Kinetics of acetylcholinesterase inhibition by hemp seed protein-derived peptides.

Journal of Food Biochemistry banner“The aim of this work was to enhance the acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibitory activity of a pepsin-produced hemp seed protein hydrolysates (HPH) through reverse-phase HPLC separation followed by identification of peptide sequences present in the most active fraction. The HPH was separated into eight fractions (F1-F8) with F7 exhibiting significantly (p < 0.05) the strongest (97.5%) in vitro inhibition of electric eel AChE (eeAChE) activity in comparison to 53.8% for HPH. The HPH consisted mostly of low molecular weight peptides of < 11 amino acid residues and most contained at least one hydrophobic amino acid. Kinetics of enzyme inhibition revealed a mixed-type inhibition of eeAChE activity by HPH whereas F7 acted through an uncompetitive mode; in contrast inhibition of human AChE by HPH and F7 was uncompetitive. The stronger inhibitory potency of the F7 peptides fraction against both enzymes was confirmed through reduced maximal velocity, catalytic efficiency, and inhibition constant values when compared to the HPH.

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The use of natural products for the prevention or treatment of human diseases continues to be an area of intense research activities. Food protein-derived peptides obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis of hemp seed proteins were shown in vitro to be strong inhibitors of activities of both the eel and human forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). AChE is an important therapeutic target because excessive activity of this enzyme is a causative factor of neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer’s. This work showed that peptides in the most active fraction are small in sizes, which may favor their absorption into blood circulation and possible permeation of the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, the hemp seed peptides are potential agents that can be used to formulate functional foods and nutraceuticals against neurodegenerative diseases.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31353736

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jfbc.12897

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Agitation, Oxidative Stress, and Cytokines in Alzheimer Disease: Biomarker Analyses From a Clinical Trial With Nabilone for Agitation.

 Image result for journal of geriatric psychiatry and neurology

“The endocannabinoid system has been a target of interest for agitation in Alzheimer disease (AD) because of potential behavioral effects and its potential impact on mechanisms implicated in AD such as oxidative stress (OS) and neuroinflammation.

We explored whether serum markers of OS and neuroinflammation were associated with response to the cannabinoid nabilone in agitated patients with AD (N = 38).

These findings suggest that OS and neuroinflammation may be associated with agitation severity, while nabilone may have anti-inflammatory effects.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31547752

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0891988719874118?journalCode=jgpb

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Novel cannabis flavonoid, cannflavin A displays both a hormetic and neuroprotective profile against amyloid β-mediated neurotoxicity in PC12 cells: comparison with geranylated flavonoids, mimulone and diplacone.

Biochemical Pharmacology

“Flavonoids form a diverse class of naturally occurring polyphenols ascribed various biological activities, including inhibition of amyloid β (Aβ) fibrillisation and neurotoxicity of relevance to Alzheimer’s disease.

Cannabis contains a unique subset of prenylated flavonoids, the cannflavins.

While selected conventional flavonoids have demonstrated anti-amyloid and neuroprotective potential, any neuroprotective bioactivity of prenylated flavonoids has not been determined.

We evaluated the in vitro neuroprotective and anti-aggregative properties of the novel geranylated cannabis-derived flavonoid, cannflavin A against Aβ1-42 and compared it to two similarly geranylated flavonoids, mimulone and diplacone, to compare the bioactive properties of these unique flavonoids more broadly.

RESULTS:

Cannflavin A demonstrated intrinsic hormetic effects on cell viability, increasing viability by 40% from 1-10µM but displaying neurotoxicity at higher (>10-100µM) concentrations. Neither mimulone nor diplacone exhibited such a biphasic effect, instead showing only concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, with diplacone the more potent (from >1 µM). However at the lower concentrations (<10µM), cannflavin A increased cell viability by up to 40%, while 10µM cannflavin A inhibited the neurotoxicity elicited by Aβ1-42 (0-2µM), reducing Aβ aggregate adherence to PC-12 cells and associated neurite loss. The neuroprotective effects of cannflavin A were associated with a direct inhibition of Aβ1-42 fibril and aggregate density, evidenced by attenuated ThT fluorescence kinetics and microscopic evidence of both altered and diminished density of Aβ aggregate and fibril morphology via electron microscopy.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings highlight a concentration-dependent hormetic and neuroprotective role of cannflavin A against Aβ-mediated neurotoxicity, associated with an inhibition of Aβ fibrillisation. The efficacy of the cannabis flavone may itself direct further lead development targeting neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease. However, the geranylated flavonoids generally displayed a comparatively potent neurotoxicity not observed with many conventional flavonoids in vitro.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31437460

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006295219302990?via%3Dihub

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The Acute Activation of the CB1 Receptor in the Hippocampus Decreases Neurotoxicity and Prevents Spatial Memory Impairment in Rats Lesioned with β-Amyloid 25-35.

