Do Endocannabinoids Regulate Glucose Reabsorption in the Kidney?

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“Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a distinct manifestation of diabetic kidney disease, affects approximately 30% of patients with diabetes. While most attention has been focused on glomerular changes related to DN, there is growing evidence that tubulopathy is a key feature in the pathogenesis of this disease. The renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) are particularly sensitive to the deleterious effect of chronic hyperglycemia. However, the cellular changes that control the dysfunction of the RPTCs are not fully understood.

Controlling glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubules via inhibition of glucose transporters (GLUT) has emerged as a promising therapeutic in ameliorating DN.

Overactivation of the renal endocannabinoid (eCB) system via the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) contributes to the development of DN, and its blockade by globally acting or peripherally restricted CB1R antagonists has been shown to ameliorate renal dysfunction in different murine models for diabetes. Recently, we have utilized various pharmacological and genetic tools to show that the eCB/CB1R system contributes to the development of DN via regulating the expression, translocation, and activity of the facilitative GLUT2 located in the RPTCs.

These findings have the potential to be translated into therapy, and support the rationale for the preclinical development of novel renal-specific CB1R and/or GLUT2 inhibitors for the treatment of DN.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30636250

https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/494512

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Cannabis and Turmeric as Complementary Treatments for IBD and Other Digestive Diseases.

 “Complementary therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have earned growing interest from patients and investigators alike, with a dynamic landscape of research in this area. In this article, we review results of the most recent studies evaluating the role of cannabis and turmeric for the treatment of IBD and other intestinal illnesses.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Cannabinoids are well-established modulators of gut motility and visceral pain and have demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical trials suggest that there may be a therapeutic role for cannabinoid therapy in the treatment of IBD, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), nausea and vomiting, and GI motility disorders. Recent reports of serious adverse effects from synthetic cannabinoids highlight the need for additional investigation of cannabinoids to establish their efficacy and safety. Turmeric trials have demonstrated some promise as adjuvant treatment for IBD, though not in other GI disease processes. Evidence suggests that the use of cannabis and turmeric is potentially beneficial in IBD and IBS; however, neither has been compared to standard therapy in IBD, and thus should not be recommended as alternative treatment for IBD. For cannabis in particular, additional investigation regarding appropriate dosing and timing, given known adverse effects of its chronic use, and careful monitoring of potential bleeding complications with synthetic cannabinoids are imperative.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30635796

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11894-019-0670-0

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Special Considerations and Assessment in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America

“Multiple sclerosis is a progressive autoimmune neurologic disorder that may affect any region of the central nervous system. Spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis can be debilitating and detrimental to the function and quality of life of patients. Treatment options include oral medications, chemodenervation, physical therapy, and modalities.

Cannabinoids in the form of a delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol oro-mucosal spray has been shown to be effective in addressing spasticity in multiple sclerosis.

Successful treatment of spasticity will be integrated, multimodal, and individualized.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30626509

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1047965118307617?via%3Dihub

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Changes in Monoaminergic Neurotransmission in an Animal Model of Osteoarthritis: The Role of Endocannabinoid Signaling.

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“Chronic pain is a main symptom of osteoarthritis (OA). Moreover, a high percentage of OA patients suffer from mental health problems.

The endocannabinoid (EC) system has attracted attention as an emerging drug target for pain treatment together with its activity on the mesolimbic reward system.

Understanding the circuits that govern the reward of pain relief is crucial for the search for effective analgesics. Therefore, we investigated the role of the EC system on dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) in an animal model of OA-related chronic pain.

Our results demonstrated that chronic pain in OA rats was reflected by the inhibition of mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic transmission, and may indicate the pro-pain role of NA in the FCx.

The data provide understanding about changes in neurotransmission in chronic pain states and may explain the clinical improvement in perceived life quality following cannabinoid treatment.

Additional mechanistic studies in preclinical models examining the intersection between chronic pain and reward circuits may offer new approaches for improving pain therapy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30618615

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnmol.2018.00466/full

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A Review of Herbal Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis

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“Medicinal plants have opened a new horizon in curing neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, AD and MS. literature data review indicated that herbal medicines could be effective in the treatment of MS disease and itsʼ related symptoms, by reducing the demyelination, improving remyelination and suppressing the inflammation in the CNS. On the basis of the above mentioned review, it can be concluded that the anti-inflammatory effect is the main reason of medicinal plants therapeutic effects in MS disease, through which medicinal plants ameliorate the severity of disease and reduce neuropathological changes. In addition to neuroprotective effect, medicinal plants have other beneficial effects for MS patients, such as sedation, improving sleep quality, anti-depressant effects, relief muscle stiffness and reducing bladder disturbance. The medicinal plants and their derivatives; Ginkgo biloba, Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa, Hypericum perforatum, Valeriana officinalis, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Nigella sativa,Piper methysticum, Crocus sativus, Panax ginseng, Boswellia papyrifera, Vitis vinifera, Gastrodia elata, Camellia sinensis, Oenothera biennis, MS14 and Cannabis sativa have been informed to have several therapeutic effects in MS patients.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6311642/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30607330

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Medical Cannabis in the Skilled Nursing Facility: A Novel Approach to Improving Symptom Management and Quality of Life.

