Anti-Tumorigenic Properties of Omega-3 Endocannabinoid Epoxides.

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

“Accumulating studies have linked inflammation to tumor progression.

Dietary omega-3 fatty acids including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been shown to suppress tumor growth through their conversion to epoxide metabolites. Alternatively, DHA is converted enzymatically into docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA), an endocannabinoid with anti-proliferative activity.

Recently, we reported a novel class of anti-inflammatory DHEA-epoxides (EDP-EAs) that contain both ethanolamide and epoxide moieties. Herein we evaluate the anti-tumorigenic properties of EDP-EAs in an osteosarcoma model.

First, we show ~80% increase in EDP-EAs in metastatic lungs versus normal mouse lungs. We found significant differences in the apoptotic and anti-migratory potency of the different EDP-EA regioisomers, which are partly mediated through cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1).

Furthermore, we synthesized derivatives of the most pro-apoptotic regioisomer. These derivatives had reduced hydrolytic susceptibility to fatty acid-amide hydrolase and increased CB1 binding.

Collectively, we report a novel class of EDP-EAs that exhibit anti-angiogenic, anti-tumorigenic and anti-migratory properties in osteosarcoma.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29856219

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b00243

“Omega-3 Fatty Byproducts May Have Anticancer Effects.https://scienceblog.com/502227/omega-3-fatty-byproducts-may-have-anticancer-effects/
“Products of omega-3 fatty acid metabolism may have anticancer effects, study shows” https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-07-products-omega-fatty-acid-metabolism.html
“Omega-3-derived cannabinoid may stop cancer. New research suggests that the body’s natural pain-killer, the “endocannabinoid system,” may also have cancer-fighting properties when “activated” by omega-3 fatty acids.” https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/322482.php
“Products of omega-3 fatty acid metabolism may have anticancer effects” https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/07/180713220137.htm
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The Role of Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Cancer in Pediatric Patients.

“Cannabis has been used in folk medicine to alleviate pain, depression, amenorrhea, inflammation and numerous other medical conditions. In cancer patients specifically, cannabinoids are well known to exert palliative effects; their best-established use is the inhibition of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, but they are applied also to alleviate pain, stimulate appetite, and attenuate wasting. More recently, cannabinoids have gained special attention for their role in cancer cell proliferation and death.

Anti-cancer efficacy of cannabinoids:

The ability of cannabinoids to reduce tumor growth was reported for the first time by Munson et al. in 1975. They showed by in vitro and in vivo experiments that several phytocannabinoids, including THC, decreased Lewis lung adenocarcinoma proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Nevertheless, it was not until the 2000s that the interest in these compounds as anti-cancer agents was renewed, predominantly due to the work of Guzman in gliomas, and the demonstration of cannabinoids’ anti-cancer effects on various types of tumors. The anti-tumorigenic effect of the endo- and phytocannabinoids was demonstrated in several in vitro and in vivo models of a wide variety of adult tumors including glioma, prostate, breast, leukemia, lymphoma, pancreas, melanoma, thyroid, colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma tumors.

Given our positive results, we suggest that non-THC cannabinoids such as CBD might provide a basis for the development of novel therapeutic strategies without the typical psychotropic effects of THC that limit its use in pediatric patients.

Overall, the cannabinoids, and specifically the non-psychoactive CBD, may show future promise in the treatment of cancer”

https://www.ima.org.il/FilesUpload/IMAJ/0/228/114216.pdf

https://www.ima.org.il/imaj/ViewArticle.aspx?aId=4044

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28457057

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Analysis of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Derived N-Acylethanolamines in Biological Matrices.

“The adequate quantification of endocannabinoids can be complex due to their low endogenous levels and structural diversity. Therefore, advanced analytical approaches, such as LC-MS, are used to measure endocannabinoids in plasma, tissues, and other matrices. Recent work has shown that endocannabinoids that are synthesized from n-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA) and eicosapentaenoylethanolamide (EPEA), have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic properties and stimulate synapse formation in neurites. Here, an LC-MS based method for the quantification of n-3 endocannabinoids DHEA and EPEA which is also suited to measure a wider spectrum of endocannabinoids is described. The chapter contains a step-by-step protocol for the analysis of n-3 endocannabinoids in plasma, including sample collection and solid phase extraction, LC-MS analysis, and data processing. Modifications to the protocol that allow quantifying n-3 endocannabinoids in tissues and cell culture media will also be discussed. Finally, conditions that alter endocannabinoid concentrations are briefly discussed.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27245889

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Cannabinoid receptor-2 agonist inhibits macrophage induced EMT in non-small cell lung cancer by downregulation of EGFR pathway.

“JWH-015, a cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist has tumor regressive property in various cancer types.

These data confer the impact of this cannabinoid on anti-proliferative and anti-tumorigenic effects, thus enhancing our understanding of its therapeutic efficacy in NSCLC.

Our findings open new avenues for cannabinoid receptor CB2 agonist-JWH-015 as a novel and potential therapeutic target based on EGFR downregulation mechanisms in NSCLC.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26741322

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Δ-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits growth and metastasis of lung cancer.

Image result for harvard university logo

“Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide.

Many of these over-express epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and are usually highly aggressive and resistant to chemotherapy.

Recent studies have shown that Δ-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major component of Cannabis sativa, possess anti-tumor properties against various types of cancers.

However, not much is known about its effect on lung cancer. In this study, we sought to characterize the effect of THC on EGF-induced growth and metastasis of human non small lung cancer cell (NSCLC) lines A549 and SW-1573.

We demonstrate that these cell lines and primary tumor samples derived from lung cancer patients express cannabinoids receptors CB1 and CB2, the known targets for THC action.

We further show that THC inhibits EGF-induced growth in these cell lines.

