“Challenges in the management of ocular pain are an underappreciated topic. Currently available therapeutics lack both efficacy and clear guidelines for their use, with many also possessing unacceptable side effects. Promising novel agents would offer analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and possibly neuroprotective actions; have favorable ocular safety profiles; and show potential in managing neuropathic pain.
Growing evidence supports a link between the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and a range of physiological and disease processes, notably those involving inflammation and pain. Both preclinical and clinical data suggest analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions of cannabinoids and ECS-modifying drugs in chronic pain conditions, including those of neuropathic origin.
The ECS is present ubiquitously through the body, including a range of ocular tissues, and represents a promising target in the treatment of several physiological and pathophysiologic processes in the eye including, but not limited to, pain, inflammation, and neuronal damage. ”
“Novel pharmacological treatments are needed for Tourette syndrome.
Our goal was to examine the current evidence base and biological rationale for the use of cannabis-derived medications or medications that act on the cannabinoid system in Tourette syndrome.
There is a strong biological rationale regarding how cannabis-derived medications could affect tic severity. Anecdotal case reports and series have noted that many patients report that their tics improve after using cannabis. However, only two small randomized, placebo-controlled trials of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol have been published; these suggested possible benefits of cannabis-derived agents for the treatment of tics.
Trials examining other agents active on the cannabinoid system for tic disorders are currently ongoing.
Cannabinoid-based treatments are a promising avenue of new research for medications that may help the Tourette syndrome population.”
“The purpose of this study was to explore the possible interaction between ketamine and cannabinoid system in the modulation of depression-related responses.
It seems that possible interaction between ketamine and cannabinoid system may modulate depression-related behavior.”
“Several lines of evidence point to the potential role of the endocannabinoid system in female sexual functioning. These include results from studies describing the subjective effects of exogenous cannabinoids on sexual functioning in humans and the observable effects of exogenous cannabinoids on sexual functioning in other species, as well as results from studies investigating the location of cannabinoid receptors in the brain and periphery, and the effects of cannabinoid receptor activation on neurotransmitters implicated in sexual functioning. While these lines of research suggest a role for the endocannabinoid system in female sexual functioning, no studies investigating the relationship between concentrations of endogenous cannabinoids (i.e., arachidonoylethanolamide [AEA] and 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG]) and sexual functioning have been conducted in any species.
To measure circulating endocannabinoid concentrations in relation to subjective and physiological indices of sexual arousal in women (N = 21).
Serum endocannabinoid (AEA and 2-AG) concentrations were measured immediately prior to, and immediately following, viewing of neutral (control) and erotic (experimental) film stimuli in a repeated measures design. Physiological sexual arousal was measured via vaginal photoplethysmography. Subjective sexual arousal was measured both continuously and noncontinuously. Pearson’s correlations were used to investigate the relationships between endocannabinoid concentrations and sexual arousal.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Changes in AEA and 2-AG concentrations from pre- to post-film and in relation to physiological and subjective indices of sexual arousal.
Results revealed a significant relationship between endocannabinoid concentrations and female sexual arousal, whereby increases in both physiological and subjective indices of sexual arousal were significantly associated with decreases in AEA, and increases in subjective indices of sexual arousal were significantly associated with decreases in 2-AG.
These findings support the hypothesis that the endocannabinoid system is involved in female sexual functioning, with implications for furthering understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying female sexual functioning.”
“Based on the traditional pain-relieving effect of Cannabis species an endogenous cannabinoid like system was discovered in the human body. Endocannabinoids have important role in the homeostasis of the body, such as stress response and mood control, feeding behaviour, energy balance and metabolism, immunological processes, and also play important role in controlling pain processing. Previous studies suggested that an endocannabinoid dysfunction, namely endocannabinoid deficit, might contribute to the development of migraine and its chronification. Although, the exact nature of the relationship between migraine and endocannabinoid system is not fully understood yet, in this brief review we summarise research results suggesting that the endocannabinoid system may be a potential drug target in the migraine therapy.”