Journal of the American Medical Directors Association Home

“Throughout the millennia, the cannabis plant has been utilized as a recognized therapy for pain relief and symptom management.

Following the Prohibition-era stigmatization and criminalization of all forms of cannabis of the early 20th century, there has been a recent nationwide and worldwide resurgence in interest and use of the cannabinoid compounds extracted from the cannabis plant, that is, medical cannabis.

Although at the Federal level, cannabis remains a Schedule I substance, 31 states have already decriminalized possession and use of medical cannabis for specific diagnoses.

It is noteworthy that many of these indicated diagnoses are prevalent in the skilled nursing facility (SNF). This creates regulatory concerns as SNFs and other healthcare facilities must maintain compliance with Federal laws, while balancing the individual resident’s rights to utilize medical cannabis where indicated.

The authors developed an innovative program that affords their residents the ability to participate in a state-approved medical cannabis program while remaining compliant with Federal law. As medical cannabis use becomes more widespread and accepted, clinicians providing medical care in healthcare facilities will encounter residents who may benefit from and request this alternative therapy.

Studies examining older adults that are utilizing medical cannabis legally have demonstrated significant decreases in prescription medication use, most notably a reduction in opioid analgesic usage. As such, medical cannabis should be viewed as an additional option in the clinician’s toolbox of therapeutic interventions for symptom relief.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30580820

https://www.jamda.com/article/S1525-8610(18)30662-5/fulltext

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Cannaboinoid Antiemetic Therapy.

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“There are currently three cannabinoids available on the pharmaceutical market.  Dronabinol and Nabilone are both synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which the FDA has approved for treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) after the failure of a trial of first-line anti-emetics.  Both are also FDA approved to treat anorexia associated with AIDS.  Recently, the FDA has also approved a cannabidiol (CBD) product to treat seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome and Dravel Syndrome in pediatric patients. However, there is no FDA approved indication for its use as an anti-emetic.  Independently produced cannabidiol extracts are being used increasingly in the general population for many non-FDA approved indications, frequently including nausea and emesis.  In states that have decriminalized marijuana, both in recreational and medicinal contexts, products with varying ratios of cannabidiol and THC are also used for their anti-emetic properties.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30571051

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK535430/

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Health-related quality of life across cancer cachexia stages.

“Cancer cachexia (CC) is common in advanced cancer and is accompanied by negative effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL).

However, methods to identify the impact of CC on HRQOL are limited.

Finally, the use of cannabinoids in treating appetite loss was examined,

54 patients underwent cannabinoid treatment for appetite loss within a community-based, physician-lead, medical cannabis clinic.

Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) score for lack of appetite significantly improved between baseline and follow-up after cannabinoid treatment, with no significant difference in weight.

Improvement of HRQOL via appetite stimulation, may be achieved through a multidisciplinary approach, which includes cannabinoid therapy.”

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Reefer madness or real medicine? A plea for incorporating medicinal cannabis in pharmacy curricula.

Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning

“Over the past twenty years, the acceptance and use of medicinal cannabis has increased in the United States. However, there is still a lack of education and comfort as it relates to the therapeutic uses of botanical cannabis and cannabidiol in pharmacy professional curricula. Professional training programs have failed to keep pace with the evolving national landscape and growing acceptance of this therapy.

PERSPECTIVE:

In this manuscript, the current landscape of pharmacy professional involvement in the dispensing and administration of medicinal cannabis throughout the United States is described. A concern exists that there is a knowledge gap among pharmacists and pharmacy students, as demonstrated by recent survey results, related to the pharmacology, dosing, administration, adverse effects, drug interactions, and monitoring of both medicinal and recreational cannabis use.

IMPLICATIONS:

While cannabis use is still considered illegal by the federal government, it is imperative pharmacy educators prepare the next generation of pharmacists to be knowledgeable on the safe and effective use and communication tactics related to cannabis. As a therapy garnering national attention with growing support for use, education on this topic must be included in pharmacy curricula and pharmacy continuing education.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30497617

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1877129717304860?via%3Dihub

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miR-23b-3p and miR-130a-5p affect cell growth, migration and invasion by targeting CB1R via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in gastric carcinoma.

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“Gastric cancer (GC) is the most common malignancy and third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. The identification of a sensitive biomarker as well as effective therapeutic targets for the treatment of GC is of critical importance. microRNAs play significant roles in the development of cancer and may serve as promising therapeutic targets.

RESULTS:

In the present study, it was demonstrated that the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) was overexpressed, and miR-23b-3p and miR-130a-5p were downregulated, in GC cells. In addition, the results revealed that these effects are associated with malignant biological behaviors exhibited by GC cells. Furthermore, miR-23b-3p and miR-130a-5p may regulate CB1R expression via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

CONCLUSION:

Our results suggested dysregulation of CB1R expression is closely related to the malignant biological behavior of gastric cancer cells. miRNA/CB1R-based therapy may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the clinical treatment of GC patients.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30498363

https://www.dovepress.com/mir-23b-3p-and-mir-130a-5p-affect-cell-growth-migration-and-invasion-b-peer-reviewed-article-OTT

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