Antidote to cannabinoid intoxication: Inverse cannabinoid receptor one (CB1) agonism by N-(Piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamidse (AM251) reverses the hypothermic effects of cannabinoid receptor one agonism by 1-Naphthalenyl [4-(pentyloxy)-1-naphthalenyl] methanone (CB13) in mice.

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“Cannabis is a recreational drug leading to intoxication, due to cannabinoid receptor one (CB1 ) stimulation.

The aim of the study was to determine whether CB1 antagonism could reverse physical cannabimimetic effects.

In this study, the pre-existing, central nervous system-related cannabimimetic effects, measured via the hypothermic effect, induced by CB1 receptor agonism where therapeutically treated and were rapidly reversed by CB1 receptor antagonism/inverse agonism. There was also a subjective reversal of visually-evident sedation.

CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS:

Cannabinoid receptor antagonists have been used in thousands of people and so may provide a single-dose antidote to cannabinoid intoxication, which may save human life,”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28800377

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Cannabinoid receptor 2-63 RR variant is independently associated with severe necroinflammation in HIV/HCV coinfected patients.

 

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“This is the first study to analyze the impact of the rs35761398 variant of the CNR2 gene leading to the substitution of GLN (Q) of codon 63 of the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) with ARG (R) on the clinical presentation of chronic hepatitis in HIV/HCV coinfected patients.

This study shows interesting interplay between the CB2-RR variant and liver necroinflammation in chronic hepatitis patients with HIV/HCV coinfection, an observation of clinical value that coincides with the interest in the use of the CB2 agonists and antagonists in clinical practice emerging from the literature.”

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CB₁ receptor antagonism in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis interferes with affective opioid withdrawal in rats.

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“The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a region of the extended amygdala that is implicated in addiction, anxiety, and stress related behaviors. This region has been identified in mediating the aversive state of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (MWD) and cannabinoid Type I (CB1) receptors have been found to modulate neurotransmission within this region.

Previous findings suggest that the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist, AM251, administered systemically or by infusion into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) prevented the aversive affective properties of MWD as measured by conditioned place aversion learning.

The current findings emphasize an important role for the BNST in opioid withdrawal and suggest that the ameliorative effects of systemically administered CB1 antagonists are mediated, in part, by their actions within this region.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28714716

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The cannabinoid ligand LH-21 reduces anxiety and improves glucose handling in diet-induced obese pre-diabetic mice.

“LH-21 is a triazol derivative that has been described as a low-permeant neutral CB1 antagonist, though its pharmacology is still unclear. It has been associated with anti-obesity actions in obese rats. However, its role in preventing type 2 diabetes (T2D) onset have not been studied yet. Given CB1 receptors remain as potential pharmacological targets to fight against obesity and T2D, we wanted to explore the metabolic impact of this compound in an animal model of obesity and pre-diabetes as well as the lack of relevant actions in related central processes such as anxiety. These results suggest that LH-21 can be a new candidate to fight against diabetes onset. Indeed, this compound shows potential in counteracting obesity-related anxiety.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28638091   https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-03292-w

“Anti-obesity efficacy of LH-21, a cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist with poor brain penetration, in diet-induced obese rats.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21951309

“Antiobesity effects of the novel in vivo neutral cannabinoid receptor antagonist 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-hexyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole–LH 21.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16750544

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The cannabinoid system and pain.

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“Chronic pain states are highly prevalent and yet poorly controlled by currently available analgesics, representing an enormous clinical, societal, and economic burden. Existing pain medications have significant limitations and adverse effects including tolerance, dependence, gastrointestinal dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and a narrow therapeutic window, making the search for novel analgesics ever more important. In this article, we review the role of an important endogenous pain control system, the endocannabinoid (EC) system, in the sensory, emotional, and cognitive aspects of pain. Herein, we briefly cover the discovery of the EC system and its role in pain processing pathways, before concentrating on three areas of current major interest in EC pain research; 1. Pharmacological enhancement of endocannabinoid activity (via blockade of EC metabolism or allosteric modulation of CB1receptors); 2. The EC System and stress-induced modulation of pain; and 3. The EC system & medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dysfunction in pain states. Whilst we focus predominantly on the preclinical data, we also include extensive discussion of recent clinical failures of endocannabinoid-related therapies, the future potential of these approaches, and important directions for future research on the EC system and pain.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28625720

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002839081730285X

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The endocannabinoid system as a target for addiction treatment: Trials and tribulations.

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“Addiction remains a major public health concern, and while pharmacotherapies can be effective, clinicians are limited by the paucity of existing interventions. Endocannabinoid signaling is involved in reward and addiction, which raises the possibility that drugs targeting this system could be used to treat substance use disorders. This review discusses findings from randomized controlled trials evaluating cannabinergic medications for addiction.

Current evidence suggests that pharmacotherapies containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, such as dronabinol and nabiximols, are effective for cannabis withdrawal. Dronabinol may also reduce symptoms of opioid withdrawal. The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) inverse agonist rimonabant showed promising effects for smoking cessation but also caused psychiatric side effects and currently lacks regulatory approval. Few trials have investigated cannabinergic medications for alcohol use disorder.

Overall, the endocannabinoid system remains a promising target for addiction treatment. Development of novel medications such as fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors and neutral CB1 antagonists promises to extend the range of available interventions.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28564576

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0028390817302563

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Endocannabinoids modulate apoptosis in endometriosis and adenomyosis.