In addition THC attenuated EGF-stimulated chemotaxis and chemoinvasion.

Next we characterized the effect of THC on in vivo lung cancer growth and metastasis in a murine model. A549 cells were implanted in SCID mice (n=6 per group) through subcutaneous and intravenous injections to generate subcutaneous and lung metastatic cancer, respectively. THC (5mg/kg body wt.) was administered once daily through intraperitoneal injections for 21 days. The mice were analyzed for tumor growth and lung metastasis.

A significant reduction (~50%) in tumor weight and volume were observed in THC treated animals compared to the vehicle treated animals.

THC treated animals also showed a significant (~60%) reduction in macroscopic lesions on the lung surface in comparison to vehicle treated control.

Immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor samples from THC treated animals revealed anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects of THC with significant reduction in staining for Ki67, a proliferative marker and CD31, an endothelial marker indicative of vascularization. Investigation into the signaling events associated with reduced EGF-induced functional effects revealed that THC also inhibits EGF-induced Akt phosphorylation. Akt is a central signaling molecule of EGFR-mediated signaling pathways and it regulates a diverse array of cellular functions, including proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and apoptosis.

Cumulatively, these studies indicate that THC has anti-tumorigenic and anti-metastatic effects against lung cancer. Novel therapies against EGFR overexpressing, aggressive and chemotherapy resistant lung cancers may include targeting the cannabinoids receptors.”

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/67/9_Supplement/4749.short

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/lung-cancer/

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Modulation of the tumor microenvironment and inhibition of EGF/EGFR pathway: Novel anti-tumor mechanisms of Cannabidiol in breast cancer.

“The anti-tumor role and mechanisms of Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic cannabinoid compound, are not well studied especially in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC).

In the present study, we analyzed CBD’s anti-tumorigenic activity against highly aggressive breast cancer cell lines including TNBC subtype.

We show here -for the first time-that CBD significantly inhibits epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced proliferation and chemotaxis of breast cancer cells.

Further studies revealed that CBD inhibits EGF-induced activation of EGFR, ERK, AKT and NF-kB signaling pathways as well as MMP2 and MMP9 secretion.

In addition, we demonstrated that CBD inhibits tumor growth and metastasis in different mouse model systems.

Analysis of molecular mechanisms revealed that CBD significantly inhibits the recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages in primary tumor stroma and secondary lung metastases…

In summary, our study shows -for the first time-that CBD inhibits breast cancer growth and metastasis through novel mechanisms by inhibiting EGF/EGFR signaling and modulating the tumor microenvironment.

These results also indicate that CBD can be used as a novel therapeutic option to inhibit growth and metastasis of highly aggressive breast cancer subtypes including TNBC, which currently have limited therapeutic options and are associated with poor prognosis and low survival rates.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25660577

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/breast-cancer/

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WIN induces apoptotic cell death in human colon cancer cells through a block of autophagic flux dependent on PPARγ down-regulation.

“Cannabinoids have been reported to possess anti-tumorigenic activity in cancer models…

Here, we show that the synthetic cannabinoid WIN55,212-2 (WIN)-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines is accompanied by endoplasmic reticulum stress induction.

In conclusion, at our knowledge, our results are the first to show that the reduction of PPARγ levels contributes to WIN-induced colon carcinoma cell death by blocking the pro-survival autophagic response of cells.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24696378

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Delta–9 Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits growth and metastasis of lung cancer – Harvard University

“Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide.Many of these over-express epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR), and are usually highly aggressive and resistant to chemotherapy.

Recent studies have shown that {Delta}-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC),the major component of Cannabis sativa, possess anti-tumor propertiesagainst various types of cancers.

 However, not much is knownabout its effect on lung cancer. In this study, we sought tocharacterize the effect of THC on EGF-induced growth and metastasisof human non small lung cancer cell (NSCLC) lines A549 and SW-1573.

We demonstrate that these cell lines and primary tumor samplesderived from lung cancer patients express cannabinoids receptorsCB1 and CB2, the known targets for THC action. We further showthat THC inhibits EGF-induced growth in these cell lines. Inaddition THC attenuated EGF-stimulated chemotaxis and chemoinvasion.Next we characterized the effect of THC on in vivo lung cancergrowth and metastasis in a murine model. A549 cells were implantedin SCID mice (n=6 per group) through subcutaneous and intravenousinjections to generate subcutaneous and lung metastatic cancer,respectively. THC (5mg/kg body wt.) was administered once dailythrough intraperitoneal injections for 21 days. The mice wereanalyzed for tumor growth and lung metastasis.

 A significantreduction (~50%) in tumor weight and volume were observed inTHC treated animals compared to the vehicle treated animals.THC treated animals also showed a significant (~60%) reductionin macroscopic lesions on the lung surface in comparison tovehicle treated control. Immunohistochemical analysis of thetumor samples from THC treated animals revealed anti-proliferativeand anti-angiogenic effects of THC with significant reductionin staining for Ki67, a proliferative marker and CD31, an endothelialmarker indicative of vascularization. Investigation into thesignaling events associated with reduced EGF-induced functionaleffects revealed that THC also inhibits EGF-induced Akt phosphorylation.Akt is a central signaling molecule of EGFR-mediated signalingpathways and it regulates a diverse array of cellular functions,including proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and apoptosis.

Cumulatively, these studies indicate that THC has anti-tumorigenic and anti-metastatic effects against lung cancer. Novel therapies against EGFR overexpressing, aggressive and chemotherapy resistant lung cancers may include targeting the cannabinoids receptors.”

http://www.aacrmeetingabstracts.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/2007/1_Annual_Meeting/4749%20?maxtoshow&hits=80&RESULTFORMAT&fulltext=cannabinoid&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=1760&resourcetype=HWCIT

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