Cannabidiol enhances verbal episodic memory in healthy young participants: A randomized clinical trial

Journal of Psychiatric Research“Cannabis contains a multitude of different compounds. One of them, cannabidiol – a non-psychoactive substance – might counteract negative effects of Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on hippocampus-dependent memory impairment.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vaping cannabidiol on verbal episodic memory in healthy young subjects.

We used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover trial in 39 healthy young subjects. Participants received once a single dose of cannabidiol e-liquid (0.25 ml, 5% cannabidiol, 12.5 mg cannabidiol) and once placebo for vaping after learning 15 unrelated nouns. The primary outcome measure was the short delay verbal memory performance (number of correctly free recalled nouns) 20 min after learning. 34 participants (mean age: 22.26 [3.04]) completed all visits and entered analyses (17 received cannabidiol and 17 received placebo first).

Cannabidiol enhanced verbal episodic memory performance (placebo: 7.03 [2.34]; cannabidiol 7.71 [2.48]; adjusted group difference 0.68, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.35; R = .028, p = .048). Importantly, we did not detect medication effects on secondary outcome measures attention or working memory performance, suggesting that CBD has no negative impact on these basic cognitive functions.

The results are in line with the idea that vaping cannabidiol interacts with the central endocannabinoid system and is capable to modulate memory processes, a phenomenon with possible therapeutic potential. Further studies are needed to investigate optimal dose-response and time-response relationships.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34536664/

“To conclude, while further research is needed to identify dose-response and time-response relationships, our results show that CBD can improve episodic memory, a drug effect with possible therapeutic potential.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002239562100546X?via%3Dihub

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Cannabinoids induce functional Tregs by promoting tolerogenic DCs via autophagy and metabolic reprograming

Mucosal Immunology“The generation of functional regulatory T cells (Tregs) is essential to keep tissue homeostasis and restore healthy immune responses in many biological and inflammatory contexts.

Cannabinoids have been pointed out as potential therapeutic tools for several diseases.

Dendritic cells (DCs) express the endocannabinoid system, including the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. However, how cannabinoids might regulate functional properties of DCs is not completely understood.

We uncover that the triggering of cannabinoid receptors promote human tolerogenic DCs that are able to prime functional FOXP3+ Tregs in the context of different inflammatory diseases. Mechanistically, cannabinoids imprint tolerogenicity in human DCs by inhibiting NF-κB, MAPK and mTOR signalling pathways while inducing AMPK and functional autophagy flux via CB1- and PPARα-mediated activation, which drives metabolic rewiring towards increased mitochondrial activity and oxidative phosphorylation.

Cannabinoids exhibit in vivo protective and anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-induced sepsis and also promote the generation of FOXP3+ Tregs. In addition, immediate anaphylactic reactions are decreased in peanut allergic mice and the generation of allergen-specific FOXP3+ Tregs are promoted, demonstrating that these immunomodulatory effects take place in both type 1- and type 2-mediated inflammatory diseases.

Our findings might open new avenues for novel cannabinoid-based interventions in different inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34548620/

“Cannabinoids have been pointed out as potential therapeutic tools for several diseases. Our results might well contribute to pave the way for the future development of novel cannabinoid-based strategies for different inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases.”

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41385-021-00455-x

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Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 is Upregulated in Synovium following Joint Injury and Mediates Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Synovial Fibroblasts and Macrophages

The effect of protease inhibitors on the indcution of  osteoarthritis-related biomarkers in bovine full-depth cartilage explants -  Osteoarthritis and Cartilage“Objective: Joint injury-induced perturbations to the endocannabinoid system (ECS), a regulator of both inflammation and nociception, remain largely uncharacterized. We employed a mouse model of ACL rupture to assess alterations to nociception, inflammation, and the ECS while using in vitro models to determine whether CB2 agonism can mitigate inflammatory signaling in macrophages and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS).

