Cannabinoids CB2 Receptors, One New Promising Drug Target for Chronic and Degenerative Pain Conditions in Equine Veterinary Patients.

Journal of Equine Veterinary Science“Osteoarticular equine disease is a common cause of malady; in general, its therapy is supported on steroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories. Nevertheless, many side effects may develop when these drugs are administered. Nowadays, the use of new alternatives for this pathology attention is demanded; in that sense, cannabinoid CB2 agonists may represent a novel alternative.

Cannabinoid belongs to a group of molecules known by their psychoactive properties; they are synthetized by the Cannabis sativa plant, better known as marijuana.

The aim of this study was to contribute to understand the pharmacology of cannabinoid CB2 receptors and its potential utilization on equine veterinary patients with a chronic degenerative painful condition. In animals, two main receptors for cannabinoids are recognized, the cannabinoid receptor type 1 and the cannabinoid receptor type 2. Once they are activated, both receptors exert a wide range of physiological responses, as nociception modulation.

Recently, it has been proposed the use of synthetic cannabinoid type 2 receptor agonists; those receptors looks to confer antinociceptive properties but without the undesired psychoactive side effects; for that reason, veterinary patients, whit chronical degenerative diseases as osteoarthritis may alleviate one of the most common symptom, the pain, which in some cases for several reasons, as patient individualities, or side effects produced for more conventional treatments cannot be attended in the best way.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31952645

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S073708061930629X?via%3Dihub

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The role of cannabinoids in the treatment of cancer.

“The aim of this review article is to summarize current knowledge about the role of cannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors in tumor disease modulation and to evaluate comprehensively the use of cannabinoids in cancer patients.

METHOD:

According to the PRISMA protocol, we have included data from a total of 105 articles.

RESULTS:

Cannabinoids affect cancer progression by three mechanisms. The most important mechanism is the stimulation of autophagy and affecting the signaling pathways leading to apoptosis. The most important mechanism of this process is the accumulation of ceramide. Cannabinoids also stimulate apoptosis by mechanisms independent of autophagy. Other mechanisms by which cannabinoids affect tumor growth are inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, invasiveness, metastasis, and the modulation of the anti-tumor immune response.

CONCLUSION:

In addition to the symptomatic therapy of cancer patients, the antitumor effects of cannabinoids (whether in monotherapy or in combination with other cancer therapies) have promising potential in the treatment of cancer patients. More clinical trials are needed to demonstrate the antitumor effect of cannabinoids.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31950844

http://www.elis.sk/index.php?page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage.tpl&product_id=6509&category_id=158&option=com_virtuemart&vmcchk=1&Itemid=1

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Challenges and Opportunities in Preclinical Research of Synthetic Cannabinoids for Pain Therapy.

medicina-logo“Cannabis has been used in pain management since 2900 BC.

In the 20th century, synthetic cannabinoids began to emerge, thus opening the way for improved efficacy. The search for new forms of synthetic cannabinoids continues and, as such, the aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive tool for the research and development of this promising class of drugs.

Methods for the in vitro assessment of cytotoxic, mutagenic or developmental effects are presented, followed by the main in vivo pain models used in cannabis research and the results yielded by different types of administration (systemic versus intrathecal versus inhalation). Animal models designed for assessing side-effects and long-term uses are also discussed.

In the second part of this review, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of synthetic cannabinoid biodistribution, together with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric identification of synthetic cannabinoids in biological fluids from rodents to humans are presented. Last, but not least, different strategies for improving the solubility and physicochemical stability of synthetic cannabinoids and their potential impact on pain management are discussed.

In conclusion, synthetic cannabinoids are one of the most promising classes of drugs in pain medicine, and preclinical research should focus on identifying new and improved alternatives for a better clinical and preclinical outcome.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31936616

https://www.mdpi.com/1010-660X/56/1/24

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Targeting Cannabinoid Receptor Activation and BACE-1 Activity Counteracts TgAPP Mice Memory Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease Lymphoblast Alterations.

“Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia in the elderly, is a neurodegenerative disorder marked by progressive impairment of cognitive ability. Patients with AD display neuropathological lesions including senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss.