“Cannabinoids are a promising method for pharmacological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite considerable research devoted to the effect of cannabinoid modulation on PTSD symptomology, there is not a currently agreed way by which the cannabinoid system should be targeted in humans. In this review, we present an overview of recent research identifying neurological pathways by which different cannabinoid-based treatments may exert their effects on PTSD symptomology. We evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each of these different approaches, including recent challenges presented to favourable options such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors. This article makes the strengths and challenges of different potential cannabinoid treatments accessible to psychological researchers interested in cannabinoid therapeutics and aims to aid selection of appropriate tools for future clinical trials.”
“Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an X-linked dominant disorder caused by a mutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is an exogenous phytocannabinoid with therapeutic potential for individuals with anxiety, poor sleep, and cognitive deficits, as well as populations with endocannabinoid deficiencies, such as those who suffer from FXS.
The objective of this study was to provide a brief narrative review of recent literature on endocannabinoids and FXS and to present a case series describing three patients with FXS who were treated with oral CBD-enriched (CBD+) solutions.
We review recent animal and human studies of endocannabinoids in FXS and present the cases of one child and two adults with FXS who were treated with various oral botanical CBD+ solutions delivering doses of 32.0 to 63.9 mg daily. Multiple experimental and clinical models of FXS combine to highlight the therapeutic potential of CBD for management of FXS.
All three patients described in the case series exhibited functional benefit following the use of oral CBD+ solutions, including noticeable reductions in social avoidance and anxiety, as well as improvements in sleep, feeding, motor coordination, language skills, anxiety, and sensory processing. Two of the described patients exhibited a reemergence of a number of FXS symptoms following cessation of CBD+ treatment (e.g., anxiety), which then improved again after reintroduction of CBD+ treatment. Findings highlight the importance of exploring the therapeutic potential of CBD within the context of rigorous clinical trials.”
“Cannabinoids exert neuroprotection in a wide array of preclinical models. A number of these studies has focused on cannabinoid CB1receptors in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and the most characteristic MSN-degenerative disease, Huntington’s disease (HD). Accruing evidence supports that astrocytes contribute to drive HD progression, and that they express CB1 receptors, degrade endocannabinoids, and modulate endocannabinergic transmission. However, the possible role of the astroglial endocannabinoidsystem in controlling MSN integrity remains unknown. Here, we show that JZL-184, a selective inhibitor of monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), the key enzyme that deactivates the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol, prevented the mutant huntingtin-induced up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α in primary mouse striatal astrocytes via CB1 receptors. To study the role of astroglial MGL in vivo, we injected stereotactically into the mouse dorsal striatum viral vectors that encode mutant or normal huntingtin under the control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter. We observed that, in wild-type mice, pharmacological blockade of MGL with JZL-184 (8 mg/kg/day, i.p.) conferred neuroprotection against mutant huntingtin-induced striatal damage, as evidenced by the prevention of MSN loss, astrogliosis, and motor coordination impairment. We next found that conditional mutant mice bearing a genetic deletion of MGL selectively in astroglial cells (MGLfloxed/floxed;GFAP-Cre/+ mice) were resistant to mutant huntingtin-induced MSN loss, astrogliosis, and motor coordination impairment. Taken together, these data support that astroglial MGL controls the availability of a 2-arachidonoylglycerol pool that ensues protection of MSNs in the mouse striatum in vivo, thus providing a potential druggable target for reducing striatal neurodegeneration.”
“The endocannabinoid system is an important regulator of various physiological processes. Preclinical and clinical studies indicate that attenuation of the endocannabinoid system via antagonism of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) is an excellent strategy to treat obesity, metabolic syndrome and associated disorders. However, centrally acting antagonists of CB1 also produce adverse effects like depression and anxiety. Current efforts are geared towards discovery and optimization of antagonists and modulators of CB1 that have limited brain penetration. Areas Covered: Several recent publications and patent applications support the development of peripherally acting CB1 receptor antagonists and modulators. In this review, recent patents and applications (2015 – 2018) are summarized and discussed. Expert Opinion: Approximately 30 new inventions have been reported since 2015, along with 3 recent commercial deals, highlighting the importance of this class of therapeutics. Taken together, peripherally acting CB1 receptor antagonists and modulators are an emerging class of drugs for metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and other important disorders where this receptor has been implicated.”