Prevalence and predictors of cannabis use among men receiving androgen-deprivation therapy for advanced prostate cancer.

 “Prostate cancer patients receiving androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) often experience a combination of disease symptoms and treatment side effects. The therapeutic use of cannabis to alleviate these side effects has not been studied, despite increasing patient interest. With the increasing availability of cannabis, it is important for clinicians to understand the prevalence, predictors, and perceived benefits of cannabis use among patients with prostate cancer.

RESULTS:

Questionnaire data revealed that 23.2% of surveyed men had recently used cannabis. In contrast, 5.8% of men had detectable levels of THC metabolite in their urine. Combined questionnaire and urine data revealed that cannabis users were significantly younger (p=0.003) and had lower testosterone levels (p=0.003) than non-users. The majority of men experiencing common ADT side effects reported some degree of relief following cannabis use.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cannabis use among men with advanced prostate cancer receiving ADT is more prevalent than in the general population and the majority of other oncological cohorts. Lower testosterone levels and reported therapeutic benefit among cannabis users warrants confirmation in appropriate clinical trials.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31658007

https://cuaj.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/5911

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Cannabidiol and Cannabinoid Compounds as Potential Strategies for Treating Parkinson’s Disease and L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia.

 “Parkinson’s disease (PD) and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) are motor disorders with significant impact on the patient’s quality of life. Unfortunately, pharmacological treatments that improve these disorders without causing severe side effects are not yet available. Delay in initiating L-DOPA is no longer recommended as LID development is a function of disease duration rather than cumulative L-DOPA exposure.

Manipulation of the endocannabinoid system could be a promising therapy to control PD and LID symptoms.

In this way, phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), the principal non-psychotomimetic constituent of the Cannabis sativa plant, have received considerable attention in the last decade.

In this review, we present clinical and preclinical evidence suggesting CBD and other cannabinoids have therapeutic effects in PD and LID. Here, we discuss CBD pharmacology, as well as its neuroprotective effects and those of other cannabinoids.

Finally, we discuss the modulation of several pro- or anti-inflammatory factors as possible mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic/neuroprotective potential of Cannabis-derived/cannabinoid synthetic compounds in motor disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31637586

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12640-019-00109-8

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Coadministered cannabidiol and clobazam: Preclinical evidence for both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions.

Epilepsia banner“Cannabidiol (CBD) has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat intractable childhood epilepsies, such as Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. However, the intrinsic anticonvulsant activity of CBD has been questioned due to a pharmacokinetic interaction between CBD and a first-line medication, clobazam. This recognized interaction has led to speculation that the anticonvulsant efficacy of CBD may simply reflect CBD augmenting clobazam exposure. The present study aimed to address the nature of the interaction between CBD and clobazam.

RESULTS:

CBD potently inhibited CYP3A4 mediated metabolism of clobazam and CYP2C19 mediated metabolism of N-CLB. Combination CBD-clobazam treatment resulted in greater anticonvulsant efficacy in Scn1a+/- mice, but only when an anticonvulsant dose of CBD was used. It is important to note that a sub-anticonvulsant dose of CBD did not promote greater anticonvulsant effects despite increasing plasma clobazam concentrations. In addition, we delineated a novel pharmacodynamic mechanism where CBD and clobazam together enhanced inhibitory GABAA receptor activation.

SIGNIFICANCE:

Our study highlights the involvement of both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between CBD and clobazam that may contribute to its efficacy in Dravet syndrome.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31625159

“Our results here suggest a novel benefit of CBD and clobazam combination therapy on premature death, a devastating aspect of the Dravet syndrome phenotype.”

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/epi.16355

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Involvement of Spinal Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors in Exercise-Induced Antinociception.

Neuroscience“Muscle pain affects approximately 11-24% of the global population.

Several studies have shown that exercise is a non-pharmacological therapy to pain control. It has been suggested that the endocannabinoid system is involved in this antinociceptive effect.

The present study aimed to investigate whether spinal cannabinoid CB2 receptors participate in the exercise-induced antinociception.

The present study suggests that activation of spinal cannabinoid CB2 receptors and reduction of activated microglia are involved in exercise-induced antinociception.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31473278

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306452219306165?via%3Dihub

“Exercise activates the endocannabinoid system.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14625449

“The endocannabinoid system and pain.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19839937

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Enhancing Breast Cancer Treatment Using a Combination of Cannabidiol and Gold Nanoparticles for Photodynamic Therapy.

ijms-logo“Indisputably, cancer is a global crisis that requires immediate intervention. Despite the use of conventional treatments over the past decades, it is acceptable to admit that these are expensive, invasive, associated with many side effects and, therefore, a reduced quality of life.

One of the most possible solutions to this could be the use of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) conjugated photodynamic therapy (PDT) in combination with cannabidiol (CBD), a Cannabis derivative from the Cannabis sativa.

Since the use of Cannabis has always been associated with recreation and psychoactive qualities, the positive effects of Cannabis or its derivatives on cancer treatment have been misunderstood and hence misinterpreted.

On the other hand, AuNP-PDT is the most favoured form of treatment for cancer, due to its augmented specificity and minimal risk of side effects compared to conventional treatments. However, its use requires the consideration of several physical, biologic, pharmacologic and immunological factors, which may hinder its effectiveness if not taken into consideration.