There are no disease-modifying drugs currently available. With the number of affected individuals increasing dramatically throughout the world, there is obvious urgent need for effective treatment strategy for AD.

The multifactorial nature of AD encouraged the development of multifunctional compounds, able to interact with several putative targets. Here, we have evaluated the effects of two in-house designed cannabinoid receptors (CB) agonists showing inhibitory actions on β-secretase-1 (BACE-1) (NP137) and BACE-1/butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) (NP148), on cellular models of AD, including immortalized lymphocytes from late-onset AD patients.

We report here that NP137 and NP148 showed neuroprotective effects in amyloid-β-treated primary cortical neurons, and NP137 in particular rescued the cognitive deficit of TgAPP mice. The latter compound was able to blunt the abnormal cell response to serum addition or withdrawal of lymphoblasts derived from AD patients.

It is suggested that NP137 could be a good drug candidate for future treatment of AD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31898159

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12035-019-01813-4

“The ideal treatment for AD should be able to modulate the disease through multiple mechanisms rather than targeting a single dysregulated pathway.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25147120

“These sets of data strongly suggest that THC could be a potential therapeutic treatment option for Alzheimer’s disease through multiple functions and pathways.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25024327

“In fact, exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids seem to be able to modulate multiple processes in AD” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25147120

“Our results indicate that cannabinoid receptors are important in the pathology of AD and that cannabinoids succeed in preventing the neurodegenerative process occurring in the disease.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15728830

“Based on the complex pathology of AD, a preventative, multimodal drug approach targeting a combination of pathological AD symptoms appears ideal. Importantly, cannabinoids show anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antioxidant properties and have immunosuppressive effects.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22448595

“CBD treatment would be in line with preventative, multimodal drug strategies targeting a combination of pathological symptoms, which might be ideal for AD therapy.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27471947

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Cannabinoids as an Emerging Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders.

Related image “Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a leading psychiatric disorder that mainly affects military and veteran populations but can occur in anyone affected by trauma. PTSD treatment remains difficult for physicians because most patients with PTSD do not respond to current pharmacological treatment. Psychotherapy is effective, but time consuming and expensive. Substance use disorder is often concurrent with PTSD, which leads to a significant challenge for PTSD treatment.

Cannabis has recently received widespread attention for the potential to help many patient populations. Cannabis has been reported as a coping tool for patients with PTSD and preliminary legalization data indicate Cannabis use may reduce the use of more harmful drugs, such as opioids. Rigorous clinical studies of Cannabis could establish whether Cannabis-based medicines can be integrated into treatment regimens for both PTSD and substance use disorder patients.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31895187

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004691-202001000-00005

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The Use of Cannabis as a Treatment for Epilepsy in Adult Patients: Are Side Effects a Limitation of Use?

 Related image“Marijuana is the dried leaves, stems, and flowers of a 1- to 5-m weed originating from Central Asia. The most common varieties are Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica. It is usually inhaled as smoke but can also be used as a vapor, taken by mouth as a spray, ingested in tea or as butter in baked goods, or in capsule form and used as an oil. Cannabis has been widely used to treat many medical conditions such as multiple sclerosis symptoms, mood disorders, pain, sleep disorders, and seizures among others. Preclinical and clinical studies have been done over the past decade, among them there are few randomized placebo-controlled trials. In the last few years, Cannabis has been proposed as a potential therapy for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. This review analyzes the best information about the use of cannabis in adult patients, reviewing aspects of efficacy and safety.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31895185

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004691-202001000-00003

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Use of cannabidiol in anxiety and anxiety-related disorders.

“Cannabidiol (CBD) has a proposed novel role in the management of anxiety owing to its actions on the endocannabinoid system.

The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the current evidence on the safety and efficacy of CBD in anxiety and anxiety-related disorders.