Neuroscience“Given their anti-inflammatory properties, cannabinoids have been shown to be neuroprotective agents and to reduce excitotoxicity, through the activation of the Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1r).

These properties have led to CB1r being proposed as pharmacological targets for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases.

This study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of an acute activation of CB1r on spatial memory and its impact on iNOS protein expression, NO● levels, gliosis and the neurodegenerative process induced by the injection of Aβ(25-35) into the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus.

The data obtained in the present research suggest that the acute early activation of CB1r is crucial for neuroprotection.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31400487

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306452219305433?via%3Dihub

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Investigating the safety and efficacy of nabilone for the treatment of agitation in patients with moderate-to-severe Alzheimer’s disease: Study protocol for a cross-over randomized controlled trial.

Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications“Agitation is a prevalent and difficult-to-treat symptom in patients with moderate-to-severe Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Though there are nonpharmacological and pharmacological interventions recommended for the treatment of agitation, the efficacy of these are modest and not always consistent. Furthermore, the safety profiles of currently prescribed medications are questionable.

Nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, has a distinct pharmacological profile that may provide a safer and more effective treatment for agitation, while potentially having benefits for weight and pain. Additionally, emerging evidence suggests nabilone may have neuroprotective effects.

We describe a clinical trial investigating the safety and efficacy of nabilone for the treatment of agitation in patients with moderate-to-severe AD.

A safe and efficacious pharmacological intervention for agitation, with effects on pain and weight loss in patients with moderate-to-severe AD could increase quality-of-life, reduce caregiver stress and avoid unnecessary institutionalization and related increases in health care costs.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31338476

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2451865418301789?via%3Dihub

Nabilone is a man-made drug similar to the natural substances found in marijuana (cannabis).” https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-144706/nabilone-oral/details

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Safety and effectiveness of cannabinoids for the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: a systematic review.

SAGE Journals“Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in dementia impact profoundly on the quality of life of people living with dementia and their care givers. Evidence for the effectiveness and safety of current therapeutic options is varied.

Cannabinoids have been proposed as an alternative therapy, mainly due to their activity on CB1 receptors in the central nervous system. However, little is known regarding the safety and effectiveness of cannabinoid therapy in people with dementia.

A literature review was undertaken to identify, describe and critically appraise studies investigating cannabinoid use in treating NPS in dementia.

RESULTS:

Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. There was considerable variability across the studies with respect to study design (50% randomized controlled trials), intervention [dronabinol (33%), nabilone (25%) or delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; 42%)] and outcome measures.

Dronabinol (three studies) and THC (one study) were associated with significant improvements in a range of neuropsychiatric scores.

The most common adverse drug event (ADE) reported was sedation. A high risk of bias was found in eight studies. The highest-quality trial found no significant improvement in symptoms or difference in ADE rate between treatment arms. Included studies used low doses of oral cannabinoids and this may have contributed to the lack of demonstrated efficacy.

CONCLUSION:

While the efficacy of cannabinoids was not proven in a robust randomized control trial, observational studies showed promising results, especially for patients whose symptoms were refractory. In addition, the safety profile is favourable as most of the ADEs reported were mild. Future trials may want to consider dose escalation and formulations with improved bioavailability.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31205674

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2042098619846993

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Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Nabilone for Agitation in Alzheimer’s Disease.

The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

“Nabilone may be an effective treatment for agitation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31182351

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1064748119303550?via%3Dihub

“Nabilone (marketed as Cesamet) is a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis (marijuana). Although structurally distinct from THC, nabilone mimics THC’s structure and pharmacological activity through weak partial agonist activity at Cannabinoid-1 (CB1R) and Cannabinoid-2 (CB2R) receptors, however it is considered to be twice as active as Δ⁹-THC. Nabilone is approved by the FDA for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy in patients who have failed to respond adequately to conventional antiemetic treatments.” https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00486

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The cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist, β-caryophyllene, improves working memory and reduces circulating levels of specific proinflammatory cytokines in aged male mice.