In this review, the role of gold nanoparticle mediated PDT combined with CBD treatment on breast cancer cells will be deliberated.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31561450

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/19/4771

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Cannabinoids in Gynecological Diseases

Related image“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a multifunctional homeostatic system involved in many physiological and pathological conditions. The ligands of the ECS are the endo­cannabinoids, whose actions are mimicked by exogenous cannabinoids, such as phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids. Responses to the ligands of the ECS are mediated by numerous receptors like the classical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) as well as ECS-related receptors, e.g., G protein-coupled receptors 18 and 55 (GPR18 and GPR55), transient receptor potential ion channels, and nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The ECS regulates almost all levels of female reproduction, starting with oocyte production through to parturition. Dysregulation of the ECS is associated with the development of gynecological disorders from fertility disorders to cancer. Cannabinoids that act at the ECS as specific agonists or antagonists may potentially influence dysregulation and, therefore, represent new therapeutic options for the therapy of gynecological disorders.”

https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/499164

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Medical Cannabis in Treatment of Resistant Familial Mediterranean Fever.

 Logo“Colchicine-resistant familial Mediterranean fever can be treated by anti-IL-1 biologic therapy; however, such treatment needs approval by the health insurance company, and many patients are denied such treatment or do not respond to it.

CASE REPORT Two familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients, both homozygous for M694V mutation and resistant to colchicine treatment, were treated with medical cannabis. Prior to that, 1 patient was denied biologic treatment and the other had no significant response to anakinra.

Under medical cannabis treatment, both patients had remarkable improvement in the severity of the attacks and also a decrease in the frequency of the attacks, from once every 2 weeks to 1 attack every month in 1 patient; this patient had also a remarkable reduction in the C-reactive protein level during the attacks.

CONCLUSIONS Cannabis is a therapeutic option for treating the most complex patients with FMF.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31501406

https://www.amjcaserep.com/abstract/index/idArt/917180

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Combination of Cannabinoids, Δ9- Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol, Ameliorates Experimental Multiple Sclerosis by Suppressing Neuroinflammation Through Regulation of miRNA-Mediated Signaling Pathways.

 Image result for frontiers in immunology“Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and disabling disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by neuroinflammation leading to demyelination.

Recently a combination of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) extracted from Cannabis has been approved in many parts of the world to treat MS-related spasticity. THC+CBD combination was also shown to suppresses neuroinflammation, although the mechanisms remain to be further elucidated.

In the current study, we demonstrate that THC+CBD combination therapy (10 mg/kg each) but not THC or CBD alone, attenuates murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by reducing neuroinflammation and suppression of Th17 and Th1 cells.

Collectively, this study suggests that combination of THC+CBD suppresses neuroinflammation and attenuates clinical EAE development and that this effect is associated with changes in miRNA profile in brain-infiltrating cells.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31497013

“Combination of THC+CBD has been used to treat human MS. This treatment is known to decrease not only muscle spasticity but also suppress neuroinflammation.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01921/full

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[Dronabinol in geriatric pain and palliative care patients : A retrospective evaluation of statutory-health-insurance-covered outpatient medical treatment].

 

“Geriatric patients often suffer from a long history of pain and have a limited life expectancy.

Cannabinoid receptor agonists like dronabinol may be an effective, low-risk treatment option for geriatric patients with chronic pain.

OBJECTIVES:

The effectiveness and side effects of dronabinol therapy in geriatric patients are analyzed. The effects of the approval requirement are presented.

RESULTS:

By using dronabinol, 21 of the 40 geriatric patients (52.5%) achieved pain relief of more than 30%, 10% of the patients of more than 50%. On average, about four symptoms or side effects related to previous treatment were positively influenced. 26% of patients reported side effects. The rejection rates on the part of the health insurances were 38.7% (group A) and 10.3% (group B).

CONCLUSIONS:

This study is one of the few analyses of the use of Dronabinol in geriatric patients. We show that cannabis-based drugs (in this case dronabinol) are an effective, low-risk treatment option that should be considered early in therapy. Regarding the indication spectrum, further clinical studies and an approval-free test phase are necessary.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31473816

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00482-019-00408-1

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Role of the endocannabinoidome in human and mouse atherosclerosis.

“The Endocannabinoid (eCB) system and its role in many physiological and pathological conditions is well described and accepted, and includes cardiovascular disorders. However, the eCB system has been expanded to an “-ome”; the endocannabinoidome (eCBome) that includes endocannabinoid-related mediators, their protein targets and metabolic enzymes, many of which significantly impact upon cardiometabolic health. These recent discoveries are here summarized with a special focus on their potential involvement in atherosclerosis. We described the role of classical components of the eCB system (eCBs, CB1 and CB2 receptors) and eCB-related lipids, their regulatory enzymes and molecular targets in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, since increasing evidence points to significant cross-talk between the eCBome and the gut microbiome and the gut microbiome and atherosclerosis, we explore the possibility that a gut microbiome – eCBome axis has potential implications in atherosclerosis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31448709

http://www.eurekaselect.com/174465/article

“Oral cannabinoid therapy reduces progression of atherosclerosis”  https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/787468

“The active ingredient in marijuana that produces changes in brain messages appears to fight atherosclerosis — a hardening of the arteries.” https://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/news/20050406/marijuana-chemical-fights-hardened-arteries

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