Conclusions: Joint injury perturbs the intra-articular ECS, characterized by an increase in synovial F4/80(+) cells, which express CB2, but not CB1. Targeting CB2 in murine macrophages and human FLS induced potent anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects, which indicates that the CB2 receptor plays a key role in regulating inflammatory signaling in the two primary effector cells in the synovium. The intraarticular ECS is therefore a potential therapeutic target for blocking pathological inflammation in future disease-modifying PTOA treatments.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34537380/

https://www.oarsijournal.com/article/S1063-4584(21)00888-8/fulltext

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Cannabinoid receptor 1 expression is higher in muscle of old vs. young males, and increases upon resistance exercise in older adults

Scientific Reports“Aged skeletal muscle undergoes metabolic and structural alterations eventually resulting in a loss of muscle strength and mass, i.e. age-related sarcopenia. Therefore, novel targets for muscle growth purposes in elderly are needed.

Here, we explored the role of the cannabinoid system in muscle plasticity through the expression of muscle cannabinoid receptors (CBs) in young and old humans.

The CB1 expression was higher (+ 25%; p = 0.04) in muscle of old (≥ 65 years) vs. young adults (20-27 years), whereas CB2 was not differently expressed. Furthermore, resistance exercise tended to increase the CB1 (+ 11%; p = 0.055) and CB2 (+ 37%; p = 0.066) expression in muscle of older adults. Interestingly, increases in the expression of CB2 following resistance exercise positively correlated with changes in key mechanisms of muscle homeostasis, such as catabolism (FOXO3a) and regenerative capacity (Pax7, MyoD).

This study for the first time shows that CB1 is differentially expressed with aging and that changes in CB2 expression upon resistance exercise training correlate with changes in mediators that play a central role in muscle plasticity.

These data confirm earlier work in cells and mice showing that the cannabinoid system might orchestrate muscle growth, which is an incentive to further explore CB-based strategies that might counteract sarcopenia.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34526596/

“In conclusion, cell culture and murine experiments suggested that CBs can be a promising target to treat cachexia and sarcopenia through modulation of the metabolism and muscle regenerative capacity. These data imply that CB modulation might be a promising tool to combat muscle degeneration. ”

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-97859-3

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Endocannabinoid Levels in Ulcerative Colitis Patients Correlate With Clinical Parameters and Are Affected by Cannabis Consumption

Logo of frontendo“Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic, idiopathic, inflammatory, gastrointestinal disorders.

The endocannabinoid system may have a role in the pathogenesis of IBD.

We aimed to assess whether cannabis treatment influences endocannabinoids (eCBs) level and clinical symptoms of IBD patients.

Conclusion

Our study supports the notion that cannabis use affects eCB “tone” in UC patients and may have beneficial effects on disease symptoms in UC patients.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8438407/

“In conclusion, our study suggests that cannabis use may affect eCBs tone in UC patients. This affect has a beneficial effect on UC symptoms.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2021.685289/full

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Cannabinoids and Cancer

cancers-logo“Cannabinoids, active components of the plant Cannabis sativa, had been used for centuries in ancient medicine as therapeutic remedies for a variety of conditions, before becoming stigmatized due to their psychoactive effects.

In the second half of the 19th century, phyto-cannabinoids have been re-evaluated after the discovery of the chemical structure and isolation of different substances, and the subsequent development of cannabinoid-based drugs that have been FDA approved mainly to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea, insomnia and appetite, epilepsy, spasticity, and pain management.

Then, the elucidation of the endocannabinoid system, from the initial type 1 and type 2 (CB1 and CB2) cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands (especially N-arachidonoylethanolamine, or anandamide, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) to the emerging complexity of a wider system made up of additional putative receptors, ligands and enzymes, altogether termed endocannabinoidome, has further boosted research into the therapeutic potential of phyto-, endo- and even syntho-(synthetic) cannabinoids, cancer treatment included.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34503268/

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/13/17/4458/htm

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Cannabinoids and Endocannabinoid System Changes in Intestinal Inflammation and Colorectal Cancer

cancers-logo“Despite the multiple preventive measures and treatment options, colorectal cancer holds a significant place in the world’s disease and mortality rates. The development of novel therapy is in critical need, and based on recent experimental data, cannabinoids could become excellent candidates. This review covered known experimental studies regarding the effects of cannabinoids on intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer. In our opinion, because colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease with different genomic landscapes, the choice of cannabinoids for tumor prevention and treatment depends on the type of the disease, its etiology, driver mutations, and the expression levels of cannabinoid receptors. In this review, we describe the molecular changes of the endocannabinoid system in the pathologies of the large intestine, focusing on inflammation and cancer.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34503163/

“In recent years, multiple preclinical studies have shown that changes in endocannabinoid system signaling may have various effects on intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer. However, not all tumors can respond to cannabinoid therapy in the same manner. Given that colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease with different genomic landscapes, experiments with cannabinoids should involve different molecular subtypes, emerging mutations, and various stages of the disease. We hope that this review can help researchers form a comprehensive understanding of cannabinoid interactions in colorectal cancer and intestinal bowel diseases. We believe that selecting a particular experimental model based on the disease’s genetic landscape is a crucial step in the drug discovery, which eventually may tremendously benefit patient’s treatment outcomes and bring us one step closer to individualized medicine.”

