“Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a global epidemic representing the leading cause of death in some Western countries. Endocannabinoids and cannabinoid‐related compounds may be a promising approach as therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases. This review highlights the potential of cannabinoids and their receptors as targets for intervention.
In summary, the endocannabinoid system is highly active in cardiovascular disease states. Modulation of the ECS, CB1, and TRPV1 antagonism, as well as CB2 agonism, have proven to modulate disease state and severity in CVD. Studies are underway to develop drugs to change the course of cardiovascular diseases.
“The prominent hallmark of malignancies is the metastatic spread of cancer cells. Recent studies have reported that the nature of invasive cells could be changed after this phenomenon, causing chemotherapy resistance.
It has been demonstrated that the up-regulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2/MMP-9, as a metastasis biomarker, can fortify the metastatic potential of leukemia.
Furthermore, investigations have confirmed the inhibitory effect of cannabinoid and endocannabinoid on the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
Our findings clarifies that CB1 receptors are responsible for anti-invasive effects in the K562 cell line.”
“Maintenance of body weight is fundamental to maintain one’s health and to promote longevity. Nevertheless, it appears that the global obesity epidemic is still constantly increasing.
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are lipid messengers that are involved in overall body weight control by interfering with manifold central and peripheral regulatory circuits that orchestrate energy homeostasis.
Initially, blocking of eCB signaling by first generation cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) inverse agonists such as rimonabant revealed body weight-reducing effects in laboratory animals and men. Unfortunately, rimonabant also induced severe psychiatric side effects.
At this point, it became clear that future cannabinoid research has to decipher more precisely the underlying central and peripheral mechanisms behind eCB-driven control of feeding behavior and whole body energy metabolism.
Here, we will summarize the most recent advances in understanding how central eCBs interfere with circuits in the brain that control food intake and energy expenditure. Next, we will focus on how peripheral eCBs affect food digestion, nutrient transformation and energy expenditure by interfering with signaling cascades in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, pancreas, fat depots and endocrine glands.
To finally outline the safe future potential of cannabinoids as medicines, our overall goal is to address the molecular, cellular and pharmacological logic behind central and peripheral eCB-mediated body weight control, and to figure out how these precise mechanistic insights are currently transferred into the development of next generation cannabinoid medicines displaying clearly improved safety profiles, such as significantly reduced side effects.”
“Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is comprised of nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). It is defined by histologic or radiographic evidence of steatosis in the absence of alternative etiologies, including significant alcohol consumption, steatogenic medication use, or hereditary disorders.
NAFLD is now the most common liver disease, and when NASH is present it can progress to fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Different mechanisms have been identified as contributors to the physiology of NAFLD; insulin resistance and related metabolic derangements have been the hallmark of physiology associated with NAFLD.
The mainstay of treatment has classically involved lifestyle modifications focused on the reduction of insulin resistance. However, emerging evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system and its associated cannabinoid receptors and ligands have mechanistic and therapeutic implications in metabolic derangements and specifically in NAFLD.
Cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonism has demonstrated promising effects with increased resistance to hepatic steatosis, reversal of hepatic steatosis, and improvements in glycemic control, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Literature regarding the role of cannabinoid receptor 2 in NAFLD is controversial.
Exocannabinoids and endocannabinoids have demonstrated some therapeutic impact on metabolic derangements associated with NAFLD, although literature regarding direct therapeutic use in NAFLD is limited. Nonetheless, the properties of the endocannabinoid system, its receptors, substrates, and ligands remain a significant arena warranting further research, with potential for a pharmacologic intervention for a disease with an anticipated increase in economic and clinical burden.”
“The human cannabinoid G protein coupled receptor 1 (CB1) is highly expressed in central nervous system. CB1-selective antagonists show therapeutic promise in a wide range of disorders, such as obesity-related metabolic disorders, dyslipidemia, drug abuse and type 2 diabetes.
Rimonabant (SR141716A), MJ08 and MJ15 are selective CB1 antagonists with selectivity >1000 folds over CB2 despite of 42% sequence identity between CB1 and CB2. The integration of homology modeling, automated molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation were used to investigate the binding modes of these selective inverse agonists/antagonists with CB1 and CB2 and their selectivity.
Our analyses showed that the hydrophobic interactions between ligands and hydrophobic pockets of CB1 account for the main binding affinity. In addition, instead of interacting with ligands directly as previously reported, the Lys1923.28in CB1 was engaged in indirect interactions with ligands to keep inactive-state CB1 stable by forming the salt bridge with Asp1762.63 . Lastly, our analyses indicated that the selectivity of these antagonists came from the difference in geometry shapes of binding pockets of CB1 and CB2.
The present study could guide future experimental works on these receptors and has the guiding significance for the design of functionally selective drugs targeting CB1 or CB2 receptors.”
“The endocannabinoids are now known as novel and important regulators of energy metabolism and homeostasis.
The endocrine functions of white adipose are chiefly involved in the control of whole-body metabolism, insulin sensitivity and food intake. Adipocytes produce hormones, such as leptin and adiponectin, that can improve insulin resistance or peptides, such as TNF-α, that elicit insulin resistance. Adipocytes express specific receptors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, which serve as adipocyte targets for insulin sensitizers such as thiazolidinediones.
