Adipocyte cannabinoid receptor CB1 regulates energy homeostasis and alternatively activated macrophages.

J Clin Invest

“Dysregulated adipocyte physiology leads to imbalanced energy storage, obesity, and associated diseases, imposing a costly burden on current health care.

Cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) plays a crucial role in controlling energy metabolism through central and peripheral mechanisms.

In this work, adipocyte-specific inducible deletion of the CB1 gene (Ati-CB1-KO) was sufficient to protect adult mice from diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic alterations and to reverse the phenotype in already obese mice. Compared with controls, Ati-CB1-KO mice showed decreased body weight, reduced total adiposity, improved insulin sensitivity, enhanced energy expenditure, and fat depot-specific cellular remodeling toward lowered energy storage capacity and browning of white adipocytes. These changes were associated with an increase in alternatively activated macrophages concomitant with enhanced sympathetic tone in adipose tissue.

Remarkably, these alterations preceded the appearance of differences in body weight, highlighting the causal relation between the loss of CB1 and the triggering of metabolic reprogramming in adipose tissues. Finally, the lean phenotype of Ati-CB1-KO mice and the increase in alternatively activated macrophages in adipose tissue were also present at thermoneutral conditions.

Our data provide compelling evidence for a crosstalk among adipocytes, immune cells, and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), wherein CB1 plays a key regulatory role.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29035280

https://www.jci.org/articles/view/83626

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Human serum albumin: A modulator of cannabinoid drugs.

International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

“The endocannabinoid system is a unique neuromodulatory system that affects a wide range of biological processes and maintains the homeostasis in all mammal body systems. In recent years, several pharmacological tools to target endocannabinoid neurotransmission have been developed, including direct and indirect cannabinoid agonists and cannabinoid antagonists. Due to their hydrophobic nature, cannabinoid agonists and antagonists need to bind specific transporters to allow their distribution in body fluids. Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant plasma protein, is a key determinant of drug pharmacokinetics. As HSA binds both the endocannabinoid anandamide and the active ingredient of Cannabis sativa, Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, we hypothesize that HSA can be the most important carrier of cannabinoid drugs. In silico docking observations strongly indicate that HSA avidly binds the indirect cannabinoid agonists URB597, AM5206, JZL184, JZL195, and AM404, the direct cannabinoid agonists WIN55,212-2 and CP55,940, and the prototypical cannabinoid antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716. Values of the free energy for cannabinoid drugs binding to HSA range between -5.4 kcal mol-1 and -10.9 kcal mol-1 . Accounting for the HSA concentration in vivo (∼ 7.5 × 10-4 M), values of the free energy here determined suggest that the formation of the HSA:cannabinoid drug complexes may occur in vivo. Therefore, HSA appears to be an important determinant for cannabinoid efficacy and may guide the choice of the drug dose regimen to optimize drug efficacy and to avoid drug-related toxicity. ”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28976704

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/iub.1682/abstract

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Circulating Endocannabinoids: From Whence Do They Come and Where are They Going?

Related image“The goal of this review is to summarize studies in which concentrations of circulating endocannabinoids in humans have been examined in relationship to physiological measurements and pathological status. The roles of endocannabinoids in the regulation of energy intake and storage have been well studied and the data obtained consistently support the hypothesis that endocannabinoid signaling is associated with increased consumption and storage of energy. Physical exercise mobilizes endocannabinoids, which could contribute to refilling of energy stores and also to the analgesic and mood-elevating effects of exercise. Circulating concentrations of 2-arachidonoylglycerol are very significantly circadian and dysregulated when sleep is disrupted. Other conditions under which circulating endocannabinoids are altered include inflammation and pain. A second important role for endocannabinoid signaling is to restore homeostasis following stress. Circulating endocannabinoids are stress-responsive and there is evidence that their concentrations are altered in disorders associated with excessive stress, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Although determination of circulating endocannabinoids can provide important information about the state of endocannabinoid signaling and thus allow for hypotheses to be defined and tested, the large number of physiological factors that contribute to their circulating concentrations makes it difficult to use them in isolation as a biomarker for a specific disorder.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28653665

https://www.nature.com/npp/journal/vaop/naam/abs/npp2017130a.html

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

GPR55 and the regulation of glucose homeostasis.

Image result for Int J Biochem Cell Biol.

