A pediatric patient with autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy using cannabinoid extracts as complementary therapy: a case report

 Journal of Medical Case Reports | Home page“The pharmacological treatment for autism spectrum disorders is often poorly tolerated and has traditionally targeted associated conditions, with limited benefit for the core social deficits.

We describe the novel use of a cannabidiol-based extract that incidentally improved core social deficits and overall functioning in a patient with autism spectrum disorder, at a lower dose than has been previously reported in autism spectrum disorder.

Case presentation: The parents of a 15-year-old boy, of South African descent, with autism spectrum disorder, selective mutism, anxiety, and controlled epilepsy, consulted a medical cannabis physician to trial cannabis extract to replace seizure medications. Incidentally, at a very low cannabidiol-based extract dose, he experienced unanticipated positive effects on behavioral symptoms and core social deficits.

Conclusion: This case report provides evidence that a lower than previously reported dose of a phytocannabinoid in the form of a cannabidiol-based extract may be capable of aiding in autism spectrum disorder-related behavioral symptoms, core social communication abilities, and comorbid anxiety, sleep difficulties, and weight control. Further research is needed to elucidate the clinical role and underlying biological mechanisms of action of cannabidiol-based extract in patients with autism spectrum disorder.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32958062/

https://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13256-020-02478-7

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Cannabidiol-Mediated Changes to the Phospholipid Profile of UVB-Irradiated Keratinocytes from Psoriatic Patients

ijms-logo“UVB phototherapy is treatment for psoriasis, which increases phospholipid oxidative modifications in the cell membrane of the skin. Therefore, we carried out lipidomic analysis on the keratinocytes of healthy individuals and patients with psoriasis irradiated with UVB and treated with cannabidiol (CBD), phytocannabinoid with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Our results showed that, in psoriatic keratinocytes phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylserine (PS), and ether-linked phosphoethanolamine (PEo), were downregulated, while SM (d41:2) was upregulated. These changes were accompanied by an increase in negative zeta potential, which indicates translocation of PS to the outer layer of the membrane.

CBD treatment of psoriatic keratinocytes led to downregulation of PC, PS, and upregulation of certain PEo and an SM species, SM (d42:2), and the zeta potential. However, UVB irradiation of psoriatic keratinocytes resulted in upregulation of PC, PC plasmalogens (PCp), PEo, and a decrease in the negative zeta potential. The exposure of UVB-irradiated cells to CBD led to a decrease in the level of SM (d42:2).

Our results suggest that CBD induces pro-apoptotic mechanisms in psoriatic keratinocytes while simultaneously improving the antioxidant properties and preventing the loss of transepidermal water of keratinocytes of patients irradiated with UVB. Thus, CBD has potential therapeutic value in the treatment of psoriasis.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32916896/

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/18/6592

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It Is Our Turn to Get Cannabis High: Put Cannabinoids in Food and Health Baskets

molecules-logo“Cannabis is an annual plant with a long history of use as food, feed, fiber, oil, medicine, and narcotics. Despite realizing its true value, it has not yet found its true place. Cannabis has had a long history with many ups and downs, and now it is our turn to promote it.

Cannabis contains approximately 600 identified and many yet unidentified potentially useful compounds. Cannabinoids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and alkaloids are some of the secondary metabolites present in cannabis. However, among a plethora of unique chemical compounds found in this plant, the most important ones are phytocannabinoids (PCs).

Over hundreds of 21-22-carbon compounds exclusively produce in cannabis glandular hairs through either polyketide and or deoxyxylulose phosphate/methylerythritol phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathways. Trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are those that first come to mind while talking about cannabis. Nevertheless, despite the low concentration, cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabichromene (CBC), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabidivarin (CBDV), cannabinodiol (CBND), and cannabinidiol (CBDL) may have potentially some medical effects.

PCs and endocannabinoids (ECs) mediate their effects mainly through CB1 and CB2 receptors. Despite all concerns regarding cannabis, nobody can ignore the use of cannabinoids as promising tonic, analgesic, antipyretic, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-epileptic, anticancer agents, which are effective for pain relief, depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis, cardiovascular disorders, and appetite stimulation.

