Cannabidiol modulates serotonergic transmission and reverses both allodynia and anxiety-like behavior in a model of neuropathic pain

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“Clinical studies indicate that cannabidiol (CBD), the primary nonaddictive component of cannabis that interacts with the serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor, may possess analgesic and anxiolytic effects.

Overall, repeated treatment with low-dose CBD induces analgesia predominantly through TRPV1 activation, reduces anxiety through 5-HT1A receptor activation, and rescues impaired 5-HT neurotransmission under neuropathic pain conditions.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30157131

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00006396-900000000-98870

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Inhibition of Monoacylglycerol Lipase Reduces the Reinstatement of Methamphetamine-Seeking and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Methamphetamine Self-Administered Rats.

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“Methamphetamine is a highly addictive psychostimulant with reinforcing properties. Our laboratory previously found that Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol, an exogenous cannabinoid, suppressed the reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the elevation of endocannabinoids modulates the reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior and emotional changes in methamphetamine self-administered rats.

RESULTS:

JZL184 (32 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.), an inhibitor of monoacylglycerol lipase, significantly attenuated both the cue- and stress-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior. Furthermore, URB597 (3.2 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.), an inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase, attenuated only cue-induced reinstatement. AM251, a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, antagonized the attenuation of cue-induced reinstatement by JZL184 but not URB597. Neither JZL184 nor URB597 reinstated methamphetamine-seeking behavior when administered alone. In the elevated plus-maze test, rats that were in withdrawal from methamphetamine self-administration spent less time in the open arms. JZL184 ameliorated the decrease in time spent in the open arms.

CONCLUSION:

We showed that JZL184 reduced both the cue- and stress-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking and anxiety-like behaviors in rats that had self-administered methamphetamine. It was suggested that a decrease in 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the brain could drive the reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking and anxiety-like behaviors.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30481332

https://academic.oup.com/ijnp/advance-article/doi/10.1093/ijnp/pyy086/5210886

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Cannabinoids, Chemical Senses, and Regulation of Feeding Behavior.

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“The herb Cannabis sativa has been traditionally used in many cultures and all over the world for thousands of years as medicine and recreation.

However, because it was brought to the Western world in the late 19th century, its use has been a source of controversy with respect to its physiological effects as well as the generation of specific behaviors. In this regard, the CB1 receptor represents the most relevant target molecule of cannabinoid components on nervous system and whole-body energy homeostasis.

Thus, the promotion of CB1 signaling can increase appetite and stimulate feeding, whereas blockade of CB1 suppresses hunger and induces hypophagia.

Taste and flavor are sensory experiences involving the oral perception of food-derived chemicals and drive a primal sense of acceptable or unacceptable for what is sampled. Therefore, research within the last decades focused on deciphering the effect of cannabinoids on the chemical senses involved in food perception and consequently in the pattern of feeding.

In this review, we summarize the data on the effect of cannabinoids on chemical senses and their influences on food intake control and feeding behavior.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30481264

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Cannabidiol reduces airway inflammation and fibrosis in experimental allergic asthma.

European Journal of Pharmacology

“Asthma is characterized by chronic lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Asthma remains a major public health problem and, at present, there are no effective interventions capable of reversing airway remodelling.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is known to exert immunomodulatory effects through the activation of cannabinoid-1 and -2 (CB1 and CB2) receptors located in the central nervous system and immune cells, respectively. However, as the role of CBD on airway remodelling and the mechanisms of CB1 and CB2 aren’t fully elucidated, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of cannabidiol in this scenario.

Allergic asthma was induced in Balb/c mice exposed to ovalbumin, and respiratory mechanics, collagen fibre content in airway and alveolar septa, cytokine levels, and CB1 and CB2 expression were determined. Moreover, expressions of CB1 and CB2 in induced sputum of asthmatic individuals and their correlation with airway inflammation and lung function were also evaluated.

CBD treatment, regardless of dosage, decreased airway hyperresponsiveness, whereas static lung elastance only reduced with high dose. These outcomes were accompanied by decreases in collagen fibre content in both airway and alveolar septa and the expression of markers associated with inflammation in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung homogenate. There was a significant and inverse correlation between CB1levels and lung function in asthmatic patients.

CBD treatment decreased the inflammatory and remodelling processes in the model of allergic asthma. The mechanisms of action appear to be mediated by CB1/CB2 signalling, but these receptors may act differently on lung inflammation and remodelling.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30481497

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299918306836?via%3Dihub

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Novel inverse agonists for the orphan G protein-coupled receptor 6.

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“The orphan G protein-coupled receptor 6 (GPR6) displays unique promise as a therapeutic target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders due to its high expression in the striatopallidal neurons of the basal ganglia.

GPR6, along with closely related orphan receptors GPR3 and GPR12, are phylogenetically related to CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors.

In the current study, we performed concentration-response studies on the effects of three different classes of cannabinoids: endogenous, phyto-, and synthetic, on both GPR6-mediated cAMP accumulation and β-arrestin2 recruitment. In addition, structure-activity relationship studies were conducted on cannabidiol (CBD), a recently discovered inverse agonist for GPR6.

We have identified four additional cannabinoids, cannabidavarin (CBDV), WIN55212-2, SR141716A and SR144528, that exert inverse agonism on GPR6. Furthermore, we have discovered that these cannabinoids exhibit functional selectivity toward the β-arrestin2 recruitment pathway.