Behavioural Brain Research“Age-related cognitive decline has been associated with proinflammatory cytokines, yet the precise relationship between cognitive decline and cytokine load remains to be elucidated. β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist with established anti-inflammatory effects that is known to improve memory and increase lifespan. It is of interest to explore the potential of BCP to reduce age-related cognitive decline and proinflammatory cytokine load. In this study, we assessed changes in circulating cytokines across the lifespan, memory performance in young and aged mice, and the effects of BCP on memory function and cytokine load. The plasma levels of 12 cytokines were assessed in male Swiss-Webster mice at 3, 12, and 18 months of age using multiplexed flow cytometry. Working memory was compared in 3 and 12 month-old mice using spontaneous alternations. A dose-response function (100-300 mg/kg, subchronic administration) for BCP-induced memory restoration was determined in 3 and 12 month-old mice. Finally, the effects on cytokine levels of the peak memory enhancing dose of BCP was assessed in 18 month-old mice. Circulating levels of several cytokines significantly increased with age. Multilinear regression analysis showed that IL-23 levels were most strongly associated with age. Aged mice showed deficits in working memory and higher levels of IL-23, both of which were reversed by BCP treatment. BCP appears to reverse age-associated impairments in memory and modulates cytokine production. IL-23 may play a significant role in the aging process, and future research should determine whether it has utility as a biomarker for novel anti-aging therapeutics.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31173795

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166432819304516?via%3Dihub

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

“Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18574142

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CB2 Cannabinoid receptor agonist ameliorates novel object recognition but not spatial memory in transgenic APP/PS1 mice.

Neuroscience Letters

“The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) has been considered as a potential therapeutic target to ameliorate the neuroinflammation and cognitive impairments of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, there has been little research on the diverse roles of CB2R in regulating different forms of cognitive abilities and underlying neuroinflammatory mechanisms. Thus, the focus of the present study was to investigate the effects of CB2R activation on cognitive abilities, activation and phenotype conversion of microglia, and dendrite complexity.

Results showed that CB2R activation normalized the cortex-dependent novel object recognition memory deficit in a novel object recognition test (P < 0.05) and CB2R activation was ineffective for hippocampus-dependent spatial cognitive dysfunction in the Morris water maze test (P > 0.05). Moreover, activation of CB2R did not affect the formation of plaque in either the cortex or hippocampus (P > 0.05). Interestingly, in the cortex but not in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice, there was decreased immunofluorescence intensity of Iba1, M1 to M2 microglial phenotype conversion, and restored dendritic complexity after a long treatment period of CB2R agonist (All P < 0.05).

Our results demonstrated that CB2R activation exerts a beneficial role in novel object recognition ability concomitant with region-specific regulation in microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and dendritic complexity in AD-model mice.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31150731

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304394019303581?via%3Dihub

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Efficacy of Cannabinoids in a Pre-Clinical Drug-Screening Platform for Alzheimer’s Disease.

“Finding a therapy for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is perhaps the greatest challenge for modern medicine. The chemical scaffolds of many drugs in the clinic today are based upon natural products from plants, yet Cannabis has not been extensively examined as a source of potential AD drug candidates.

Here, we determine if a number of non-psychoactive cannabinoids are neuroprotective in a novel pre-clinical AD and neurodegeneration drug-screening platform that is based upon toxicities associated with the aging brain.

This drug discovery paradigm has yielded several compounds in or approaching clinical trials for AD. Eleven cannabinoids were assayed for neuroprotection in assays that recapitulate proteotoxicity, loss of trophic support, oxidative stress, energy loss, and inflammation. These compounds were also assayed for their ability to remove intraneuronal amyloid and subjected to a structure-activity relationship analysis. Pairwise combinations were assayed for their ability to synergize to produce neuroprotective effects that were greater than additive.

Nine of the 11 cannabinoids have the ability to protect cells in four distinct phenotypic neurodegeneration screening assays, including those using neurons that lack CB1 and CB2 receptors. They are able to remove intraneuronal Aβ, reduce oxidative damage, and protect from the loss of energy or trophic support. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) data show that functional antioxidant groups such as aromatic hydroxyls are necessary but not sufficient for neuroprotection. Therefore, there is a need to focus upon CB1 agonists that have these functionalities if neuroprotection is the goal.

Pairwise combinations of THC and CBN lead to a synergistic neuroprotective interaction.

Together, these results significantly extend the published data by showing that non-psychoactive cannabinoids are potential lead drug candidates for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31104297

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12035-019-1637-8

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