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“Adenomyosis that is a form of endometriosis is the growth of ectopic endometrial tissue within the muscular wall of the uterus (myometrium), which may cause dysmenorrhea and infertility. Endocannabinoid mediated apoptotic mechanisms of endometriosis and adenomyosis are not known. We hypothesized that the down regulation of endocannabinoid receptors and/or alteration in their regulatory enzymes may have a direct role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and adenomyosis through apoptosis.

Endocannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, their synthesizing and catabolizing enzymes (FAAH, NAPE-PLD, DAGL, MAGL) and the apoptotic indexes were immunohistochemically assessed in endometriotic and adenomyotic tissues. Findings were compared to normal endometrium and myometrium. Endometrial adenocarcinoma (Ishikawa) and ovarian endometriosis cyst wall stromal (CRL-7566) cell lines were furthermore cultured with or without cannabinoid receptor agonists. The IC50 value for CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists was quantified. Cannabinoid agonists on cell death were investigated by Annexin-V/Propidium iodide labeling with flow cytometry. CB1 and CB2 receptor levels decreased in endometriotic and adenomyotic tissues compared to the control group (p=0,001 and p=0,001). FAAH, NAPE-PLD, MAGL and DAGL enzyme levels decreased in endometriotic and adenomyotic tissues compared to control (p=0,001, p=0,001, p=0,001 and p=0,002 respectively). Apoptotic cell indexes both in endometriotic and adenomyotic tissues also decreased significantly, compared to the control group (p=0,001 and p=0,001). CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist mediated dose dependent fast anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects were detected in Ishikawa and ovarian endometriosis cyst wall stromal cell lines (CRL-7566).

Endocannabinoids are suggested to increase apoptosis mechanisms in endometriosis and adenomyosis. CB1 and CB2 antagonists can be considered as potential medical therapeutic agents for endometriosis and adenomyosis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28549792

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065128116303154

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Targeting cannabinoid signaling for peritoneal dialysis-induced oxidative stress and fibrosis.

“Long-term exposure to bioincompatible peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions frequently results in peritoneal fibrosis and ultrafiltration failure, which limits the life-long use of and leads to the cessation of PD therapy. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the pathogenesis of peritoneal fibrosis in order to design therapeutic strategies to prevent its occurrence. Peritoneal fibrosis is associated with a chronic inflammatory status as well as an elevated oxidative stress (OS) status. Beyond uremia per se, OS also results from chronic exposure to high glucose load, glucose degradation products, advanced glycation end products, and hypertonic stress. Therapy targeting the cannabinoid (CB) signaling pathway has been reported in several chronic inflammatory diseases with elevated OS. We recently reported that the intra-peritoneal administration of CB receptor ligands, including CB1 receptor antagonists and CB2receptor agonists, ameliorated dialysis-related peritoneal fibrosis. As targeting the CB signaling pathway has been reported to be beneficial in attenuating the processes of several chronic inflammatory diseases, we reviewed the interaction among the cannabinoid system, inflammation, and OS, through which clinicians ultimately aim to prolong the peritoneal survival of PD patients.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28540200

http://www.wjgnet.com/2220-6124/full/v6/i3/111.htm

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Enhancement of Anandamide-Mediated Endocannabinoid Signaling Corrects Autism-Related Social Impairment

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers

We recently uncovered a signaling mechanism by which the endocannabinoid anandamide mediates the action of oxytocin, a neuropeptide that is crucial for social behavior, to control social reward. Oxytocin signaling has been implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and social reward is a key aspect of social functioning that is thought to be disrupted in ASD. Therefore, as a proof of principle for the core component of ASD—social impairment—we tested an endocannabinoid-enhancing compound on two widely studied mouse models of ASD, the BTBR and fmr1−/− (model of Fragile X Syndrome).

Remarkably, we found that FAAH blockade completely reversed the social impairment in both mouse models. CB1 receptor blockade prevented the prosocial action of FAAH inhibition in BTBR mice.

The results suggest that increasing anandamide activity at CB1 receptors improves ASD-related social impairment and identify FAAH as a novel therapeutic target for ASD.

In conclusion, the present study provides new insights into the role of endocannabinoid signaling in social behavior and validates FAAH as a novel therapeutic target for the social impairment of ASD.”
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Dual therapy targeting the endocannabinoid system prevents experimental diabetic nephropathy.

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“The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). We investigated the effect of combined therapy with AM6545, a ‘peripherally’ restricted cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) neutral antagonist, and AM1241, a cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) agonist, in experimental DN.

RESULTS.:

Single treatment with either AM6545 or AM1241 alone reduced diabetes-induced albuminuria and prevented nephrin loss both in vivo and in vitro in podocytes exposed to glycated albumin. Dual therapy performed better than monotherapies, as it abolished albuminuria, inflammation, tubular injury and markedly reduced renal fibrosis. Converging anti-inflammatory mechanisms provide an explanation for this greater efficacy as dual therapy abolished diabetes-induced renal monocyte infiltration and M1/M2 macrophage imbalance in vivo and abrogated the profibrotic effect of M1 macrophage-conditioned media on cultured mesangial cells.

CONCLUSION.:

‘Peripheral’ CB1R blockade is beneficial in experimental DN and this effect is synergically magnified by CB2R activation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28387811

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