These novel, functionally selective inverse agonists for GPR6 can be used as research tools and potentially developed into therapeutic agents.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30480157

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Aerobic Fitness Level Moderates the Association Between Cannabis Use and Executive Functioning and Psychomotor Speed Following Abstinence in Adolescents and Young Adults.

 

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“The high rate of cannabis (CAN) use in emerging adults is concerning given prior research suggesting neurocognitive deficits associated with CAN use in youth. Regular CAN use downregulates endocannabinoid activity, while aerobic exercise upregulates cannabinoid receptor 1 activity and releases endocannabinoids. Here we investigate the influence of regular CAN use on neuropsychological performance, and whether aerobic fitness moderates these effects.

RESULTS:

Increased CAN use was associated with decreased performance on working memory and psychomotor tasks. High aerobic fitness level was related to better performance on visual memory, verbal fluency, and sequencing ability. CAN*VO2 max predicted performance of psychomotor speed, visual memory, and sequencing ability.

CONCLUSIONS:

Following monitored abstinence, increased CAN use was associated with poorer performance in working memory and psychomotor speed. Higher aerobic fitness level moderated the impact of CAN on visual memory, executive function and psychomotor speed, as more aerobically fit CAN users demonstrated better performance relative to low-fit users.

Therefore, aerobic fitness may present an affordable and efficacious method to improve cognitive functioning in CAN users.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30474579

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society/article/aerobic-fitness-level-moderates-the-association-between-cannabis-use-and-executive-functioning-and-psychomotor-speed-following-abstinence-in-adolescents-and-young-adults/B033EA73E6C1FBFFBC75F45CC426C1CC

“Exercise activates the endocannabinoid system.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14625449

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Inhibition of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Can Influence the Lipid Metabolism in Mice with Diet-Induced Obesity.

“A growing number of evidences accumulated about critical metabolic role of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in some peripheral tissues, including adipose tissue, liver, skeletal muscle and heart.

Taken together, these data indicate that the inhibition of CB1 could ameliorate lipid metabolism via the stimulation of the CPT1A and CPT1B expression in vivo. Simultaneously, the PPARα and PPARγ expression levels significantly differed compared to that of PPARβ in obesity and lipid metabolism-related disorders under blockade of CB1.

Both the mechanism of the influence of CB1 inhibition on lipid metabolism in the examined tissues and the specific mechanism of PPARα, PPARγ and PPARβ involvement in lipid exchange under these conditions remain to be further elucidated.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30472964

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS0006297918100127

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Cannabinoids as Regulators of Neural Development and Adult Neurogenesis

“Neurogenesis plays an indispensable role in the formation of the nervous system during development. The discovery that the adult brain still maintains neurogenic niches that allow the continued production of new cells after birth has changed the field of neuroscience. It has also opened a new venue of opportunities for the treatment of central nervous system disorders related to neuronal loss. This chapter has reviewed the studies showing that genetic or pharmacological manipulation of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) or the enzymes responsible for endocannabinoid metabolism modify/regulate cell proliferation and neurogenesis during development and in the adult brain. A better characterization of the mechanisms involved in these effects could contribute to the development of new therapeutic alternatives to neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.”

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-49343-5_6?fbclid=IwAR1yxGqvrq_9Zva3HLEqjh2WrNRTxPN6Hy_IO8l2IN8v9BCNBG2jDks9N1w

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Anti-neuroinflammatory effects of GPR55 antagonists in LPS-activated primary microglial cells.

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“Neuroinflammation plays a vital role in Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative conditions.

The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) has been reported to modulate inflammation and is expressed in immune cells such as monocytes and microglia.

Targeting GPR55 might be a new therapeutic option to treat neurodegenerative diseases with a neuroinflammatory background such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson, and multiple sclerosis (MS).”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30453998

https://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12974-018-1362-7

“Pharmacological characterization of GPR55, a putative cannabinoid receptor.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20298715

“Our findings also suggest that GPR55 may be a new pharmacological target for the following C. sativa constituents: Δ9-THCV, CBDV, CBGA, and CBGV. These Cannabis sativa constituents may represent novel therapeutics targeting GPR55.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3249141/

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The Highs and Lows of the Endocannabinoid System—Another Piece to the Epilepsy Puzzle?

American Epilepsy Society

“Cannabis extracts have been used for the treatment of epilepsy for centuries.

Yet, until recently, this empirical use was not linked to a known mechanism of action. Of the two main and most frequently investigated compounds derived from the cannabis plant, the mechanism of action of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is relatively clear and well documented (via CB1R distributed mainly centrally and CB2R distributed mainly peripherally).

The components of endocannabinoid system (ECS) are omnipresent in our bodies and have very divergent roles. Modulating ECS may have therapeutic potential in many human maladies, including psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, or schizophrenia), neurologic conditions, including epilepsy and neurodegenerative processes, diabetes and its complications, obesity, pain management, cancer treatment, graft versus host disease, treatment of chemotherapy side effects, and so on. The list is long, and it is constantly growing.

We investigated changes in the endocannabinoid system and glucose metabolism during temporal lobe epileptogenesis.

This study provides unique evidence that the CB1R is dynamically and progressively involved from the start of mesial temporal lobe epileptogenesis.”

http://epilepsycurrents.org/doi/10.5698/1535-7597.18.5.315

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