RESULTS:

Eight articles were included in the review: 6 small, randomized controlled trials; 1 case series; and 1 case report. These studies examined the role of CBD in the anxiety response of healthy volunteers; in generalized anxiety disorder; in social anxiety disorder; and in the anxiety component of posttraumatic stress syndrome. No articles that evaluated CBD in panic disorder, specific phobia, separation anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder were identified. In the studies, CBD was administered orally as a capsule or as a sublingual spray and as either monotherapy or adjunctive therapy. Doses varied widely, with studies employing fixed CBD doses ranging from 6 mg to 400 mg per dose. Various anxiety assessment scales were used in the studies to assess efficacy, with CBD demonstrating improved clinical outcomes among the instruments. In general, CBD was well-tolerated and associated with minimal adverse effects, with the most commonly noted adverse effects being fatigue and sedation.

CONCLUSION:

CBD has a promising role as alternative therapy in the management of anxiety disorders. However, more studies with standardized approaches to dosing and clinical outcome measurements are needed to determine the appropriate dosing strategy for CBD and its place in therapy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31866386

https://www.japha.org/article/S1544-3191(19)30514-X/fulltext

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The use of medical grade cannabis in Italy for drug-resistant epilepsy: a case series.

 “In Italy, medical grade cannabis (MGC) can be prescribed for different medical conditions, including drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), once standard and approved therapies have failed, or caused non-tolerable side effects.

Here, we present a retrospective case series report of five patients with DRE who started therapy with MGC. Authorized ISO 9001:2008 pharmacies prepared MGC according to Italian laws. Olive oil extracts (OOEs) were prepared following standard extraction protocols, and cannabinoids were measured on each OOE to check for successful extraction.

After treatment with MGC, all patients reported a reduction in seizure frequency and severity, and some reported improved mood, sleep quality, and general well-being without relevant side effects.

Despite the small sample size and open-label nature of the data, we show that MGC may be successfully used to treat DRE. This is especially true when considering that no valid therapeutic option exists for these patients and that MGC was extremely well tolerated.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31776867

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10072-019-04162-1

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Prevalence and predictors of cannabis use among men receiving androgen-deprivation therapy for advanced prostate cancer.

 “Prostate cancer patients receiving androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) often experience a combination of disease symptoms and treatment side effects. The therapeutic use of cannabis to alleviate these side effects has not been studied, despite increasing patient interest. With the increasing availability of cannabis, it is important for clinicians to understand the prevalence, predictors, and perceived benefits of cannabis use among patients with prostate cancer.

RESULTS:

Questionnaire data revealed that 23.2% of surveyed men had recently used cannabis. In contrast, 5.8% of men had detectable levels of THC metabolite in their urine. Combined questionnaire and urine data revealed that cannabis users were significantly younger (p=0.003) and had lower testosterone levels (p=0.003) than non-users. The majority of men experiencing common ADT side effects reported some degree of relief following cannabis use.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cannabis use among men with advanced prostate cancer receiving ADT is more prevalent than in the general population and the majority of other oncological cohorts. Lower testosterone levels and reported therapeutic benefit among cannabis users warrants confirmation in appropriate clinical trials.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31658007

https://cuaj.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/5911

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Cannabidiol and Cannabinoid Compounds as Potential Strategies for Treating Parkinson’s Disease and L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia.

 “Parkinson’s disease (PD) and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) are motor disorders with significant impact on the patient’s quality of life. Unfortunately, pharmacological treatments that improve these disorders without causing severe side effects are not yet available. Delay in initiating L-DOPA is no longer recommended as LID development is a function of disease duration rather than cumulative L-DOPA exposure.

Manipulation of the endocannabinoid system could be a promising therapy to control PD and LID symptoms.

In this way, phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), the principal non-psychotomimetic constituent of the Cannabis sativa plant, have received considerable attention in the last decade.

In this review, we present clinical and preclinical evidence suggesting CBD and other cannabinoids have therapeutic effects in PD and LID. Here, we discuss CBD pharmacology, as well as its neuroprotective effects and those of other cannabinoids.

Finally, we discuss the modulation of several pro- or anti-inflammatory factors as possible mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic/neuroprotective potential of Cannabis-derived/cannabinoid synthetic compounds in motor disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31637586

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12640-019-00109-8

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