both physical and psychological symptom burden. There was no significant difference between the three MC treatments in the MC-related safety profile. Generally, there were no differences between the three MC treatments in pain intensity and in most secondary outcomes.

Unexpectedly, CBD-dominant oil treatments were similar to THC-dominant treatments in their beneficial effects for most secondary outcomes. THC-dominant treatments showed significant superiority in their beneficial effect only in sleep duration compared to CBD-dominant treatments.

This work provides evidence that, though patients usually consume THC-dominant products, caregivers should also consider CBD-dominant products as a useful treatment for cancer-related symptoms.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33265945/

https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/13/12/435

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Changes in Lipid Profile of Keratinocytes from Rat Skin Exposed to Chronic UVA or UVB Radiation and Topical Application of Cannabidiol

antioxidants-logo“UV radiation is a well-established environmental risk factor known to cause oxidative stress and disrupt the metabolism of keratinocyte phospholipids. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

In this study, we examined changes in the keratinocyte phospholipid profile from nude rat skin exposed to UVA and UVB radiation that was also treated topically with CBD.

UVA and UVB radiation promoted up-regulation of phosphatidylcholines (PC), lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and down-regulation of sphingomyelin (SM) levels and enhanced the activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and sphingomyelinase (SMase).

Application of CBD to the skin of control rats led to down-regulation of SM and up-regulation of SMase activity. After CBD treatment of rats irradiated with UVA or UVB, SM was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, while ceramide (CER) levels and SMase activity were down-regulated and up-regulated, respectively. CBD applied to the skin of UV-irradiated rats down-regulated LPC, up-regulated PE and phosphatidylserines (PS) and reduced PLA2 activity.

In conclusion, up-regulation of PS may suggest that CBD inhibits their oxidative modification, while changes in the content of PE and SM may indicate a role of CBD in promoting autophagy and improving the status of the transepidermal barrier.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33255796/

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3921/9/12/1178

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The effect of cannabidiol on canine neoplastic cell proliferation and MAP Kinase activation during autophagy and apoptosis

“Low tetrahydrocannabinol Cannabis sativa products, also known as hemp products, have become widely available and their use in veterinary patients has become increasingly popular. Despite prevalence of use, the veterinary literature is lacking and evidence-based resource for cannabinoid efficacy.

The most prevailing cannabinoid found in hemp is cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and becomes cannabidiol (CBD) during heat extraction; CBD has been studied for its direct anti-neoplastic properties alone and in combination with standard cancer therapies, yielding encouraging results.

The objectives of our study were to explore the anti-proliferative and cell death response associated with in vitro treatment of canine cancer cell lines with CBD alone and combination with common chemotherapeutics, as well as investigation into major proliferative pathways (e.g. p38, JNK, AKT, mTOR) potentially involved in the response to treatment with CBD.

CBD significantly reduced canine cancer cell proliferation far better than cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) across five canine neoplastic cell lines when treated with concentrations ranging from 2.5-10 μg/mL. Combinatory treatment with CBD and vincristine reduced cell proliferation in a synergistic or additive manner at anti-proliferative concentrations with less clear results using doxorubicin in combination with CBD. The cellular signaling effects of CBD treatment, showed that autophagy supervened induction of apoptosis and may be related to prompt induction of ERK and JNK phosphorylation prior to autophagy.

In conclusion, CBD is effective at hindering cell proliferation and induction of autophagy and apoptosis rapidly across neoplastic cell lines and further clinical trials are needed to understand its efficacy and interactions with traditional chemotherapy.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33247539/

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/vco.12669

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Cannabis and its Constituents for Cancer: History, Biogenesis, Chemistry and Pharmacological Activities

Pharmacological Research “Cannabis has long been used for healing and recreation in several regions of the world. Over 400 bioactive constituents, including more than 100 phytocannabinoids, have been isolated from this plant. The non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) and the psychoactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are the major and widely studied constituents from this plant.

Cannabinoids exert their effects through the endocannabinoid system (ECS) that comprises cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2), endogenous ligands, and metabolizing enzymes. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated the potential of cannabinoids against leukemia, lymphoma, glioblastoma, and cancers of the breast, colorectum, pancreas, cervix and prostate.

Cannabis and its constituents can modulate multiple cancer related pathways such as PKB, AMPK, CAMKK-β, mTOR, PDHK, HIF-1α, and PPAR-γ. Cannabinoids can block cell growth, progression of cell cycle and induce apoptosis selectively in tumour cells. Cannabinoids can also enhance the efficacy of cancer therapeutics. These compounds have been used for the management of anorexia, queasiness, and pain in cancer patients.

Cannabinoid based products such as dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, and epidyolex are now approved for medical use in cancer patients. Cannabinoids are reported to produce a favourable safety profile. However, psychoactive properties and poor bioavailability limit the use of some cannabinoids. The Academic Institutions across the globe are offering training courses on cannabis. How cannabis and its constituents exert anticancer activities is discussed in this article. We also discuss areas that require attention and more extensive research.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33246167/

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1043661820316108?via%3Dihub

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Cannabidiol enhances cytotoxicity of anti-cancer drugs in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

 Scientific Reports“Cannabidiol (CBD) has anti-tumorigenic activity. However, the anti-cancer effect of CBD on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains unclear. The cytotoxicity of CBD on HNSCC was analyzed using cell survival and colony-forming assays in vitro.

CBD treatment significantly reduced migration/invasion and viability of HNSCC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HNSCC mouse xenograft models revealed anti-tumor effects of CBD. Furthermore, combinational treatment with CBD enhanced the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs.

We identified CBD as a new potential anti-cancer compound for single or combination therapy of HNSCC.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33244087/

In conclusion, our study determined the anti-tumorigenic potential of CBD. In addition, single treatment of CBD or co-treatment with chemotherapeutic agents promoted HNSCC cell death along with apoptosis and autophagy processes. Therefore, our study suggests that CBD can be an excellent therapeutic agent against HNSCC. Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the components in the Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana) family of plants.”

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-77674-y

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