“Pathophysiological conditions such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are reportedly associated to over-activation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Therefore, modulation of the ECS offers potential therapeutic benefits on those diseases. GPR55, the receptor for L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) that has also affinity for various cannabinoid ligands, is distributed at the central and peripheral level and it is involved in several physiological processes. This review summarizes the localization and role of GPR55 in tissues that are crucial for the regulation of glucose metabolism, and provides an update on its contribution in obesity and insulin resistance. The therapeutic potential of targeting the GPR55 receptor is also discussed.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28457969

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Endocannabinoid system acts as a regulator of immune homeostasis in the gut

PNAS, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

“Exogenous cannabinoids such as marijuana exert their influence through cannabinoid receptors. Endogenous cannabinoids such as anandamide (AEA) function through the same receptors, and their physiological roles are a subject of intense study. Here, we show that AEA plays a pivotal role in maintaining immunological health in the gut. The immune system in the gut actively tolerates the foreign antigens present in the gut through mechanisms that are only partially understood. We show that AEA contributes to this critical process by promoting the presence of CX3CR1hi macrophages, which are immunosuppressive. These results uncover a major conversation between the immune and nervous systems. In addition, with the increasing prevalence of ingestion of exogenous marijuana, our study has significant implications for public health.”  http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/04/18/1612177114.full

“Our study unveils a role for the endocannabinoid system in maintaining immune homeostasis in the gut/pancreas and reveals a conversation between the nervous and immune systems using distinct receptors.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28439004

“Active ingredients in both hot peppers and cannabis calm the gut’s immune system” https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-04-ingredients-hot-peppers-cannabis-calm.html

 

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabidiol attenuates OGD/R-induced damage by enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics and modulating glucose metabolism via pentose-phosphate pathway in hippocampal neurons

fx1

“Deficient bioenergetics and diminished redox conservation have been implicated in the development of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

In this study, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychotropic compound derived from Cannabis sativa with FDA-approved antiepilepsy properties, were studied in vitro using an oxygen–glucose-deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) model in a mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line.

This study is the first to document the neuroprotective effects of CBD against OGD/R insult, which depend in part on attenuating oxidative stress, enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics, and modulating glucose metabolism via the pentose-phosphate pathway, thus preserving both energy and the redox balance.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid derived from Cannabis sativa and a weak CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, with very low toxicity for humans. It has recently been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro that CBD has a variety of therapeutic properties, exerting antidepressant, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and neuroprotective effects.  Our results provide novel insight into the neuroprotective properties of CBD, which involves the regulation of the mitochondrial bioenergetics and the glucose metabolism of hippocampal neurons during OGD/R injury.

In summary, our results suggest that CBD exerts a potent neuroprotective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury by attenuating intracellular oxidative stress, enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics, and optimizing glucose metabolism via the pentose-phosphate pathway, thus strengthening the antioxidant defenses and preserving the energy homeostasis of neurons. More in-depth studies are required to investigate the precise mechanism underlying the success of CBD treatment and to determine the actual role of CBD in cerebral ischemia.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5247568/

“Cannabidiol may soon be used in the emergency room to fight effects of stroke and cardiac emergencies” http://www.naturalnews.com/2017-02-21-cannabidiol-may-soon-be-used-in-the-emergency-room-to-fight-effects-of-stroke-cardiac-emergencies.html

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Transient Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Blockade during Immunization Heightens Intensity and Breadth of Antigen-specific Antibody Responses in Young and Aged mice.

 

Image result for Sci Rep.

“The hallmark of vaccines is their ability to prevent the spread of infectious pathogens and thereby serve as invaluable public health tool. Despite their medical relevance, there is a gap in our understanding of the physiological factors that mediate innate and adaptive immune response to vaccines.

The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is a critical modulator of homeostasis in vertebrates. Our results indicate that macrophages and dendritic cells produce the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) upon antigen activation.

We have also established that 2-AG levels are upregulated in the serum and in the lymph node of mice during vaccination.

We hypothesized that the intrinsic release of eCBs from immune cells during activation by pathogenic antigens mitigate inflammation, but also suppress overall innate and adaptive immune response.

Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that transient administration of the cannabinoid receptor 2 antagonist AM630 (10 mg/kg) or inverse agonist JTE907 (3 mg/kg) during immunization heightens the intensity and breadth of antigen-specific immune responses in young and aged mice through the upregulation of immunomodulatory genes in secondary lymphoid tissues.”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabinoid Receptors in Regulating the GI Tract: Experimental Evidence and Therapeutic Relevance.

Image result for Handb Exp Pharmacol.

“Cannabinoid receptors are fundamentally involved in all aspects of intestinal physiology, such as motility, secretion, and epithelial barrier function. They are part of a broader entity, the so-called endocannabinoid system which also includes their endocannabinoid ligands and the ligands’ synthesizing/degrading enzymes.

The system has a strong impact on the pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract and is believed to maintain homeostasis in the gut by controlling hypercontractility and by promoting regeneration after injury.

For instance, genetic knockout of cannabinoid receptor 1 leads to inflammation and cancer of the intestines. Derivatives of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, such as nabilone and dronabinol, activate cannabinoid receptors and have been introduced into the clinic to treat chemotherapy-induced emesis and loss of appetite; however, they may cause many psychotropic side effects.

New drugs that interfere with endocannabinoid degradation to raise endocannabinoid levels circumvent this obstacle and could be used in the future to treat emesis, intestinal inflammation, and functional disorders associated with visceral hyperalgesia.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28161834

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Endocannabinoid Signaling and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.

Image result for comprehensive physiology

“The elucidation of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol as the active principal of Cannabis sativa in 1963 initiated a fruitful half-century of scientific discovery, culminating in the identification of the endocannabinoid signaling system, a previously unknown neuromodulatory system.

A primary function of the endocannabinoid signaling system is to maintain or recover homeostasis following psychological and physiological threats. We provide a brief introduction to the endocannabinoid signaling system and its role in synaptic plasticity.

The majority of the article is devoted to a summary of current knowledge regarding the role of endocannabinoid signaling as both a regulator of endocrine responses to stress and as an effector of glucocorticoid and corticotrophin-releasing hormone signaling in the brain.

We summarize data demonstrating that cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) signaling can both inhibit and potentiate the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by stress.

We present a hypothesis that the inhibitory arm has high endocannabinoid tone and also serves to enhance recovery to baseline following stress, while the potentiating arm is not tonically active but can be activated by exogenous agonists.

We discuss recent findings that corticotropin-releasing hormone in the amygdala enables hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation via an increase in the catabolism of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonylethanolamine.

We review data supporting the hypotheses that CB1R activation is required for many glucocorticoid effects, particularly feedback inhibition of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, and that glucocorticoids mobilize the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol.

These features of endocannabinoid signaling make it a tantalizing therapeutic target for treatment of stress-related disorders but to date, this promise is largely unrealized.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28134998

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Revealing the role of the endocannabinoid system modulators, SR141716A, URB597 and VDM-11, in sleep homeostasis.

 

Image result for Neuroscience journal

“The endocannabinoid system comprises receptors (CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors), enzymes (Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase [FAAH], which synthesizes the endocannabinoid anandamide), as well as the anandamide membrane transporter (AMT).

Importantly, previous experiments have demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system modulates multiple neurobiological functions, including sleep.

For instance, SR141716A (the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist) as well as URB597 (the FAAH inhibitor) increase waking in rats whereas VDM-11 (the blocker of the AMT) enhances sleep in rodents. However, no further evidence is available regarding the neurobiological role of the endocannabinoid system in the homeostatic control of sleep.

Therefore, the aim of the current experiment was to test if SR141716A, URB597 or VDM-11 would modulate the sleep rebound after sleep deprivation. Thus, these compounds were systemically injected (5, 10, 20mg/Kg; ip; separately each one) to rats after prolonged waking. We found that SR141716A and URB597 blocked in dose-dependent fashion the sleep rebound whereas animals treated with VDM-11 displayed sleep rebound during the recovery period.

Complementary, injection after sleep deprivation of either SR141716A or URB597 enhanced dose-dependently the extracellular levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, as well as adenosine while VDM-11 caused a decline in contents of these molecules.

These findings suggest that SR141716A or URB597 behave as a potent stimulants since they suppressed the sleep recovery period after prolonged waking.

It can be concluded that elements of the endocannabinoid system, such as the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, FAAH and AMT, modulate the sleep homeostasis after prolonged waking.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27746343

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous