Cannabidiol Effectively Promoted Cell Death in Bladder Cancer and the Improved Intravesical Adhesion Drugs Delivery Strategy Could Be Better Used for Treatment

pharmaceutics-logo“Cannabidiol (CBD), a primary bioactive phytocannabinoid extracted from hemp, is reported to possess potent anti-tumorigenic activity in multiple cancers.

However, the effects of CBD on bladder cancer (BC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms are rarely reported.

Here, several experiments proved that CBD promoted BC cells (T24, 5637, and UM-UC-3) death.

In summary, this work demonstrates that CBD may become a novel reliable anticancer drug and the developed intravesical adhesion system is expected to turn into a potential means of BC chemotherapy drug delivery.

We believe that our study makes a significant contribution to the field because these results can be developed as a promising strategy for a safer and more efficient anticancer therapy.”

https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4923/13/9/1415/htm

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Cannabinoids and Cancer

cancers-logo“Cannabinoids, active components of the plant Cannabis sativa, had been used for centuries in ancient medicine as therapeutic remedies for a variety of conditions, before becoming stigmatized due to their psychoactive effects.

In the second half of the 19th century, phyto-cannabinoids have been re-evaluated after the discovery of the chemical structure and isolation of different substances, and the subsequent development of cannabinoid-based drugs that have been FDA approved mainly to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea, insomnia and appetite, epilepsy, spasticity, and pain management.

Then, the elucidation of the endocannabinoid system, from the initial type 1 and type 2 (CB1 and CB2) cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands (especially N-arachidonoylethanolamine, or anandamide, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) to the emerging complexity of a wider system made up of additional putative receptors, ligands and enzymes, altogether termed endocannabinoidome, has further boosted research into the therapeutic potential of phyto-, endo- and even syntho-(synthetic) cannabinoids, cancer treatment included.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34503268/

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/13/17/4458/htm

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Cannabidiol Induces Apoptosis and Perturbs Mitochondrial Function in Human and Canine Glioma Cells

Frontiers in Pharmacology (@FrontPharmacol) | Twitter“Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychoactive compound found in cannabis, is frequently used both as a nutraceutical and therapeutic.

Despite anecdotal evidence as an anticancer agent, little is known about the effect CBD has on cancer cells. Given the intractability and poor prognoses of brain cancers in human and veterinary medicine, we sought to characterize the in vitro cytotoxicity of CBD on human and canine gliomas.

Glioma cells treated with CBD showed a range of cytotoxicity from 4.9 to 8.2 μg/ml; canine cells appeared to be more sensitive than human.

These results demonstrate the cytotoxic nature of CBD in human and canine glioma cells and suggest a mechanism of action involving dysregulation of calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial activity.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34456736/

“In this present study, we demonstrate that highly purified CBD isolate reduced proliferation and induced caspase-mediated cell death, suggestive of apoptosis, in both canine glioma cell lines SDT3G and J3TBG as well as the human glioma cell lines U87MG and U373MG Uppsala. The growing body of knowledge of the pharmacology, anticancer effects, and other therapeutically relevant properties of cannabidiol reveal the exciting potential of CBD as a potential clinical therapeutic.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2021.725136/full

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Cannabidiol reverses memory impairments and activates components of the Akt/GSK3β pathway in an experimental model of estrogen depletion

Behavioural Brain Research“Clinical and preclinical evidence has indicated that estrogen depletion leads to memory impairments and increases the susceptibility to neural damage.

Here, we have sought to investigate the effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa, on memory deficits induced by estrogen depletion in rats, and its underlying mechanisms.

Results revealed that ovariectomy impaired avoidance memory, and CBD was able to completely reverse estrogen depletion-induced memory impairment. Ovariectomy also reduced Akt/GSK3β pathway’s activation by decreasing the phosphorylation levels of Akt and GSK3β and Bcl2 levels, which were ameliorated by CBD.

The present results indicate that CBD leads to a functional recovery accompanied by the Akt/GSK3β survival pathway’s activation, supporting its potential as a treatment for estrogen decline-induced deterioration of neural functioning and maintenance.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34450240/

“In the present study, we aimed to understand the possible neuroprotective effect of CBD against estrogen depletion-induced emotional memory deficits, using an animal model of ovariectomy-induced estrogen depletion. Once CBD and estradiol modulate a common pathway, we speculated whether CBD would be able to reverse the deleterious effect of estradiol decline observed in menopause. Results revealed that ovariectomy impaired avoidance memory, and CBD was able to completely reverse estrogen depletion-induced memory impairment.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0166432821004435?via%3Dihub

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Cannabis Extract Has a Positive-Immunostimulating Effect through Proteolytic System and Metabolic Compounds of Honey Bee ( Apis mellifera) Workers

animals-logo“In the study, we assessed the effect of hemp extract on activities of resistance parameters and the metabolic compound concentration in adult workers’ hemolymph. Bees were divided into the following groups: (1) control group fed with mixture of sugar and water-glycerine solution, (2) experimental group with pure sugar syrup and inside with cotton strips soaked with hemp extract, (3) experimental group with a mixture of sugar syrup with hemp extract. Hemp extracts caused an increase in the protein concentrations and reduced the protease activities regardless of the administration method. The protease inhibitor activities were decreased only in the group that received hemp extract on the strips. The biomarker activities (ALP, ALT, AST) increased from the control group and workers feeding extract in syrup and decreased in workers supplemented with the extract on strips. In young, 2-day-old workers, the glucose concentration was higher in the groups feeding with the extract than in the control. Hemp extract influenced an increase in urea concentrations in workers’ hemolymph in comparison with the control. The hemp supplementation positively influences the immune system of workers, and the appropriate method of administration may be adapted to the health problems of bees.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34438647/

“The aim of our study was to test the immunostimulating effect of a diet with hemp extract on the resistance of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). The experiment compared the effect of supplementation between the bees receiving the extract in the form of a mixture with sugar syrup and on the strip with the extract, compared to the bees that had no contact with substance. In order to determine this effect, the biochemical indicators were analyzed: the proteolytic system (proteases, protease inhibitors, total protein concentration) responsible for the fight against pathogens/parasites, biomarkers (ALT, AST, ALP), and the basic components of metabolism (glucose and urea concentrations). Parameters were determined in the hemolymph of 2- and 7-day-old workers. Hemp extracts caused an increase in the protein concentrations. Regardless of the method of administration, proteases decreased. Protease inhibitors increased, except supplementation on strips where the activity decreased. The biomarker activities increased in the control group and workers feeding extract in syrup and decreased in workers supplemented with the extract on strips. The results of the metabolic component were as follows: glucose and urea concentrations indicate that the extract will not adversely affect metabolic changes in the insect’s organism. Hemp extract improves the natural immunity of bees.”

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/11/8/2190

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Changes in Hepatic Phospholipid Metabolism in Rats under UV Irradiation and Topically Treated with Cannabidiol

antioxidants-logo“The liver is a key metabolic organ that is particularly sensitive to environmental factors, including UV radiation. As UV radiation induces oxidative stress and inflammation, natural compounds are under investigation as one method to counteract these consequences.

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of topical application of phytocannabinoid-cannabidiol (CBD) on the skin of nude rats chronically irradiated with UVA/UVB, paying particular attention to its impact on the liver antioxidants and phospholipid metabolism.

The results of this study indicate that CBD reaches the rat liver where it is then metabolized into decarbonylated cannabidiol, 7-hydroxy-cannabidiol and cannabidiol-glucuronide. CBD increased the levels of GSH and vitamin A after UVB radiation. Moreover, CBD prevents the increase of 4-hydroxynonenal and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F levels in UVA-irradiated rats. As a consequence of reductions in phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenases activity following UV irradiation, CBD upregulates the level of 2-arachidonoylglycerol and downregulates prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4. Finally, CBD enhances decreased level of 15-deoxy-Δ-12,14-prostaglandin J2 after UVB radiation and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid after UVA radiation.

These data show that CBD applied to the skin prevents ROS- and enzyme-dependent phospholipid metabolism in the liver of UV-irradiated rats, suggesting that it may be used as an internal organ protector.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34439405/

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3921/10/8/1157

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Neuroprotective and Symptomatic Effects of Cannabidiol in an Animal Model of Parkinson’s Disease

ijms-logo“Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the Substantia Nigra pars compacta, leading to classical PD motor symptoms. Current therapies are purely symptomatic and do not modify disease progression.

Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the main phytocannabinoids identified in Cannabis Sativa, which exhibits a large spectrum of therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, suggesting its potential as disease-modifying agent for PD.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic treatment with CBD (10 mg/kg, i.p.) on PD-associated neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory processes, and motor deficits in the 6-hydroxydopamine model. Moreover, we investigated the potential mechanisms by which CBD exerted its effects in this model.

CBD-treated animals showed a reduction of nigrostriatal degeneration accompanied by a damping of the neuroinflammatory response and an improvement of motor performance. In particular, CBD exhibits a preferential action on astrocytes and activates the astrocytic transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), thus, enhancing the endogenous neuroprotective response of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF).