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/13/17/4353

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The antitumor activity of cannabidiol on lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1299: the role of apoptosis

Publication Cover“In the recent years, the application of new antitumor drugs has focused on the replacement of conventional chemotherapeutics with compounds derived from natural products.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the 113 cannabinoids derived from the plant Cannabis sativa and is characterized with complex and not entirely understood biological function. Unlike the other most abundant cannabinoid in Cannabis sativa – tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol has low affinity to the endocannabinoid receptors and the manifestation of its activity does not appear to rely on the endocannabinoid system.

Cannabidiol is used in the treatment of many diseases including some types of cancer.

The aim of our study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of cannabidiol and its effect on the process of programmed cell death. This process is directly involved in the antitumor effect of many drugs.

We found that CBD treatment led to a dose-dependant apoptosis increase in p53 positive A549 cells.

Several studies have demonstrated that cannabinoids also have antineoplastic effect and are usually accompanied with no negative side effects such as the ones produced by the conventional chemotherapy treatment.”

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13102818.2021.1915870

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The Endocannabinoid System: A Potential Target for the Treatment of Various Diseases

ijms-logo“The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is primarily responsible for maintaining homeostasis, a balance in internal environment (temperature, mood, and immune system) and energy input and output in living, biological systems.

In addition to regulating physiological processes, the ECS directly influences anxiety, feeding behaviour/appetite, emotional behaviour, depression, nervous functions, neurogenesis, neuroprotection, reward, cognition, learning, memory, pain sensation, fertility, pregnancy, and pre-and post-natal development.

The ECS is also involved in several pathophysiological diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. In recent years, genetic and pharmacological manipulation of the ECS has gained significant interest in medicine, research, and drug discovery and development.

The distribution of the components of the ECS system throughout the body, and the physiological/pathophysiological role of the ECS-signalling pathways in many diseases, all offer promising opportunities for the development of novel cannabinergic, cannabimimetic, and cannabinoid-based therapeutic drugs that genetically or pharmacologically modulate the ECS via inhibition of metabolic pathways and/or agonism or antagonism of the receptors of the ECS. This modulation results in the differential expression/activity of the components of the ECS that may be beneficial in the treatment of a number of diseases.

This manuscript in-depth review will investigate the potential of the ECS in the treatment of various diseases, and to put forth the suggestion that many of these secondary metabolites of Cannabis sativa L. (hereafter referred to as “C. sativa L.” or “medical cannabis”), may also have potential as lead compounds in the development of cannabinoid-based pharmaceuticals for a variety of diseases.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34502379/

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/22/17/9472

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Lifestyle Interventions Improving Cannabinoid Tone During COVID-19 Lockdowns May Enhance Compliance With Preventive Regulations and Decrease Psychophysical Health Complications

CrossFit | 190629“Studies investigating the psychosomatic effects of social isolation in animals have shown that one of the physiologic system that gets disrupted by this environment-affective change is the Endocannabinoid System. As the levels of endocannabinoids change in limbic areas and prefrontal cortex during stressful times, so is the subject more prone to fearful and negative thoughts and aggressive behavior. The interplay of social isolation on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and cannabinoid tone triggers a vicious cycle which further impairs the natural body’s homeostatic neuroendocrine levels and provokes a series of risk factors for developing health complications. In this paper, we explore the psychosomatic impact of prolonged quarantine in healthy individuals, and propose management and coping strategies that may improve endocannabinoid tone, such as integration of probiotics, cannabidiol, meditation, and physical exercise interventions with the aim of supporting interpersonal, individual, and professional adherence with COVID-19 emergency public measures whilst minimizing their psycho-physical impact.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34335317/

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.565633/full

 

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