Recently, endocannabinoids and related compounds were identified in human fat cells.
The endocannabinoid system consists primarily of two receptors, cannabinoid (CB)1 and CB2, their endogenous ligands termed endocannabinoids and the enzymes responsible for ligand biosynthesis and degradation.
The endocannabinoids 2-arachidonylglycerol and anandamide or N-arachidonoylethanolamine increase food intake and promote weight gain in animals. Rimonabant, a selective CB1 blocker, reduces food intake and body weight in animals and humans.”
“Cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1 R) antagonists/inverse agonists have great potential in the treatment of metabolic disorders like dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).
CB1 R inverse agonists have also been reported to be effective in mitigating fibrotic disorders in murine models.
Inducible nitric oxide synthase is another promising target implicated in fibrotic and inflammatory disorders.
We have disclosed MRI-1867 as a potent and selective, peripherally acting dual-target inhibitor of the cannabinoid receptor (CB1 R) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).
Herein, we report the synthesis of [13 C6 ]-MRI-1867 as a racemate from commercially available chlorobenzene-13 C6 as the starting, stable-isotope label reagent. The racemic [13 C6 ]-MRI-1867 was further processed to the stable-isotope labeled enantiopure compounds utilizing chiral chromatography. Both racemic [13 C6]-MRI-1867 and S-13 C6 -MRI-1867 will be used to quantitate unlabeled S-MRI-1867 during clinical DMPK studies and will be used as an LC-MS/MS bioanalytical standard.”
“Cannabidiol (CBD) represents a new promising drug due to a wide spectrum of pharmacological actions. In order to relate CBD clinical efficacy to its pharmacological mechanisms of action, we performed a bibliographic search on PUBMED about all clinical studies investigating the use of CBD as a treatment of psychiatric symptoms.
Findings to date suggest that (a) CBD may exert antipsychotic effects in schizophrenia mainly through facilitation of endocannabinoid signalling and cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonism; (b) CBD administration may exhibit acute anxiolytic effects in patients with generalised social anxiety disorder through modification of cerebral blood flow in specific brain sites and serotonin 1A receptor agonism; (c) CBD may reduce withdrawal symptoms and cannabis/tobacco dependence through modulation of endocannabinoid, serotoninergic and glutamatergic systems; (d) the preclinical pro-cognitive effects of CBD still lack significant results in psychiatric disorders.
In conclusion, current evidences suggest that CBD has the ability to reduce psychotic, anxiety and withdrawal symptoms by means of several hypothesised pharmacological properties. However, further studies should include larger randomised controlled samples and investigate the impact of CBD on biological measures in order to correlate CBD’s clinical effects to potential modifications of neurotransmitters signalling and structural and functional cerebral changes.”
“Patients with obesity are susceptible to hypertension and diabetes. Over-activation of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) in adipose tissue is proposed in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders, which led to the metabolic dysfunction of adipose tissue and deregulated production and secretion of adipokines.
In the current study, we determined the impact of LH-21, a representative peripheral CB1R antagonist, on the obesity-accompanied hypertension and explored the modulatory action of LH-21 on the adipose tissue in genetically obese and diabetic KKAy mice.
3-week LH-21 treatment significantly decreased blood pressure with a concomitant reduction in body weight, white adipose tissue (WAT) mass, and a slight loss on food intake in KKAy mice. Meanwhile, glucose handling and dyslipidemia were also markedly ameliorated after treatment. Gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in WAT and the aortae were both attenuated apparently by LH-21, as well the mRNA expression of adipokines (lipocalin-2, leptin) in WAT. Concomitant amelioration on the accumulation of lipocalin-2 was observed in both WAT and aortae. In corresponding with this, serum inflammatory related cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, IL-6, and CXCL1), and lipocalin-2 and leptin were lowered notably.
Thus according to current results, it can be concluded that the peripheral CB1R antagonist LH-21 is effective in managing the obesity-accompanied hypertension in KKAy mice. These metabolic benefits are closely associated with the regulation on the production and secretion of inflammatory cytokines and adipokines in the WAT, particularly alleviated circulating lipocalin-2 and its accumulation in aortae.”
“Activating brown adipose tissue (BAT) could provide a potential approach for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disease in humans.
Obesity is associated with up-regulation of the endocannabinoid system, and blocking the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) has been shown to cause weight loss and decrease cardiometabolic risk factors. These effects may partly be mediated via increased BAT metabolism, since there is evidence that CB1R antagonism activates BAT in rodents.
To investigate the significance of CB1R in BAT function, we quantified the density of CB1R in human and rodent BAT using the positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand [18F]FMPEP-d2 , and in parallel measured BAT activation with the glucose analogue [18F]FDG. Activation by cold exposure markedly increased CB1R density and glucose uptake in BAT of lean men. Similarly, β3-receptor agonism increased CB1R density in BAT of rats.
In contrast, overweight men with reduced BAT activity exhibited decreased CB1R in BAT, reflecting impaired endocannabinoid regulation. Image-guided biopsies confirmed CB1R mRNA expression in human BAT. Furthermore, CB1R blockade increased glucose uptake and lipolysis of brown adipocytes.
Our results highlight that CB1Rs are significant for human BAT activity, and the CB1R provide a novel therapeutic target for BAT activation in humans.”