The scientific community and public society have now increasingly accepted cannabis specifically hemp as much more than a recreational drug. There are growing demands for cannabinoids, mainly CBD, with many diverse therapeutic and nutritional properties in veterinary or human medicine. The main objective of this review article is to historically summarize findings concerning cannabinoids, mainly THC and CBD, towards putting these valuable compounds into food, feed and health baskets and current and future trends in the consumption of products derived from cannabis.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32899626/

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/25/18/4036

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A Comparative In Vitro Study of the Neuroprotective Effect Induced by Cannabidiol, Cannabigerol, and Their Respective Acid Forms: Relevance of the 5-HT 1A Receptors

 SpringerLink“Previous preclinical studies have demonstrated that cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG), two non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoids from Cannabis sativa, induce neuroprotective effects on toxic and neurodegenerative processes.

Our results contribute to the understanding of the neuroprotective effect of CBD and CBG, showing differences with their acid forms, and also highlight the role of 5-HT1A receptors in the mechanisms of action of CBG.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32886342/

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12640-020-00277-y

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Cannabidiol (CBD): a killer for inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts

 Cell Death & Disease“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-intoxicating phytocannabinoid from cannabis sativa that has demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects in several inflammatory conditions including arthritis.

In this study, we show that CBD increases intracellular calcium levels, reduces cell viability and IL-6/IL-8/MMP-3 production of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF).

CBD reduced cell viability, proliferation, and IL-6/IL-8 production of RASF. Moreover, CBD increased intracellular calcium and uptake of the cationic viability dye PoPo3 in RASF, which was enhanced by pre-treatment with TNF.

Thus, CBD possesses anti-arthritic activity and might ameliorate arthritis via targeting synovial fibroblasts under inflammatory conditions.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32873774/

“In conclusion, CBD might be beneficial as an adjuvant treatment in rheumatoid arthritis that might support the action of currently used disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs.”

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41419-020-02892-1

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Coronavirus Disease-2019 Treatment Strategies Targeting Interleukin-6 Signaling and Herbal Medicine

View details for OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology cover image“Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is evolving across the world and new treatments are urgently needed as with vaccines to prevent the illness and stem the contagion. The virus affects not only the lungs but also other tissues, thus lending support to the idea that COVID-19 is a systemic disease. The current vaccine and treatment development strategies ought to consider such systems medicine perspectives rather than a narrower focus on the lung infection only.

COVID-19 is associated with elevated levels of the inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Elevated levels of cytokines and the cytokine storm have been linked to fatal disease. This suggests new therapeutic strategies through blocking the cytokine storm. IL-6 is one of the major cytokines associated with the cytokine storm. IL-6 is also known to display pleiotropic/diverse pathophysiological effects. We suggest the blockage of IL-6 signaling and its downstream mediators such as Janus kinases (JAKs), and signal transducer and activators of transcription (STATs) offer potential hope for the treatment of severe cases of COVID-19. Thus, repurposing of already approved IL-6-JAK-STAT signaling inhibitors as well as other anti-inflammatory drugs, including dexamethasone, is under development for severe COVID-19 cases.

We conclude this expert review by highlighting the potential role of precision herbal medicines, for example, the Cannabis sativa, provided that omics technologies can be utilized to build a robust scientific evidence base on their clinical safety and efficacy. Precision herbal medicine buttressed by omics systems science would also help identify new molecular targets for drug discovery against COVID-19.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32857671/

Cannabis sativa is a plant known to contain anti-inflammatory compounds such as cannabinoid cannabidiol. In addition to other compounds such as terpenes, these compounds have been suggested to have potential anticancer properties. Like other herbal plants, we suggest C. sativa warrants further mechanistic research in relationship to putative effects in COVID-19.”

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/omi.2020.0122

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Cannabidiol protects keratinocyte cell membranes following exposure to UVB and hydrogen peroxide

 Redox Biology“Keratinocytes, the major cell type of the epidermis, are particularly sensitive to environmental factors including exposure to sunlight and chemical agents. Since oxidative stress may arise as a result of these factors, compounds are actively sought that can act as protective agents.

Recently, cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid found in Cannabis Sativa L., has gained increased interest due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and absence of psychoactive effects.

This prompted us to analyze the protective effects of CBD on keratinocytes exposed to UVB irradiation and hydrogen peroxide.

Together, these findings suggest that CBD could be a potential protective agent for keratinocytes against the harmful effects of irradiation and chemical environmental factors that cause oxidative stress.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32863232/

“CBD could be a potential keratinocytes protector against the harmful factors.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213231720308181?via%3Dihub

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Chronic Cannabidiol Administration Attenuates Skeletal Muscle De Novo Ceramide Synthesis Pathway and Related Metabolic Effects in a Rat Model of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

biomolecules-logo“Numerous studies showed that sustained obesity results in accumulation of bioactive lipid derivatives in several tissues, including skeletal muscle, which further contributes to the development of metabolic disturbances and insulin resistance (IR).

The latest data indicate that a potential factor regulating lipid and glucose metabolism is a phytocannabinoid-cannabidiol (CBD), a component of medical marijuana (Cannabis). Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether chronic CBD administration influences bioactive lipid content (e.g., ceramide (CER)), as well as glucose metabolism, in the red skeletal muscle (musculus gastrocnemius) with predominant oxidative metabolism.

All experiments were conducted on an animal model of obesity, i.e., Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or standard rodent chow, and subsequently injected with CBD in a dose of 10 mg/kg or its solvent for two weeks. The sphingolipid content was assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while, in order to determine insulin and glucose concentrations, immunoenzymatic and colorimetric methods were used. The protein expression from sphingolipid and insulin signaling pathways, as well as endocannabinoidome components, was evaluated by immunoblotting.

Unexpectedly, our experimental model revealed that the significantly intensified intramuscular de novo CER synthesis pathway in the HFD group was attenuated by chronic CBD treatment. Additionally, due to CBD administration, the content of other sphingolipid derivatives, i.e., sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was restored in the high-fat feeding state, which coincided with an improvement in skeletal muscle insulin signal transduction and glycogen recovery.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32859125/

https://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/10/9/1241

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Hemp in Veterinary Medicine: From Feed to Drug

 See the source image“Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is an angiosperm plant belonging to the Cannabaceae family. Its cultivation dates back to centuries. It has always been cultivated due to the possibility of exploiting almost all the parts of the plant: paper, fabrics, ropes, bio-compounds with excellent insulating capacity, fuel, biodegradable plastic, antibacterial detergents, and food products, such as flour, oils, seeds, herbal teas, and beer, are indeed obtained from hemp.

Hemp flowers have also always been used for their curative effects, as well as for recreational purposes due to their psychotropic effects. Cannabis contains almost 500 chemical compounds, such as phytocannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and macro-, and micro-elements, among others.

When utilized as a food source, hemp shows excellent nutritional and health-promoting (nutraceutical) properties, mainly due to the high content in polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially those belonging to the ω-3 series), as well as in phenolic compounds, which seem effective in the prevention of common diseases such as gastrointestinal disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and others.

Moreover, hemp oil and other oils (i.e., olive oil and medium-chain triglyceride-MCT-oil) enriched in CBD, as well as extracts from hemp dried flowers (Cannabis extracts), are authorized in some countries for therapeutic purposes as a second-choice approach (when conventional therapies have failed) for a certain number of clinical conditions such as pain and inflammation, epilepsy, anxiety disorders, nausea, emesis, and anorexia, among others.

The present review will synthetize the beneficial properties of hemp and hemp derivatives in animal nutrition and therapeutics.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32850997/

C. sativa has been an important source of food in the Old World, as hempseeds and seed meal are excellent sources of dietary oil, fiber, and protein. Many of the constituents of C. sativa can be classified as either nutrients, nutraceuticals, or pharmaceutical ingredients.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2020.00387/full

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Receptors and Channels Possibly Mediating the Effects of Phytocannabinoids on Seizures and Epilepsy

pharmaceuticals-logo“Epilepsy contributes to approximately 1% of the global disease burden. By affecting especially young children as well as older persons of all social and racial variety, epilepsy is a present disorder worldwide. Currently, only 65% of epileptic patients can be successfully treated with antiepileptic drugs. For this reason, alternative medicine receives more attention.

Cannabis has been cultivated for over 6000 years to treat pain and insomnia and used since the 19th century to suppress epileptic seizures.

The two best described phytocannabinoids, (-)-trans9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are claimed to have positive effects on different neurological as well as neurodegenerative diseases, including epilepsy.

There are different cannabinoids which act through different types of receptors and channels, including the cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 (CB1, CB2), G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) and 18 (GPR18), opioid receptor µ and δ, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and 2 (TRPV2), type A γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR) and voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC).

The mechanisms and importance of the interaction between phytocannabinoids and their different sites of action regarding epileptic seizures and their clinical value are described in this review.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32751761/

https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/13/8/174

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