These results overall support the potential therapeutic utility of CBD in PD, as both neuroprotective and symptomatic agent.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34445626/

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/22/16/8920

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Cannabidiol – A phytocannabinoid that widely affects sphingolipid metabolism under conditions of brain insulin resistance

Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy“Obesity-related insulin resistance (IR) and attenuated brain insulin signaling are significant risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Alzheimer’s disease. IR and type 2 diabetes correlate with an increased concentration of sphingolipids, a class of lipids that play an essential structural role in cellular membranes and cell signaling pathways.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa plant that interacts with the endocannabinoidome. Despite known positive effects of CBD on improvement in diabetes and its aftermath, e.g., anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, there are no studies evaluating the effect of phytocannabinoids on the brain insulin resistance and sphingolipid metabolism. Our experiment was carried out on Wistar rats that received a high-fat diet and/or intraperitoneal CBD injections.

In our study, we indicated inhibition of de novo synthesis and salvage pathways, which resulted in significant changes in the concentration of sphingolipids, e.g., ceramide and sphingomyelin. Furthermore, we observed reduced brain IR and decreased tau protein phosphorylation what might be protective against neuropathologies development.

We believe that our research will concern a new possible therapeutic approach with Cannabis -plant derived compounds and within a few years, cannabinoids would be considered as prominent substances for targeting both metabolic and neurodegenerative pathologies.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34435590/

“CBD might be an essential factor that leads to the reduction of brain IR. Thus, we believe that our research will concern a new possible therapeutic approach with a Cannabis-plant derived compounds and within a few years, those substances would be considered as prominent compounds for targeting both metabolic and neurodegenerative pathologies.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0753332221008404?via%3Dihub

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Analysis of Toxicity Effects of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Isolated Rat Heart Mitochondria

Publication Cover“Mitochondria have the main roles in myocardial tissue homeostasis, through providing ATP for the vital enzymes in intermediate metabolism, contractile apparatus and maintaining ion homeostasis. Mitochondria-related cardiotoxicity results from the exposure with illicit drugs have previously reported. These illicit drugs interference with processes of normal mitochondrial homeostasis and lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial-related oxidative stress.

Here, we investigated this hypothesis that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-THC) as a main cannabinoid found in cannabis could directly cause mitochondrial dysfunction.

Our observation showed that THC did not cause a deleterious alteration in mitochondrial functions, ROS production, MMP collapse, mitochondrial swelling, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in used concentrations (5-100 µM), even in several tests, toxicity showed a decreasing trend.

Altogether, the results of the current study showed that THC is not directly toxic in isolated cardiac mitochondria, and even may be helpful in reducing mitochondrial toxicity.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34431445/

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15376516.2021.1973168?journalCode=itxm20

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Cannabigerolic acid, a major biosynthetic precursor molecule in cannabis, exhibits divergent effects on seizures in mouse models of epilepsy

British Journal of Pharmacology“Background and purpose: Cannabis has been used to treat epilepsy for millennia, with such use validated by regulatory approval of cannabidiol (CBD) for the treatment of Dravet syndrome. Unregulated artisanal cannabis-based products used to treat children with intractable epilepsies often contain relatively low doses of CBD but are enriched in other phytocannabinoids. This raises the possibility that other cannabis constituents might have anticonvulsant properties.

Experimental approach: We used the Scn1a+/- mouse model of Dravet syndrome to interrogate the cannabis plant for phytocannabinoids with anticonvulsant effects against hyperthermia-induced seizures. The most promising, cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), was further examined against spontaneous seizures and survival in Scn1a+/- mice. CBGA was also examined in conventional electroshock seizure models. In addition, we surveyed the pharmacological effects of CBGA across multiple drug targets.

Key results: The initial screen identified three phytocannabinoids with novel anticonvulsant properties: CBGA, cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA) and cannabigerovarinic acid (CBGVA). CBGA was the most potent and potentiated the anticonvulsant effects of clobazam against hyperthermia-induced and spontaneous seizures, and was anticonvulsant in the MES threshold test. However, CBGA was proconvulsant in the 6-Hz threshold test and a high dose increased spontaneous seizure frequency in Scn1a+/- mice. CBGA was found to interact with numerous epilepsy-relevant targets including GPR55, TRPV1 channels and GABAA receptors.

Conclusion: These results suggest CBGA, CBDVA and CBGVA may contribute to the effects of cannabis-based products in childhood epilepsy. While these phytocannabinoids have anticonvulsant potential and could be lead compounds for drug development programs, several liabilities would need to be overcome before CBD is superseded by another in this class.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34384142/

https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.15661

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